Abstract

The periodic structuring of sapphire, by using laser induced backside wet etching technique (LIBWE) and 266 nm, 150 ps Nd:YAG laser radiation, is demonstrated here for first time. Sub-micron period Bragg reflectors are successfully patterned in sapphire wafers using modest energy densities and number of pulses. The gratings are characterized using diffraction efficiency measurements, AFM, and SEM. Issues related to the ablation process and to the phase mask holography are presented and discussed. The experimental results presented depict that the applied method is capable to produce relief structures of depth as deep as 100 nm, while maintaining high resolutions, close to the thermal diffusion length of the material corresponding to the ultrashort pulse duration.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Wang, H. Niino, and A. Yabe, "Micromachining of transparent materials with super-heated liquid generated by multiphotonic absorption of organic molecule," Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 571-576 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Böhme, A. Braun, and K. Zimmer, "Backside etching of UV-transparent materials at the interface to liquids, " Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 276-281 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, "Surface micromachining of UV transparent materials, " Thin Solid Films 453-454, 31-35 (2004).
  4. R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, M. Ehrhardt, D. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, "Ultra-short laser processing of transparent material at the interface to liquid," J. Phys. D 39, 1398-1404 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Zimmer, A. Braun, R. Böhme, "Etching of fused silica and glass with excimer laser at 351 nm," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208, 199-204 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Vass, K. Osvay, and B. Hopp, "Fabrication of 150 nm period grating in fused silica by two-beam interferometric laser induced backside wet etching method," Opt. Express 14, 8354-8359 (2006)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. M. B. Hickey, V. Apostolopoulos, R. W. Eason, J. S. Wilkinson, and A. A. Anderson, "Diffused Ti:sapphire channel-waveguide lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1452-1462 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. C. Tam, J. L. Brand, D. C. Cheng, and W. Zapka, "Picosecond laser sputtering of sapphire at 266 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2045-2047 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, H. Varel, M. Wähmer and E. E. B. Campbell, "Laser processing of sapphire with picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sc. 120, 65-80 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. M. Ding, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and H. Niino: "Laser-induced backside wet etching of sapphire," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42 (2B), 176-178 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. M. Smith ed., Holographic recording materials, (Springer-Verlag 1977) Vol. 20.
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Pissadakis, L. Reekie, M. Hempstead, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Ablated gratings on borosilicate glass by 193nm excimer laser radiation," Appl. Phys. A 69, S739-S741 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Pissadakis, L. Reekie, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Sub-micron period relief gratings in InOx thin films and waveguides, patterned using 248nm excimer laser ablation," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1634-1641 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Böhme, J. Zajadacz, K. Zimmer, and B. Rauschenbach, "Topography and roughness evolution of microstructured surfaces at laser-induced backside wet etching," Appl. Phys. A 80, 433-438 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, and P. L. Chu, "Effects of the Zeroth-Order Diffraction of a Phase Mask on Bragg Gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2361 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, "Effects of the Zeroth-Order Diffraction of a Phase Mask on Bragg Gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3389-3391 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Zimmer, "Studies on the laser-induced temperatures at solid liquid material interface," in preparation.
  18. R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, S. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, "Laser backside etching of fused silica with ultrashort pulses," Appl. Phys. A 85, 75-78 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 80th Edition (1999-2000).

2006

R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, M. Ehrhardt, D. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, "Ultra-short laser processing of transparent material at the interface to liquid," J. Phys. D 39, 1398-1404 (2006)
[CrossRef]

C. Vass, K. Osvay, and B. Hopp, "Fabrication of 150 nm period grating in fused silica by two-beam interferometric laser induced backside wet etching method," Opt. Express 14, 8354-8359 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, S. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, "Laser backside etching of fused silica with ultrashort pulses," Appl. Phys. A 85, 75-78 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

R. Böhme, J. Zajadacz, K. Zimmer, and B. Rauschenbach, "Topography and roughness evolution of microstructured surfaces at laser-induced backside wet etching," Appl. Phys. A 80, 433-438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Pissadakis, L. Reekie, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Sub-micron period relief gratings in InOx thin films and waveguides, patterned using 248nm excimer laser ablation," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1634-1641 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. M. B. Hickey, V. Apostolopoulos, R. W. Eason, J. S. Wilkinson, and A. A. Anderson, "Diffused Ti:sapphire channel-waveguide lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1452-1462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, "Surface micromachining of UV transparent materials, " Thin Solid Films 453-454, 31-35 (2004).

2003

K. Zimmer, A. Braun, R. Böhme, "Etching of fused silica and glass with excimer laser at 351 nm," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208, 199-204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Ding, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and H. Niino: "Laser-induced backside wet etching of sapphire," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42 (2B), 176-178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. Böhme, A. Braun, and K. Zimmer, "Backside etching of UV-transparent materials at the interface to liquids, " Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 276-281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Wang, H. Niino, and A. Yabe, "Micromachining of transparent materials with super-heated liquid generated by multiphotonic absorption of organic molecule," Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 571-576 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. Pissadakis, L. Reekie, M. Hempstead, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Ablated gratings on borosilicate glass by 193nm excimer laser radiation," Appl. Phys. A 69, S739-S741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xiong, G. D. Peng, B. Wu, and P. L. Chu, "Effects of the Zeroth-Order Diffraction of a Phase Mask on Bragg Gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 2361 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, H. Varel, M. Wähmer and E. E. B. Campbell, "Laser processing of sapphire with picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sc. 120, 65-80 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, "Effects of the Zeroth-Order Diffraction of a Phase Mask on Bragg Gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3389-3391 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1989

A. C. Tam, J. L. Brand, D. C. Cheng, and W. Zapka, "Picosecond laser sputtering of sapphire at 266 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2045-2047 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, A. A.

Apostolopoulos, V.

Ashkenasi, D.

D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, H. Varel, M. Wähmer and E. E. B. Campbell, "Laser processing of sapphire with picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sc. 120, 65-80 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Böhme, R.

R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, M. Ehrhardt, D. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, "Ultra-short laser processing of transparent material at the interface to liquid," J. Phys. D 39, 1398-1404 (2006)
[CrossRef]

R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, S. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, "Laser backside etching of fused silica with ultrashort pulses," Appl. Phys. A 85, 75-78 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Böhme, J. Zajadacz, K. Zimmer, and B. Rauschenbach, "Topography and roughness evolution of microstructured surfaces at laser-induced backside wet etching," Appl. Phys. A 80, 433-438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Zimmer, A. Braun, R. Böhme, "Etching of fused silica and glass with excimer laser at 351 nm," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208, 199-204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Böhme, A. Braun, and K. Zimmer, "Backside etching of UV-transparent materials at the interface to liquids, " Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 276-281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brand, J. L.

A. C. Tam, J. L. Brand, D. C. Cheng, and W. Zapka, "Picosecond laser sputtering of sapphire at 266 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2045-2047 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

K. Zimmer, A. Braun, R. Böhme, "Etching of fused silica and glass with excimer laser at 351 nm," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208, 199-204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Böhme, A. Braun, and K. Zimmer, "Backside etching of UV-transparent materials at the interface to liquids, " Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 276-281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, E. E. B.

D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, H. Varel, M. Wähmer and E. E. B. Campbell, "Laser processing of sapphire with picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sc. 120, 65-80 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, D. C.

A. C. Tam, J. L. Brand, D. C. Cheng, and W. Zapka, "Picosecond laser sputtering of sapphire at 266 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2045-2047 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chu, P. L.

David, C.

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, "Surface micromachining of UV transparent materials, " Thin Solid Films 453-454, 31-35 (2004).

Ding, X. M.

X. M. Ding, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and H. Niino: "Laser-induced backside wet etching of sapphire," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42 (2B), 176-178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, P. E.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, "Effects of the Zeroth-Order Diffraction of a Phase Mask on Bragg Gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3389-3391 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R. W.

Ehrhardt, M.

R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, M. Ehrhardt, D. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, "Ultra-short laser processing of transparent material at the interface to liquid," J. Phys. D 39, 1398-1404 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Farley, R. J.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, "Effects of the Zeroth-Order Diffraction of a Phase Mask on Bragg Gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3389-3391 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Giedl, R.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, "Effects of the Zeroth-Order Diffraction of a Phase Mask on Bragg Gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3389-3391 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gobrecht, J.

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, "Surface micromachining of UV transparent materials, " Thin Solid Films 453-454, 31-35 (2004).

Hempstead, M.

S. Pissadakis, L. Reekie, M. Hempstead, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Ablated gratings on borosilicate glass by 193nm excimer laser radiation," Appl. Phys. A 69, S739-S741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hickey, L. M. B.

Hopp, B.

Kawaguchi, Y.

X. M. Ding, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and H. Niino: "Laser-induced backside wet etching of sapphire," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42 (2B), 176-178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kopitkovas, G.

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, "Surface micromachining of UV transparent materials, " Thin Solid Films 453-454, 31-35 (2004).

Lippert, T.

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, "Surface micromachining of UV transparent materials, " Thin Solid Films 453-454, 31-35 (2004).

Niino, H.

X. M. Ding, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and H. Niino: "Laser-induced backside wet etching of sapphire," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42 (2B), 176-178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, H. Niino, and A. Yabe, "Micromachining of transparent materials with super-heated liquid generated by multiphotonic absorption of organic molecule," Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 571-576 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Osvay, K.

Peng, G. D.

Pissadakis, S.

R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, S. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, "Laser backside etching of fused silica with ultrashort pulses," Appl. Phys. A 85, 75-78 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, M. Ehrhardt, D. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, "Ultra-short laser processing of transparent material at the interface to liquid," J. Phys. D 39, 1398-1404 (2006)
[CrossRef]

S. Pissadakis, L. Reekie, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Sub-micron period relief gratings in InOx thin films and waveguides, patterned using 248nm excimer laser ablation," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1634-1641 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Pissadakis, L. Reekie, M. Hempstead, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Ablated gratings on borosilicate glass by 193nm excimer laser radiation," Appl. Phys. A 69, S739-S741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenbach, B.

R. Böhme, J. Zajadacz, K. Zimmer, and B. Rauschenbach, "Topography and roughness evolution of microstructured surfaces at laser-induced backside wet etching," Appl. Phys. A 80, 433-438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

S. Pissadakis, L. Reekie, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Sub-micron period relief gratings in InOx thin films and waveguides, patterned using 248nm excimer laser ablation," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1634-1641 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Pissadakis, L. Reekie, M. Hempstead, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Ablated gratings on borosilicate glass by 193nm excimer laser radiation," Appl. Phys. A 69, S739-S741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, H. Varel, M. Wähmer and E. E. B. Campbell, "Laser processing of sapphire with picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sc. 120, 65-80 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ruthe, D.

R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, M. Ehrhardt, D. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, "Ultra-short laser processing of transparent material at the interface to liquid," J. Phys. D 39, 1398-1404 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Ruthe, S.

R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, S. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, "Laser backside etching of fused silica with ultrashort pulses," Appl. Phys. A 85, 75-78 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

X. M. Ding, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and H. Niino: "Laser-induced backside wet etching of sapphire," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42 (2B), 176-178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tam, A. C.

A. C. Tam, J. L. Brand, D. C. Cheng, and W. Zapka, "Picosecond laser sputtering of sapphire at 266 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2045-2047 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Varel, H.

D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, H. Varel, M. Wähmer and E. E. B. Campbell, "Laser processing of sapphire with picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sc. 120, 65-80 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vass, C.

Wähmer, M.

D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, H. Varel, M. Wähmer and E. E. B. Campbell, "Laser processing of sapphire with picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sc. 120, 65-80 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, H. Niino, and A. Yabe, "Micromachining of transparent materials with super-heated liquid generated by multiphotonic absorption of organic molecule," Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 571-576 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

L. M. B. Hickey, V. Apostolopoulos, R. W. Eason, J. S. Wilkinson, and A. A. Anderson, "Diffused Ti:sapphire channel-waveguide lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1452-1462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Pissadakis, L. Reekie, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Sub-micron period relief gratings in InOx thin films and waveguides, patterned using 248nm excimer laser ablation," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1634-1641 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Pissadakis, L. Reekie, M. Hempstead, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Ablated gratings on borosilicate glass by 193nm excimer laser radiation," Appl. Phys. A 69, S739-S741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wokaun, A.

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, "Surface micromachining of UV transparent materials, " Thin Solid Films 453-454, 31-35 (2004).

Wu, B.

Xiong, Z.

Yabe, A.

J. Wang, H. Niino, and A. Yabe, "Micromachining of transparent materials with super-heated liquid generated by multiphotonic absorption of organic molecule," Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 571-576 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zajadacz, J.

R. Böhme, J. Zajadacz, K. Zimmer, and B. Rauschenbach, "Topography and roughness evolution of microstructured surfaces at laser-induced backside wet etching," Appl. Phys. A 80, 433-438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zapka, W.

A. C. Tam, J. L. Brand, D. C. Cheng, and W. Zapka, "Picosecond laser sputtering of sapphire at 266 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2045-2047 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

S. Pissadakis, L. Reekie, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Sub-micron period relief gratings in InOx thin films and waveguides, patterned using 248nm excimer laser ablation," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1634-1641 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Pissadakis, L. Reekie, M. Hempstead, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Ablated gratings on borosilicate glass by 193nm excimer laser radiation," Appl. Phys. A 69, S739-S741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zimmer, K.

R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, S. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, "Laser backside etching of fused silica with ultrashort pulses," Appl. Phys. A 85, 75-78 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, M. Ehrhardt, D. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, "Ultra-short laser processing of transparent material at the interface to liquid," J. Phys. D 39, 1398-1404 (2006)
[CrossRef]

R. Böhme, J. Zajadacz, K. Zimmer, and B. Rauschenbach, "Topography and roughness evolution of microstructured surfaces at laser-induced backside wet etching," Appl. Phys. A 80, 433-438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Zimmer, A. Braun, R. Böhme, "Etching of fused silica and glass with excimer laser at 351 nm," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208, 199-204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Böhme, A. Braun, and K. Zimmer, "Backside etching of UV-transparent materials at the interface to liquids, " Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 276-281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

S. Pissadakis, L. Reekie, M. Hempstead, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Ablated gratings on borosilicate glass by 193nm excimer laser radiation," Appl. Phys. A 69, S739-S741 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Böhme, J. Zajadacz, K. Zimmer, and B. Rauschenbach, "Topography and roughness evolution of microstructured surfaces at laser-induced backside wet etching," Appl. Phys. A 80, 433-438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, S. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, "Laser backside etching of fused silica with ultrashort pulses," Appl. Phys. A 85, 75-78 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. E. Dyer, R. J. Farley, and R. Giedl, "Effects of the Zeroth-Order Diffraction of a Phase Mask on Bragg Gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3389-3391 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tam, J. L. Brand, D. C. Cheng, and W. Zapka, "Picosecond laser sputtering of sapphire at 266 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2045-2047 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sc.

D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, H. Varel, M. Wähmer and E. E. B. Campbell, "Laser processing of sapphire with picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses," Appl. Surf. Sc. 120, 65-80 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

J. Wang, H. Niino, and A. Yabe, "Micromachining of transparent materials with super-heated liquid generated by multiphotonic absorption of organic molecule," Appl. Surf. Sci. 154, 571-576 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Böhme, A. Braun, and K. Zimmer, "Backside etching of UV-transparent materials at the interface to liquids, " Appl. Surf. Sci. 186, 276-281 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Zimmer, A. Braun, R. Böhme, "Etching of fused silica and glass with excimer laser at 351 nm," Appl. Surf. Sci. 208, 199-204 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Pissadakis, L. Reekie, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, "Sub-micron period relief gratings in InOx thin films and waveguides, patterned using 248nm excimer laser ablation," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 1634-1641 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. D

R. Böhme, S. Pissadakis, M. Ehrhardt, D. Ruthe, and K. Zimmer, "Ultra-short laser processing of transparent material at the interface to liquid," J. Phys. D 39, 1398-1404 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

X. M. Ding, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and H. Niino: "Laser-induced backside wet etching of sapphire," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42 (2B), 176-178 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Thin Solid Films

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, "Surface micromachining of UV transparent materials, " Thin Solid Films 453-454, 31-35 (2004).

Other

H. M. Smith ed., Holographic recording materials, (Springer-Verlag 1977) Vol. 20.
[CrossRef]

K. Zimmer, "Studies on the laser-induced temperatures at solid liquid material interface," in preparation.

CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 80th Edition (1999-2000).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up used for inscribing gratings in sapphire wafers by employing LIBWE. PM: phase mask. SAP: sapphire sample. CB: chlorobenzene absorber. CC: chlororobenzene cell.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Grating depths of different spatial frequencies inscribed into sapphire versus number of pulses, as these were extracted from diffraction efficiency measurements. The gratings exposed using 260 mJ/cm2 energy density per pulse.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Wide area SEM scan of grating inscribed using 100 pulses of 260 mJ/cm2 energy density.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Close view SEM scan of grating inscribed using 500 pulses of 173 mJ/cm2 energy density.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

3D AFM scan (a) and power spectral density (PSD) graph (b) of a multi-period grating inscribed on sapphire using 10 pulses of 260 mJ/cm2 energy density.

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