Abstract

We present methods of optical modulation employing electroabsorption in an interferometric structure. The interferometric operation enables electroabsorption modulators for phase-shift keying and allows generation of on-off-keying signals with much improved extinction ratios. We demonstrate 40-Gb/s phase-shift-keying modulation, and up to 8.7 dB improvement in extinction ratio in 40-Gb/s on-off-keying modulation with 0.8V driving voltage using a commercial electroabsorption modulator. Methods of applying electroabsorption modulators for high spectral-efficiency formats generation are also proposed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Nagarajan,  et al., "Large-scale photonic integrated circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 11, 50-65 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. R. Koch, Z. Y. Hu, J. E. Bowers, and D. J. Blumenthal, "Integrated optical payload envelope detection and label recovery device for optical packet switching networks," Opt. Express 14, 5073-5078 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Kawanishi, Y. Yamauchi, N. Mineo, Y. Shibuya, H. Murai, K. Yamada, and H. Wada, "EAM-integrated DFB laser modules with more than 40-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 954-956 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, H. Nakajima, Y. Akage, Y. Kondo, and T. Saitoh, "40Gbit/s electroabsorption modulators with 1.1V driving voltage," Electron. Lett. 40, 1144-1146 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, and Y. Kondo, "Very-low-driving-voltage electroabsorption modulators operating at 40 Gb/s," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2219-2224 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. G. Moodie, A. D. Ellis, and C. W. Ford, "Generation of 6.3ps optical pulses at a 10 GHz repetition rate using a packaged electroabsorption modulator and dispersion compensating fiber," Electron. Lett. 30, 1700-1701 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Suzuki, H. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, K. Utaka, and Y. Matsushima, "Transform-limited optical pulse generation up to 20-GHz repetition rate by a sinusoidally driven InGaAsP electroabsorption modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 468-473 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Mason,  et al., "40-Gb/s tandem electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 27-29 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2006

2005

R. Nagarajan,  et al., "Large-scale photonic integrated circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 11, 50-65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, H. Nakajima, Y. Akage, Y. Kondo, and T. Saitoh, "40Gbit/s electroabsorption modulators with 1.1V driving voltage," Electron. Lett. 40, 1144-1146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

B. Mason,  et al., "40-Gb/s tandem electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 27-29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. Kawanishi, Y. Yamauchi, N. Mineo, Y. Shibuya, H. Murai, K. Yamada, and H. Wada, "EAM-integrated DFB laser modules with more than 40-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 954-956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994

D. G. Moodie, A. D. Ellis, and C. W. Ford, "Generation of 6.3ps optical pulses at a 10 GHz repetition rate using a packaged electroabsorption modulator and dispersion compensating fiber," Electron. Lett. 30, 1700-1701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. Suzuki, H. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, K. Utaka, and Y. Matsushima, "Transform-limited optical pulse generation up to 20-GHz repetition rate by a sinusoidally driven InGaAsP electroabsorption modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 468-473 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Akage, Y.

H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, H. Nakajima, Y. Akage, Y. Kondo, and T. Saitoh, "40Gbit/s electroabsorption modulators with 1.1V driving voltage," Electron. Lett. 40, 1144-1146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D. J.

Bowers, J. E.

Edagawa, N.

M. Suzuki, H. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, K. Utaka, and Y. Matsushima, "Transform-limited optical pulse generation up to 20-GHz repetition rate by a sinusoidally driven InGaAsP electroabsorption modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 468-473 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. D.

D. G. Moodie, A. D. Ellis, and C. W. Ford, "Generation of 6.3ps optical pulses at a 10 GHz repetition rate using a packaged electroabsorption modulator and dispersion compensating fiber," Electron. Lett. 30, 1700-1701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ford, C. W.

D. G. Moodie, A. D. Ellis, and C. W. Ford, "Generation of 6.3ps optical pulses at a 10 GHz repetition rate using a packaged electroabsorption modulator and dispersion compensating fiber," Electron. Lett. 30, 1700-1701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fukano, H.

H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, and Y. Kondo, "Very-low-driving-voltage electroabsorption modulators operating at 40 Gb/s," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2219-2224 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, H. Nakajima, Y. Akage, Y. Kondo, and T. Saitoh, "40Gbit/s electroabsorption modulators with 1.1V driving voltage," Electron. Lett. 40, 1144-1146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z. Y.

Kawanishi, H.

H. Kawanishi, Y. Yamauchi, N. Mineo, Y. Shibuya, H. Murai, K. Yamada, and H. Wada, "EAM-integrated DFB laser modules with more than 40-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 954-956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koch, B. R.

Kondo, Y.

H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, and Y. Kondo, "Very-low-driving-voltage electroabsorption modulators operating at 40 Gb/s," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2219-2224 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, H. Nakajima, Y. Akage, Y. Kondo, and T. Saitoh, "40Gbit/s electroabsorption modulators with 1.1V driving voltage," Electron. Lett. 40, 1144-1146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mason, B.

B. Mason,  et al., "40-Gb/s tandem electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 27-29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matsushima, Y.

M. Suzuki, H. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, K. Utaka, and Y. Matsushima, "Transform-limited optical pulse generation up to 20-GHz repetition rate by a sinusoidally driven InGaAsP electroabsorption modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 468-473 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mineo, N.

H. Kawanishi, Y. Yamauchi, N. Mineo, Y. Shibuya, H. Murai, K. Yamada, and H. Wada, "EAM-integrated DFB laser modules with more than 40-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 954-956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moodie, D. G.

D. G. Moodie, A. D. Ellis, and C. W. Ford, "Generation of 6.3ps optical pulses at a 10 GHz repetition rate using a packaged electroabsorption modulator and dispersion compensating fiber," Electron. Lett. 30, 1700-1701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murai, H.

H. Kawanishi, Y. Yamauchi, N. Mineo, Y. Shibuya, H. Murai, K. Yamada, and H. Wada, "EAM-integrated DFB laser modules with more than 40-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 954-956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nagarajan, R.

R. Nagarajan,  et al., "Large-scale photonic integrated circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 11, 50-65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, H.

H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, H. Nakajima, Y. Akage, Y. Kondo, and T. Saitoh, "40Gbit/s electroabsorption modulators with 1.1V driving voltage," Electron. Lett. 40, 1144-1146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, T.

H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, H. Nakajima, Y. Akage, Y. Kondo, and T. Saitoh, "40Gbit/s electroabsorption modulators with 1.1V driving voltage," Electron. Lett. 40, 1144-1146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shibuya, Y.

H. Kawanishi, Y. Yamauchi, N. Mineo, Y. Shibuya, H. Murai, K. Yamada, and H. Wada, "EAM-integrated DFB laser modules with more than 40-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 954-956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

M. Suzuki, H. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, K. Utaka, and Y. Matsushima, "Transform-limited optical pulse generation up to 20-GHz repetition rate by a sinusoidally driven InGaAsP electroabsorption modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 468-473 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, M.

H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, and Y. Kondo, "Very-low-driving-voltage electroabsorption modulators operating at 40 Gb/s," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2219-2224 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, H. Nakajima, Y. Akage, Y. Kondo, and T. Saitoh, "40Gbit/s electroabsorption modulators with 1.1V driving voltage," Electron. Lett. 40, 1144-1146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, H.

M. Suzuki, H. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, K. Utaka, and Y. Matsushima, "Transform-limited optical pulse generation up to 20-GHz repetition rate by a sinusoidally driven InGaAsP electroabsorption modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 468-473 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Utaka, K.

M. Suzuki, H. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, K. Utaka, and Y. Matsushima, "Transform-limited optical pulse generation up to 20-GHz repetition rate by a sinusoidally driven InGaAsP electroabsorption modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 468-473 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wada, H.

H. Kawanishi, Y. Yamauchi, N. Mineo, Y. Shibuya, H. Murai, K. Yamada, and H. Wada, "EAM-integrated DFB laser modules with more than 40-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 954-956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

H. Kawanishi, Y. Yamauchi, N. Mineo, Y. Shibuya, H. Murai, K. Yamada, and H. Wada, "EAM-integrated DFB laser modules with more than 40-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 954-956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, T.

H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, and Y. Kondo, "Very-low-driving-voltage electroabsorption modulators operating at 40 Gb/s," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2219-2224 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, H. Nakajima, Y. Akage, Y. Kondo, and T. Saitoh, "40Gbit/s electroabsorption modulators with 1.1V driving voltage," Electron. Lett. 40, 1144-1146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, Y.

H. Kawanishi, Y. Yamauchi, N. Mineo, Y. Shibuya, H. Murai, K. Yamada, and H. Wada, "EAM-integrated DFB laser modules with more than 40-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 954-956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, H. Nakajima, Y. Akage, Y. Kondo, and T. Saitoh, "40Gbit/s electroabsorption modulators with 1.1V driving voltage," Electron. Lett. 40, 1144-1146 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Moodie, A. D. Ellis, and C. W. Ford, "Generation of 6.3ps optical pulses at a 10 GHz repetition rate using a packaged electroabsorption modulator and dispersion compensating fiber," Electron. Lett. 30, 1700-1701 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron.

R. Nagarajan,  et al., "Large-scale photonic integrated circuits," IEEE J. Sel. Tops. Quantum Electron. 11, 50-65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Kawanishi, Y. Yamauchi, N. Mineo, Y. Shibuya, H. Murai, K. Yamada, and H. Wada, "EAM-integrated DFB laser modules with more than 40-GHz bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 954-956 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Mason,  et al., "40-Gb/s tandem electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 27-29 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

M. Suzuki, H. Tanaka, N. Edagawa, K. Utaka, and Y. Matsushima, "Transform-limited optical pulse generation up to 20-GHz repetition rate by a sinusoidally driven InGaAsP electroabsorption modulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 468-473 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Fukano, T. Yamanaka, M. Tamura, and Y. Kondo, "Very-low-driving-voltage electroabsorption modulators operating at 40 Gb/s," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2219-2224 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Orientations of the CW input and the TE and TM modes; the projection of TE (TM) mode is denoted by dotted (dashed) line. (b). The projected electric field of the TE (dotted) and TM (dashed) modes and the interference between the two (solid) in the case of PSK (top graph) and OOK (bottom graph) generation. (c). The TE (solid) and TM (dashed) mode transmission of the EAM (OKI-OM5753C-30B) as a function of the bias at 1553 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A schematic of the experimental setup. CW: continuous wave laser; PC: polarization controller; DI: 25-ps delay-line interferometer; VOA: variable optical attenuator. DI in the dashed box is used only for PSK demodulation.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Bit error rates (BER) of the EAM-generated PSK signals (∎) and PSK signals generated by a lithium-niobate modulator (□).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Eye diagrams of EAM-generated 40-Gb/s PSK (a) and its demodulated signal (b), and eye diagrams of lithium-niobate modulator generated 40-Gb/s PSK after demodulation (c).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Eye diagrams of OOK signals generated without (a), and with the interference (b) for 1.1-V drive voltage.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). Extinction ratio (○ and receiver sensitivity (□) of the TE-mode OOK signals and extinction ratio (●) and receiver sensitivity (∎) of OOK signals generated via interference. (b). Measured (∎) and calculated (—) excess loss due to the interference.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a). Schematic of an EAM-MZI. (b). Electric field modulation in the top EAM (dotted) and the bottom EAM (dashed) and their interference output (solid) in the case of PSK (top graph) and OOK (bottom graph) generation. (c). Excess loss due to the destructive interference for OOK (solid) and PSK (dashed) generation.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a). Schematic of the EAM-integrated device for N-QAM generation: BPSK=Binary PSK (b). Constellation diagram of 8-QAM generated by the device shown in (a).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

θ = ϕ = Arctan ( 1 + 1 ε TE 1 + r ε TM ) ,
Loss = ( ε TE ε TM ε TE + ε TM r ) 2 .

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