Abstract

A stress-induced curved polysilicon actuator with a grating is achieved for the application of recordable optical pickups, which have been realized on a single silicon chip using a two-layer poly-silicon and one-layer silicon nitride micro-machining process. Three diffracted beams with equal intensity in each order from the grating were generated while applying a voltage to the actuator. The switching between the single beam and multiple beams can be applied for writing data and reading data in the disc, respectively.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Alon and J. Finkelstein, World Patent WO 98/37554 (1998).
  2. A. Alon and T. Kosoburd, ‘‘Multi-beam optical pickup,’’ U.S. Patent. No. 6,411,573 (2002).
  3. R. Katayama, K. Yoshihara, Y. Yamanaka, M. Tsunekane, K. Kayanuma, T. Iwanaga, O. Okada, and Y. Ono, ‘‘Multi-beam optical disk drive for high data transfer rate systems,’’ Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  31~2B, 630-634 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Okumura, K. Arai, N. Kawamura, H. Tokumaru, and H. Okuda, ‘‘Multi-beam light source using optical waveguide for optical recording,’’Proc. SPIE 4090, 329-334 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Hsi-Fu Shih, "Multiple-beam liquid crystal grating for the recordable optical pickup head," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  44, 1815-1817 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W.-H. Lee, "High effieicency multiple gratings," Appl. Opt. 18,2152-2158 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. K. Chan and R. W. Dutton, "Effects of capacitors, resistors and residual charge on the static and dynamic performance of electrostatically-actuated devices," Proc. SPIE 3680,120-130 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. A. Rosa, D. D. Bruyker, A. R. Volkel, E. Peeters, and J. Dunec, "A novel external electrode configuration for the electrostatic actuation of MEMS based devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14,446-451(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. C. Chiou and Y. J. Lin, "A novel large displacement electrostatic actuator: pre-stress comb-drive actuator," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 1641-1648 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. P. Beer and E. R. Johnston, Mechanics of Materials, 2nd Ed., (McGraw-Hill, NY, 1992)

2005

Hsi-Fu Shih, "Multiple-beam liquid crystal grating for the recordable optical pickup head," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  44, 1815-1817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Chiou and Y. J. Lin, "A novel large displacement electrostatic actuator: pre-stress comb-drive actuator," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 1641-1648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. A. Rosa, D. D. Bruyker, A. R. Volkel, E. Peeters, and J. Dunec, "A novel external electrode configuration for the electrostatic actuation of MEMS based devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14,446-451(2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Okumura, K. Arai, N. Kawamura, H. Tokumaru, and H. Okuda, ‘‘Multi-beam light source using optical waveguide for optical recording,’’Proc. SPIE 4090, 329-334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. K. Chan and R. W. Dutton, "Effects of capacitors, resistors and residual charge on the static and dynamic performance of electrostatically-actuated devices," Proc. SPIE 3680,120-130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992

R. Katayama, K. Yoshihara, Y. Yamanaka, M. Tsunekane, K. Kayanuma, T. Iwanaga, O. Okada, and Y. Ono, ‘‘Multi-beam optical disk drive for high data transfer rate systems,’’ Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  31~2B, 630-634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1979

Arai, K.

H. Okumura, K. Arai, N. Kawamura, H. Tokumaru, and H. Okuda, ‘‘Multi-beam light source using optical waveguide for optical recording,’’Proc. SPIE 4090, 329-334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bruyker, D. D.

M. A. Rosa, D. D. Bruyker, A. R. Volkel, E. Peeters, and J. Dunec, "A novel external electrode configuration for the electrostatic actuation of MEMS based devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14,446-451(2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, E. K.

E. K. Chan and R. W. Dutton, "Effects of capacitors, resistors and residual charge on the static and dynamic performance of electrostatically-actuated devices," Proc. SPIE 3680,120-130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, J. C.

J. C. Chiou and Y. J. Lin, "A novel large displacement electrostatic actuator: pre-stress comb-drive actuator," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 1641-1648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dunec, J.

M. A. Rosa, D. D. Bruyker, A. R. Volkel, E. Peeters, and J. Dunec, "A novel external electrode configuration for the electrostatic actuation of MEMS based devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14,446-451(2004).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, R. W.

E. K. Chan and R. W. Dutton, "Effects of capacitors, resistors and residual charge on the static and dynamic performance of electrostatically-actuated devices," Proc. SPIE 3680,120-130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iwanaga, T.

R. Katayama, K. Yoshihara, Y. Yamanaka, M. Tsunekane, K. Kayanuma, T. Iwanaga, O. Okada, and Y. Ono, ‘‘Multi-beam optical disk drive for high data transfer rate systems,’’ Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  31~2B, 630-634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Katayama, R.

R. Katayama, K. Yoshihara, Y. Yamanaka, M. Tsunekane, K. Kayanuma, T. Iwanaga, O. Okada, and Y. Ono, ‘‘Multi-beam optical disk drive for high data transfer rate systems,’’ Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  31~2B, 630-634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, N.

H. Okumura, K. Arai, N. Kawamura, H. Tokumaru, and H. Okuda, ‘‘Multi-beam light source using optical waveguide for optical recording,’’Proc. SPIE 4090, 329-334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kayanuma, K.

R. Katayama, K. Yoshihara, Y. Yamanaka, M. Tsunekane, K. Kayanuma, T. Iwanaga, O. Okada, and Y. Ono, ‘‘Multi-beam optical disk drive for high data transfer rate systems,’’ Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  31~2B, 630-634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.-H.

Lin, Y. J.

J. C. Chiou and Y. J. Lin, "A novel large displacement electrostatic actuator: pre-stress comb-drive actuator," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 1641-1648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okada, O.

R. Katayama, K. Yoshihara, Y. Yamanaka, M. Tsunekane, K. Kayanuma, T. Iwanaga, O. Okada, and Y. Ono, ‘‘Multi-beam optical disk drive for high data transfer rate systems,’’ Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  31~2B, 630-634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okuda, H.

H. Okumura, K. Arai, N. Kawamura, H. Tokumaru, and H. Okuda, ‘‘Multi-beam light source using optical waveguide for optical recording,’’Proc. SPIE 4090, 329-334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Okumura, H.

H. Okumura, K. Arai, N. Kawamura, H. Tokumaru, and H. Okuda, ‘‘Multi-beam light source using optical waveguide for optical recording,’’Proc. SPIE 4090, 329-334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ono, Y.

R. Katayama, K. Yoshihara, Y. Yamanaka, M. Tsunekane, K. Kayanuma, T. Iwanaga, O. Okada, and Y. Ono, ‘‘Multi-beam optical disk drive for high data transfer rate systems,’’ Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  31~2B, 630-634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Peeters, E.

M. A. Rosa, D. D. Bruyker, A. R. Volkel, E. Peeters, and J. Dunec, "A novel external electrode configuration for the electrostatic actuation of MEMS based devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14,446-451(2004).
[CrossRef]

Rosa, M. A.

M. A. Rosa, D. D. Bruyker, A. R. Volkel, E. Peeters, and J. Dunec, "A novel external electrode configuration for the electrostatic actuation of MEMS based devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14,446-451(2004).
[CrossRef]

Tokumaru, H.

H. Okumura, K. Arai, N. Kawamura, H. Tokumaru, and H. Okuda, ‘‘Multi-beam light source using optical waveguide for optical recording,’’Proc. SPIE 4090, 329-334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsunekane, M.

R. Katayama, K. Yoshihara, Y. Yamanaka, M. Tsunekane, K. Kayanuma, T. Iwanaga, O. Okada, and Y. Ono, ‘‘Multi-beam optical disk drive for high data transfer rate systems,’’ Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  31~2B, 630-634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Volkel, A. R.

M. A. Rosa, D. D. Bruyker, A. R. Volkel, E. Peeters, and J. Dunec, "A novel external electrode configuration for the electrostatic actuation of MEMS based devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14,446-451(2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, Y.

R. Katayama, K. Yoshihara, Y. Yamanaka, M. Tsunekane, K. Kayanuma, T. Iwanaga, O. Okada, and Y. Ono, ‘‘Multi-beam optical disk drive for high data transfer rate systems,’’ Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  31~2B, 630-634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yoshihara, K.

R. Katayama, K. Yoshihara, Y. Yamanaka, M. Tsunekane, K. Kayanuma, T. Iwanaga, O. Okada, and Y. Ono, ‘‘Multi-beam optical disk drive for high data transfer rate systems,’’ Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  31~2B, 630-634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Micromech. Microeng.

M. A. Rosa, D. D. Bruyker, A. R. Volkel, E. Peeters, and J. Dunec, "A novel external electrode configuration for the electrostatic actuation of MEMS based devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 14,446-451(2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Chiou and Y. J. Lin, "A novel large displacement electrostatic actuator: pre-stress comb-drive actuator," J. Micromech. Microeng. 15, 1641-1648 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Hsi-Fu Shih, "Multiple-beam liquid crystal grating for the recordable optical pickup head," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.,  44, 1815-1817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Katayama, K. Yoshihara, Y. Yamanaka, M. Tsunekane, K. Kayanuma, T. Iwanaga, O. Okada, and Y. Ono, ‘‘Multi-beam optical disk drive for high data transfer rate systems,’’ Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1  31~2B, 630-634 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

H. Okumura, K. Arai, N. Kawamura, H. Tokumaru, and H. Okuda, ‘‘Multi-beam light source using optical waveguide for optical recording,’’Proc. SPIE 4090, 329-334 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. K. Chan and R. W. Dutton, "Effects of capacitors, resistors and residual charge on the static and dynamic performance of electrostatically-actuated devices," Proc. SPIE 3680,120-130 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

F. P. Beer and E. R. Johnston, Mechanics of Materials, 2nd Ed., (McGraw-Hill, NY, 1992)

A. Alon and J. Finkelstein, World Patent WO 98/37554 (1998).

A. Alon and T. Kosoburd, ‘‘Multi-beam optical pickup,’’ U.S. Patent. No. 6,411,573 (2002).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the dynamic grating based micro-optical pickup by stress-induced bending of polysilicon cantilever beam. States for (a) the single-beam recording and (b) the multiple-beam retrieving.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical path of the three beams for tracking.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Diffraction ratio (I0/I±1) contours for various values of the fill factor f and of the grating depth D.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The layout of the proposed dynamic grating, which consists of a bi-morph actuator, on which a grating is mounted. The pre-stress beam is used to assist lifting the released grating during the assembling.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Process flow for the dynamic grating. (a) The first dimple-etch and anchor-etch after the first silicon dioxide deposition. (b) Low stress silicon nitride patterning after the first poly-silicon deposition and patterning. (c) The Cr/Au films and the second poly-silicon deposition and patterning after the second silicon dioxide deposition and the second anchor-etch.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SEM of a (a) dynamic grating and (b) micro optical elements in a optical pickup.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Static lift heights of the free end versus dc bias driving voltages.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Diffraction patterns (a) before and (b) after applying voltage to the actuator.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I 0 = [ ( 2 f 1 ) sin θ ] 2 + cos 2 θ
I 1 = [ 2 ( sin mπf ) sin θ ] 2
D ( n 1 ) λ = θ 180
ρ = Eh ( 3 m + K n ( 1 + n ) 2 ) 6 ( σ 2 m σ 1 ) .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
K = 1 + 4 mn + 6 mn 2 + 4 mn 3 + m 2 n 4
z = ρ ( 1 Cos L ρ )

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