Abstract

We report a compact and stable all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built with two fusion splices separated a few centimeters from each other. The air-holes of the fiber are intentionally collapsed in the vicinity of the splices. This broadens the propagating optical mode, allowing coupling of two modes in the section between the splices. A truly sinusoidal interference pattern was observed from 800 nm to 1600 nm with fringe visibility reaching 80%. The fringe spacing was inversely proportional to the distance between the splices. The potential of the device for sensing applications is demonstrated.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. StJ. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2006).
  4. P. J. A. Sazio et al. "Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. N. MacPherson et al. "Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. H. Lim, H. S. Jang, K. S. Lee, J. C. Kim, and B. H. Lee, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a photonic crystal fiber based on a pair of long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 29, 346-348 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Káčik, I. Turek, I. Martinček, J. Canning, N. Issa, and K. Lyytikäinen, "Intermodal interference in a photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Express 12, 3465-3470 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Ju, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Two-mode operation in highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2472-2474 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. L. Willing, W. P. Kelleher, and S. P. Smith, "Photonic crystal interferometric fiber optical gyroscope," U.S. Patent Application Publication No: US-2004-0263856, Dec. 30 (2004).
  10. J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, and D. Monzón-Hernández, "Compact modal interferometer built with tapered microstructured optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1258-1260 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Yuan, J. Yang, Z. Liu, and J. Sun, "In-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer," Opt. Lett. 31, 2692-2694 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Ozcan, A. Tewary, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, "Observation of mode coupling in bitapered air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Commun.to be published.
  13. J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, Y. Zhu, and Y. P. Shum, "An effective splicing method on photonic crystal fiber using CO2 laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 942-944 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Bourliaguet, C. Paré, F. Émond, A. Croteau, A. Proulx, and R. Vallée, "Microstructured fiber splicing," Opt. Express 11, 3412-3417 (2003).
  15. A. D. Yablon, R. T. Bise, "Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 118-120 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191-3193 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Stevenson, C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Ashton, and K. Lyytikainen, "Photonic crystal fibre optical attenuators," Electon. Lett. 41, 1167-1169 (2005).
  18. See for example http://www.crystal-fibre.com/products/termination.shtm
  19. V. P. Minkovich, A.V. Kiryanov, A.B. Sotsky, and L.I. Sotskaya, "Large-mode-area holey fibers with a few air channels in cladding: modeling and experimental investigation of the modal properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1161-1169 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2006

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. StJ. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2006).

P. J. A. Sazio et al. "Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, and D. Monzón-Hernández, "Compact modal interferometer built with tapered microstructured optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1258-1260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Yuan, J. Yang, Z. Liu, and J. Sun, "In-fiber integrated Michelson interferometer," Opt. Lett. 31, 2692-2694 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Stevenson, C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Ashton, and K. Lyytikainen, "Photonic crystal fibre optical attenuators," Electon. Lett. 41, 1167-1169 (2005).

A. D. Yablon, R. T. Bise, "Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 118-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

B. Bourliaguet, C. Paré, F. Émond, A. Croteau, A. Proulx, and R. Vallée, "Microstructured fiber splicing," Opt. Express 11, 3412-3417 (2003).

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, Y. Zhu, and Y. P. Shum, "An effective splicing method on photonic crystal fiber using CO2 laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 942-944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191-3193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. N. MacPherson et al. "Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ashton, B.

M. Stevenson, C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Ashton, and K. Lyytikainen, "Photonic crystal fibre optical attenuators," Electon. Lett. 41, 1167-1169 (2005).

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. StJ. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2006).

Birks, T. A.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. StJ. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2006).

Bise, R. T.

A. D. Yablon, R. T. Bise, "Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 118-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bourliaguet, B.

Canning, J.

M. Stevenson, C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Ashton, and K. Lyytikainen, "Photonic crystal fibre optical attenuators," Electon. Lett. 41, 1167-1169 (2005).

D. Káčik, I. Turek, I. Martinček, J. Canning, N. Issa, and K. Lyytikäinen, "Intermodal interference in a photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Express 12, 3465-3470 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chong, J. H.

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, Y. Zhu, and Y. P. Shum, "An effective splicing method on photonic crystal fiber using CO2 laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 942-944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Couny, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. StJ. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2006).

Croteau, A.

Demokan, M. S.

J. Ju, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Two-mode operation in highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2472-2474 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

A. Ozcan, A. Tewary, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, "Observation of mode coupling in bitapered air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Commun.to be published.

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191-3193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Émond, F.

Gaeta, A. L.

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, S.

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hale, A.

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191-3193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Issa, N.

Jang, H. S.

Jin, W.

J. Ju, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Two-mode operation in highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2472-2474 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ju, J.

J. Ju, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Two-mode operation in highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2472-2474 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kácik, D.

Kerbage, C.

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191-3193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. C.

Kino, G. S.

A. Ozcan, A. Tewary, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, "Observation of mode coupling in bitapered air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Commun.to be published.

Kiryanov, A.V.

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. StJ. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2006).

Lee, B. H.

Lee, K. S.

Lim, J. H.

Liu, Z.

Lyytikainen, K.

M. Stevenson, C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Ashton, and K. Lyytikainen, "Photonic crystal fibre optical attenuators," Electon. Lett. 41, 1167-1169 (2005).

Lyytikäinen, K.

MacPherson, W. N.

W. N. MacPherson et al. "Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martelli, C.

M. Stevenson, C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Ashton, and K. Lyytikainen, "Photonic crystal fibre optical attenuators," Electon. Lett. 41, 1167-1169 (2005).

Martincek, I.

Minkovich, V. P.

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, and D. Monzón-Hernández, "Compact modal interferometer built with tapered microstructured optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1258-1260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Minkovich, A.V. Kiryanov, A.B. Sotsky, and L.I. Sotskaya, "Large-mode-area holey fibers with a few air channels in cladding: modeling and experimental investigation of the modal properties," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1161-1169 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Monzón-Hernández, D.

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, and D. Monzón-Hernández, "Compact modal interferometer built with tapered microstructured optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1258-1260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ouzounov, D. G.

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ozcan, A.

A. Ozcan, A. Tewary, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, "Observation of mode coupling in bitapered air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Commun.to be published.

Paré, C.

Proulx, A.

Rao, M. K.

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, Y. Zhu, and Y. P. Shum, "An effective splicing method on photonic crystal fiber using CO2 laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 942-944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. StJ. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2006).

Russell, P. St. J.

Sazio, P. J. A.

P. J. A. Sazio et al. "Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J. E.

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shum, Y. P.

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, Y. Zhu, and Y. P. Shum, "An effective splicing method on photonic crystal fiber using CO2 laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 942-944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sotskaya, L.I.

Sotsky, A.B.

St, P.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. StJ. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2006).

Stevenson, M.

M. Stevenson, C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Ashton, and K. Lyytikainen, "Photonic crystal fibre optical attenuators," Electon. Lett. 41, 1167-1169 (2005).

Sun, J.

Tewary, A.

A. Ozcan, A. Tewary, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, "Observation of mode coupling in bitapered air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Commun.to be published.

Turek, I.

Vallée, R.

Villatoro, J.

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, and D. Monzón-Hernández, "Compact modal interferometer built with tapered microstructured optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1258-1260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191-3193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yablon, A.

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191-3193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yablon, A. D.

A. D. Yablon, R. T. Bise, "Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 118-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

Yuan, L.

Zhu, Y.

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, Y. Zhu, and Y. P. Shum, "An effective splicing method on photonic crystal fiber using CO2 laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 942-944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Kerbage, A. Hale, A. Yablon, R. S. Windeler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated all-fiber variable attenuator based on hybrid microstructure fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3191-3193 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electon. Lett.

M. Stevenson, C. Martelli, J. Canning, B. Ashton, and K. Lyytikainen, "Photonic crystal fibre optical attenuators," Electon. Lett. 41, 1167-1169 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. H. Chong, M. K. Rao, Y. Zhu, and Y. P. Shum, "An effective splicing method on photonic crystal fiber using CO2 laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 942-944 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Ju, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, "Two-mode operation in highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2472-2474 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, and D. Monzón-Hernández, "Compact modal interferometer built with tapered microstructured optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1258-1260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Yablon, R. T. Bise, "Low-loss high-strength microstructured fiber fusion splices using GRIN fiber lenses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 118-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. StJ. Russell, "Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Nature 434, 488-491 (2006).

Opt. Commun.

W. N. MacPherson et al. "Remotely addressed optical fibre curvature sensor using multicore photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Commun. 193, 97-104 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozcan, A. Tewary, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, "Observation of mode coupling in bitapered air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Commun.to be published.

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science

P. J. A. Sazio et al. "Microstructured optical fibers as high-pressure microfluidic reactors," Science 311, 1583-1586 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. L. Willing, W. P. Kelleher, and S. P. Smith, "Photonic crystal interferometric fiber optical gyroscope," U.S. Patent Application Publication No: US-2004-0263856, Dec. 30 (2004).

See for example http://www.crystal-fibre.com/products/termination.shtm

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