Abstract

A new scheme of asymmetric elliptic-cone-shaped microlens (AECSM) employing a single-step fabrication technique for efficient coupling between the high-power 980-nm laser diodes and the single-mode fibers is proposed. The AECSMs are fabricated by asymmetrically shaping the fiber during the single-step grinding process and elliptically lensing the fiber tip during the fusing process. A maximum coupling efficiency of 85% and a high-average coupling efficiency of 71% have been demonstrated for a 980-nm laser diode with a high aspect ratio of 5. In comparison with the previous works on asymmetric fiber microlenses fabricated by the multi-step processes with complicated fabrication, the advantages of the AECSM structure for achieving high coupling are a single-step fabrication, a reproducible process, and a high-yield output. Therefore, this AECSM can form different aspect ratios of asymmetric elliptical microlenses to match the far field of the high-power diode lasers that is suitable for use in commercial high-power pump laser modules.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. S. Major, W. E. Plano, D. F. Welch, G. T. Wiand, and T. S. Stakelon, "Singlemode InGaAs-GaAs laser diodes operating at 980 nm," Electron. Lett. 27, 539-540 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhanel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Yang, "Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313-1318 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. M. Presby and C. R. Giles, "Asymmetric fiber microlenses for efficient coupling to elliptical laser beams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 184-186 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. A. Edwards, H. M. Presby, and C. Dragone, "Ideal microlens for laser to fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 252-257 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. A. Modavis and T. W. Webb, "Anamorphic microlens for laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 798-800 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Yoda and K. Shiraishi, "A new scheme of lensed fiber employing a wedge-shaped graded-index fiber tip for the coupling between high-power laser diodes and single-mode fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1910-1917 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Yoda and K. Shiraishi, "Cascaded GI-fiber chips with a wedge-shaped end for the coupling between an SMF and a high-power LD with large astigmatism," J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1545-1548 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Irie, J. Miyokawa, A. Mugino, and T. Shimizu, "Over 200 mW 980 nm pump laser diode module using optimized high-coupling lensed fiber," in Tech. Dig. OFC/IOOC'99 (San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999), pp. 238-240.
  9. S.Y. Huang, S.M. Yeh, Y.K. Lu, H.H. Lin, and W.H. Cheng, "A novel scheme of lensed fiber employing a quadrangular-pyramid-shaped fiber endface for efficient coupling to high-power laser diodes," in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (Los Angeles, CA, Feb, 2004), Paper FJ1.
  10. S. M. Yeh, Y. K. Lu, S. Y. Huang, H. H. Lin, C. H. Hsieh, and W.H. Cheng, "A novel scheme of lensed fiber employing a quadrangular-pyramid-shaped fiber endface for coupling between high-power laser diodes and single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 1374-1379 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S.M. Yeh, S.Y. Huang, and W.H. Cheng, "A novel scheme of conical-wedge-shaped fiber endface for high-power laser to single-mode fiber coupling," in Tech. Dig. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Baltimore, MA, May 2005), Paper CWN2.
  12. S. M. Yeh, S. Y. Huang, and Wood-Hi Cheng, "A new scheme of conical-wedge-shaped fiber endface for coupling between high-power laser diodes and single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1781-1786 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (San Francisco, CA, McGraw-Hill, 1968), Chap. 4-5.
  14. H. Kogelink, "Coupling and conversion coefficients for optical modes in quasi-optics," in Microwave Research Institute Symposia Series (New York Polytechnic Press, 1964), Vol. 14, pp. 333-347.
  15. L. Guo and R. Shankar Subramanian, "Mechanical removal in CMP copper using alumina abrasives," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, 104-108 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Prime Optical Fiber Data Sheets (Hsinchu, Taiwan, R.O.C., 2003).
  17. Ultrapol 1200 Series Use Guide: Issue 5.0 (ULTRA TEC, Santa Ana, CA, 2002).
  18. Axcel Photonics, Marborough, MA 2006.

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

1995 (1)

R. A. Modavis and T. W. Webb, "Anamorphic microlens for laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 798-800 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

H. M. Presby and C. R. Giles, "Asymmetric fiber microlenses for efficient coupling to elliptical laser beams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 184-186 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Edwards, H. M. Presby, and C. Dragone, "Ideal microlens for laser to fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 252-257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. S. Major, W. E. Plano, D. F. Welch, G. T. Wiand, and T. S. Stakelon, "Singlemode InGaAs-GaAs laser diodes operating at 980 nm," Electron. Lett. 27, 539-540 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhanel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Yang, "Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313-1318 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D. P.

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhanel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Yang, "Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313-1318 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W.H.

Curtis, L.

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhanel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Yang, "Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313-1318 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dragone, C.

C. A. Edwards, H. M. Presby, and C. Dragone, "Ideal microlens for laser to fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 252-257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, C. A.

C. A. Edwards, H. M. Presby, and C. Dragone, "Ideal microlens for laser to fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 252-257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Giles, C. R.

H. M. Presby and C. R. Giles, "Asymmetric fiber microlenses for efficient coupling to elliptical laser beams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 184-186 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.

L. Guo and R. Shankar Subramanian, "Mechanical removal in CMP copper using alumina abrasives," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, 104-108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C. H.

Huang, S. Y.

Lin, H. H.

Lu, Y. K.

Major, J. S.

J. S. Major, W. E. Plano, D. F. Welch, G. T. Wiand, and T. S. Stakelon, "Singlemode InGaAs-GaAs laser diodes operating at 980 nm," Electron. Lett. 27, 539-540 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Modavis, R. A.

R. A. Modavis and T. W. Webb, "Anamorphic microlens for laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 798-800 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Plano, W. E.

J. S. Major, W. E. Plano, D. F. Welch, G. T. Wiand, and T. S. Stakelon, "Singlemode InGaAs-GaAs laser diodes operating at 980 nm," Electron. Lett. 27, 539-540 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Presby, H. M.

C. A. Edwards, H. M. Presby, and C. Dragone, "Ideal microlens for laser to fiber coupling," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 252-257 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Presby and C. R. Giles, "Asymmetric fiber microlenses for efficient coupling to elliptical laser beams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 184-186 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shah, V. S.

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhanel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Yang, "Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313-1318 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shankar Subramanian, R.

L. Guo and R. Shankar Subramanian, "Mechanical removal in CMP copper using alumina abrasives," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, 104-108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shiraishi, K.

Stakelon, T. S.

J. S. Major, W. E. Plano, D. F. Welch, G. T. Wiand, and T. S. Stakelon, "Singlemode InGaAs-GaAs laser diodes operating at 980 nm," Electron. Lett. 27, 539-540 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vodhanel, R. S.

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhanel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Yang, "Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313-1318 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Webb, T. W.

R. A. Modavis and T. W. Webb, "Anamorphic microlens for laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 798-800 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Welch, D. F.

J. S. Major, W. E. Plano, D. F. Welch, G. T. Wiand, and T. S. Stakelon, "Singlemode InGaAs-GaAs laser diodes operating at 980 nm," Electron. Lett. 27, 539-540 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wiand, G. T.

J. S. Major, W. E. Plano, D. F. Welch, G. T. Wiand, and T. S. Stakelon, "Singlemode InGaAs-GaAs laser diodes operating at 980 nm," Electron. Lett. 27, 539-540 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W. C.

V. S. Shah, L. Curtis, R. S. Vodhanel, D. P. Bour, and W. C. Yang, "Efficient power coupling from a 980-nm, broad-area laser to a single-mode fiber using a wedge-shaped fiber endface," J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1313-1318 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, S. M.

Yoda, H.

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. S. Major, W. E. Plano, D. F. Welch, G. T. Wiand, and T. S. Stakelon, "Singlemode InGaAs-GaAs laser diodes operating at 980 nm," Electron. Lett. 27, 539-540 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. M. Presby and C. R. Giles, "Asymmetric fiber microlenses for efficient coupling to elliptical laser beams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 184-186 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Modavis and T. W. Webb, "Anamorphic microlens for laser diode to single-mode fiber coupling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 798-800 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

L. Guo and R. Shankar Subramanian, "Mechanical removal in CMP copper using alumina abrasives," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, 104-108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Other (9)

Y. Irie, J. Miyokawa, A. Mugino, and T. Shimizu, "Over 200 mW 980 nm pump laser diode module using optimized high-coupling lensed fiber," in Tech. Dig. OFC/IOOC'99 (San Diego, CA, Feb. 1999), pp. 238-240.

S.Y. Huang, S.M. Yeh, Y.K. Lu, H.H. Lin, and W.H. Cheng, "A novel scheme of lensed fiber employing a quadrangular-pyramid-shaped fiber endface for efficient coupling to high-power laser diodes," in Tech. Dig. Optical Fiber Communication Conf. (Los Angeles, CA, Feb, 2004), Paper FJ1.

S.M. Yeh, S.Y. Huang, and W.H. Cheng, "A novel scheme of conical-wedge-shaped fiber endface for high-power laser to single-mode fiber coupling," in Tech. Dig. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Baltimore, MA, May 2005), Paper CWN2.

S. M. Yeh, S. Y. Huang, and Wood-Hi Cheng, "A new scheme of conical-wedge-shaped fiber endface for coupling between high-power laser diodes and single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 1781-1786 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (San Francisco, CA, McGraw-Hill, 1968), Chap. 4-5.

H. Kogelink, "Coupling and conversion coefficients for optical modes in quasi-optics," in Microwave Research Institute Symposia Series (New York Polytechnic Press, 1964), Vol. 14, pp. 333-347.

Prime Optical Fiber Data Sheets (Hsinchu, Taiwan, R.O.C., 2003).

Ultrapol 1200 Series Use Guide: Issue 5.0 (ULTRA TEC, Santa Ana, CA, 2002).

Axcel Photonics, Marborough, MA 2006.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simulated coupling efficiency as a function of Rlx (horizontal) for the single mode fiber with a mode-field diameter of 4.0 μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured and calculated coupling efficiency as a function of Rly (vertical).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Schematic diagram of an AECSFE, and (b) an SEM of a fabricated AECSFE.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

An angle polishing machine with periodically variable torque.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The aspect ratio as a function of the ratio of grinding pressure

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). A schematic diagram of an AECSM with radii of curvatures of Rlx and Rly, and (b) an SEM of a fabricated AECSM.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Far-field profiles of the AECSM with two aspect ratios of (a) 1.3 and (b) 5.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Histogram of measured coupling efficiencies between 980-nm laser diode and SMF.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I. Measured and Simulated Values for AECSM.

Tables Icon

Table II. Different Structures of Asymmetric Fiber Endface.

Equations (2)

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dT dt = K × N A × dS dt
Aspect ratio = 62.5 ( 62.5 h tan θ ) ( P 1 P 2 ) h tan θ

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