Abstract

We have characterized an independent primary standard method to calibrate detection efficiency of photon-counting detectors based on two-photon correlations. We have verified this method and its uncertainty by comparing it to a substitution method using a conventionally calibrated transfer detector tied to a national primary standard detector scale. We obtained a relative standard uncertainty for the correlated-photon method of 0.18 % (k=1) and for the substitution method of 0.17 % (k=1). From a series of measurements we found that the two independent calibration techniques differ by 0.14(14) %, which is within the established uncertainty of comparison. We believe this is the highest accuracy characterization and independent verification of the correlated-photon method yet achieved.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Brida, S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Quantum Efficiency and Dead Time of Single-Photon Counting Photodiodes: a Ccomparison Between Two Measurement Techniques," Metrologia 37, 625-628 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Brida, S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Towards an Uncertainty Budget in Quantum-Efficiency Measurements with Parametric Fluorescence," Metrologia 37, 629-632 (2000).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2006 (1)

2005 (2)

A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, I. P. Degiovanni, S. Castelletto and M. L. Rastello, "Radiometric reference for weak radiations: comparison of methods," Metrologia,  42, 271-277 (2005);A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, "Detector calibration at INM using a correlated photons source," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 211-216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, I. P. Degiovanni, S. Castelletto and M. L. Rastello, "Radiometric reference for weak radiations: comparison of methods," Metrologia,  42, 271-277 (2005);A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, "Detector calibration at INM using a correlated photons source," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 211-216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Chou, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, S. V. Polyakov, S. J. van Enk, H. J. Kimble, "Measurement-induced entanglement for excitation stored in remote atomic ensembles," Nature 438, 828-832 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2000 (2)

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Quantum Efficiency and Dead Time of Single-Photon Counting Photodiodes: a Ccomparison Between Two Measurement Techniques," Metrologia 37, 625-628 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Towards an Uncertainty Budget in Quantum-Efficiency Measurements with Parametric Fluorescence," Metrologia 37, 629-632 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Migdall, R. Datla, A. Sergienko, J. S. Orszak, and Y. H. Shih, "Measuring Absolute Infrared Spectral Radiance with Correlated Visible Photons: Technique Verification and Measurement Uncertainty," Metrologia 32, 479-483 (1995/6).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

V. M. Ginzburg, N. Keratishvili, E. L. Korzhenevich, G. V. Lunev, A. N. Penin, and V. Sapritsky, "Absolute Meter of Photodetector Quantum Efficiency Based on the Parametric Down-Conversion Effect," Opt. Eng. 32, 2911-2916 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

S. R. Bowman, Y. H. Shih, and C. O. Alley, "The use of Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes for precise laser ranging at very low light levels: An experimental evaluation," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications I, James M. Cruickshank, Robert C. Harney eds., Proc. SPIE 663, 24-29 (1986).

1981 (2)

D. N. Klyshko, "On the Use of a 2-Photon Light for Absolute Calibration of Photoelectric Detectors," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1112-1116 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, and A. V. Sergienko, "An Efficient Emission of a Two-Photon Fields in the Visible Region," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 939-941 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

D. N. Klyshko, "Correlation of Stokes and Anti-Stokes Components under Inelastic Light-Scattering," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 591-594 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, "Accurate 2nd-order Susceptibility Measurements of Visible and Infrared Nonlinear Crystals," Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693-1706 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

D. C. Burnham and D. L. Weinberg, "Observation of Simultaneity in Parametric Production of Optical Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84-87 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, and A. E. Siegman, "Quantum Fluctuations and Noise in Parametric Processes," Phys. Rev. 124, 1646-1654 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Alley, C. O.

S. R. Bowman, Y. H. Shih, and C. O. Alley, "The use of Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes for precise laser ranging at very low light levels: An experimental evaluation," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications I, James M. Cruickshank, Robert C. Harney eds., Proc. SPIE 663, 24-29 (1986).

Bastie, J.

A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, I. P. Degiovanni, S. Castelletto and M. L. Rastello, "Radiometric reference for weak radiations: comparison of methods," Metrologia,  42, 271-277 (2005);A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, "Detector calibration at INM using a correlated photons source," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 211-216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, I. P. Degiovanni, S. Castelletto and M. L. Rastello, "Radiometric reference for weak radiations: comparison of methods," Metrologia,  42, 271-277 (2005);A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, "Detector calibration at INM using a correlated photons source," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 211-216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bienfang, J. C.

Bowman, S. R.

S. R. Bowman, Y. H. Shih, and C. O. Alley, "The use of Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes for precise laser ranging at very low light levels: An experimental evaluation," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications I, James M. Cruickshank, Robert C. Harney eds., Proc. SPIE 663, 24-29 (1986).

Brida, G.

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Towards an Uncertainty Budget in Quantum-Efficiency Measurements with Parametric Fluorescence," Metrologia 37, 629-632 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Quantum Efficiency and Dead Time of Single-Photon Counting Photodiodes: a Ccomparison Between Two Measurement Techniques," Metrologia 37, 625-628 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S. W.

Burnham, D. C.

D. C. Burnham and D. L. Weinberg, "Observation of Simultaneity in Parametric Production of Optical Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84-87 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, "Accurate 2nd-order Susceptibility Measurements of Visible and Infrared Nonlinear Crystals," Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693-1706 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Castelletto, S.

A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, I. P. Degiovanni, S. Castelletto and M. L. Rastello, "Radiometric reference for weak radiations: comparison of methods," Metrologia,  42, 271-277 (2005);A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, "Detector calibration at INM using a correlated photons source," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 211-216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Towards an Uncertainty Budget in Quantum-Efficiency Measurements with Parametric Fluorescence," Metrologia 37, 629-632 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Quantum Efficiency and Dead Time of Single-Photon Counting Photodiodes: a Ccomparison Between Two Measurement Techniques," Metrologia 37, 625-628 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, J.

J. Cheung, J. Gardner, A. L. Migdall, S. V. Polyakov, and M. Ware, "High accuracy lens transmittance measurements," submitted to Appl. Opt.

Chiao, R. Y.

Chou, C. W.

C. W. Chou, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, S. V. Polyakov, S. J. van Enk, H. J. Kimble, "Measurement-induced entanglement for excitation stored in remote atomic ensembles," Nature 438, 828-832 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choy, M. M.

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, "Accurate 2nd-order Susceptibility Measurements of Visible and Infrared Nonlinear Crystals," Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693-1706 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Clark, C. W.

Datla, R.

A. Migdall, R. Datla, A. Sergienko, J. S. Orszak, and Y. H. Shih, "Measuring Absolute Infrared Spectral Radiance with Correlated Visible Photons: Technique Verification and Measurement Uncertainty," Metrologia 32, 479-483 (1995/6).
[CrossRef]

de Riedmatten, H.

C. W. Chou, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, S. V. Polyakov, S. J. van Enk, H. J. Kimble, "Measurement-induced entanglement for excitation stored in remote atomic ensembles," Nature 438, 828-832 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degiovanni, I. P.

A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, I. P. Degiovanni, S. Castelletto and M. L. Rastello, "Radiometric reference for weak radiations: comparison of methods," Metrologia,  42, 271-277 (2005);A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, "Detector calibration at INM using a correlated photons source," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 211-216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Towards an Uncertainty Budget in Quantum-Efficiency Measurements with Parametric Fluorescence," Metrologia 37, 629-632 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Quantum Efficiency and Dead Time of Single-Photon Counting Photodiodes: a Ccomparison Between Two Measurement Techniques," Metrologia 37, 625-628 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eberhard, P. H.

Eppeldauer, G. P.

Felinto, D.

C. W. Chou, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, S. V. Polyakov, S. J. van Enk, H. J. Kimble, "Measurement-induced entanglement for excitation stored in remote atomic ensembles," Nature 438, 828-832 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gardner, J.

J. Cheung, J. Gardner, A. L. Migdall, S. V. Polyakov, and M. Ware, "High accuracy lens transmittance measurements," submitted to Appl. Opt.

Genovese, M.

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Towards an Uncertainty Budget in Quantum-Efficiency Measurements with Parametric Fluorescence," Metrologia 37, 629-632 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ghazi-Bellouati, A.

A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, I. P. Degiovanni, S. Castelletto and M. L. Rastello, "Radiometric reference for weak radiations: comparison of methods," Metrologia,  42, 271-277 (2005);A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, "Detector calibration at INM using a correlated photons source," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 211-216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, I. P. Degiovanni, S. Castelletto and M. L. Rastello, "Radiometric reference for weak radiations: comparison of methods," Metrologia,  42, 271-277 (2005);A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, "Detector calibration at INM using a correlated photons source," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 211-216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ginzburg, V. M.

V. M. Ginzburg, N. Keratishvili, E. L. Korzhenevich, G. V. Lunev, A. N. Penin, and V. Sapritsky, "Absolute Meter of Photodetector Quantum Efficiency Based on the Parametric Down-Conversion Effect," Opt. Eng. 32, 2911-2916 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gross, A. J.

Hagley, E. W.

Hershman, B. J.

Himbert, M. E.

A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, I. P. Degiovanni, S. Castelletto and M. L. Rastello, "Radiometric reference for weak radiations: comparison of methods," Metrologia,  42, 271-277 (2005);A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, "Detector calibration at INM using a correlated photons source," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 211-216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, I. P. Degiovanni, S. Castelletto and M. L. Rastello, "Radiometric reference for weak radiations: comparison of methods," Metrologia,  42, 271-277 (2005);A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, "Detector calibration at INM using a correlated photons source," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 211-216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keratishvili, N.

V. M. Ginzburg, N. Keratishvili, E. L. Korzhenevich, G. V. Lunev, A. N. Penin, and V. Sapritsky, "Absolute Meter of Photodetector Quantum Efficiency Based on the Parametric Down-Conversion Effect," Opt. Eng. 32, 2911-2916 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

C. W. Chou, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, S. V. Polyakov, S. J. van Enk, H. J. Kimble, "Measurement-induced entanglement for excitation stored in remote atomic ensembles," Nature 438, 828-832 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klyshko, D. N.

D. N. Klyshko, "On the Use of a 2-Photon Light for Absolute Calibration of Photoelectric Detectors," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1112-1116 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Klyshko, "Correlation of Stokes and Anti-Stokes Components under Inelastic Light-Scattering," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 591-594 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Korzhenevich, E. L.

V. M. Ginzburg, N. Keratishvili, E. L. Korzhenevich, G. V. Lunev, A. N. Penin, and V. Sapritsky, "Absolute Meter of Photodetector Quantum Efficiency Based on the Parametric Down-Conversion Effect," Opt. Eng. 32, 2911-2916 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, P. G.

Louisell, W. H.

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, and A. E. Siegman, "Quantum Fluctuations and Noise in Parametric Processes," Phys. Rev. 124, 1646-1654 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Lu, R.

Lunev, G. V.

V. M. Ginzburg, N. Keratishvili, E. L. Korzhenevich, G. V. Lunev, A. N. Penin, and V. Sapritsky, "Absolute Meter of Photodetector Quantum Efficiency Based on the Parametric Down-Conversion Effect," Opt. Eng. 32, 2911-2916 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lykke, K. R.

Malygin, A. A.

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, and A. V. Sergienko, "An Efficient Emission of a Two-Photon Fields in the Visible Region," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 939-941 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Migdall, A.

A. Migdall, R. Datla, A. Sergienko, J. S. Orszak, and Y. H. Shih, "Measuring Absolute Infrared Spectral Radiance with Correlated Visible Photons: Technique Verification and Measurement Uncertainty," Metrologia 32, 479-483 (1995/6).
[CrossRef]

Migdall, A. L.

M. Ware and A. L. Migdall, "Single-photon Detector Characterization Using Correlated Photons: the March from Feasibility to Metrology," J. Mod. Opt. 15, 1549- 1557 (2004).

J. Cheung, J. Gardner, A. L. Migdall, S. V. Polyakov, and M. Ware, "High accuracy lens transmittance measurements," submitted to Appl. Opt.

Mink, A.

Nakassis, A.

Novero, C.

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Towards an Uncertainty Budget in Quantum-Efficiency Measurements with Parametric Fluorescence," Metrologia 37, 629-632 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Quantum Efficiency and Dead Time of Single-Photon Counting Photodiodes: a Ccomparison Between Two Measurement Techniques," Metrologia 37, 625-628 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Orszak, J. S.

A. Migdall, R. Datla, A. Sergienko, J. S. Orszak, and Y. H. Shih, "Measuring Absolute Infrared Spectral Radiance with Correlated Visible Photons: Technique Verification and Measurement Uncertainty," Metrologia 32, 479-483 (1995/6).
[CrossRef]

Penin, A. N.

V. M. Ginzburg, N. Keratishvili, E. L. Korzhenevich, G. V. Lunev, A. N. Penin, and V. Sapritsky, "Absolute Meter of Photodetector Quantum Efficiency Based on the Parametric Down-Conversion Effect," Opt. Eng. 32, 2911-2916 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Penin and A. V. Sergienko, "Absolute Standardless Calibration of Photodetectors Bbased on Quantum Two-pPhoton Fields," Appl. Opt. 30, 3582-3588, (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, and A. V. Sergienko, "An Efficient Emission of a Two-Photon Fields in the Visible Region," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 939-941 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, M. D.

Polyakov, S. V.

C. W. Chou, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, S. V. Polyakov, S. J. van Enk, H. J. Kimble, "Measurement-induced entanglement for excitation stored in remote atomic ensembles," Nature 438, 828-832 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cheung, J. Gardner, A. L. Migdall, S. V. Polyakov, and M. Ware, "High accuracy lens transmittance measurements," submitted to Appl. Opt.

Rarity, J. G.

Rastello, M. L.

A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, I. P. Degiovanni, S. Castelletto and M. L. Rastello, "Radiometric reference for weak radiations: comparison of methods," Metrologia,  42, 271-277 (2005);A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, "Detector calibration at INM using a correlated photons source," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 211-216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Towards an Uncertainty Budget in Quantum-Efficiency Measurements with Parametric Fluorescence," Metrologia 37, 629-632 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Quantum Efficiency and Dead Time of Single-Photon Counting Photodiodes: a Ccomparison Between Two Measurement Techniques," Metrologia 37, 625-628 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Razet, A.

A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, I. P. Degiovanni, S. Castelletto and M. L. Rastello, "Radiometric reference for weak radiations: comparison of methods," Metrologia,  42, 271-277 (2005);A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, "Detector calibration at INM using a correlated photons source," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 211-216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, I. P. Degiovanni, S. Castelletto and M. L. Rastello, "Radiometric reference for weak radiations: comparison of methods," Metrologia,  42, 271-277 (2005);A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, "Detector calibration at INM using a correlated photons source," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 211-216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ridley, K. D.

Sapritsky, V.

V. M. Ginzburg, N. Keratishvili, E. L. Korzhenevich, G. V. Lunev, A. N. Penin, and V. Sapritsky, "Absolute Meter of Photodetector Quantum Efficiency Based on the Parametric Down-Conversion Effect," Opt. Eng. 32, 2911-2916 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sergienko, A.

A. Migdall, R. Datla, A. Sergienko, J. S. Orszak, and Y. H. Shih, "Measuring Absolute Infrared Spectral Radiance with Correlated Visible Photons: Technique Verification and Measurement Uncertainty," Metrologia 32, 479-483 (1995/6).
[CrossRef]

Sergienko, A. V.

A. N. Penin and A. V. Sergienko, "Absolute Standardless Calibration of Photodetectors Bbased on Quantum Two-pPhoton Fields," Appl. Opt. 30, 3582-3588, (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, and A. V. Sergienko, "An Efficient Emission of a Two-Photon Fields in the Visible Region," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 939-941 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y. H.

A. Migdall, R. Datla, A. Sergienko, J. S. Orszak, and Y. H. Shih, "Measuring Absolute Infrared Spectral Radiance with Correlated Visible Photons: Technique Verification and Measurement Uncertainty," Metrologia 32, 479-483 (1995/6).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Bowman, Y. H. Shih, and C. O. Alley, "The use of Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes for precise laser ranging at very low light levels: An experimental evaluation," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications I, James M. Cruickshank, Robert C. Harney eds., Proc. SPIE 663, 24-29 (1986).

Siegman, A. E.

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, and A. E. Siegman, "Quantum Fluctuations and Noise in Parametric Processes," Phys. Rev. 124, 1646-1654 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Steinberg, A. M.

Su, D. H.

Tang, X.

Tapster, P. R.

van Enk, S. J.

C. W. Chou, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, S. V. Polyakov, S. J. van Enk, H. J. Kimble, "Measurement-induced entanglement for excitation stored in remote atomic ensembles," Nature 438, 828-832 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ware, M.

M. Ware and A. L. Migdall, "Single-photon Detector Characterization Using Correlated Photons: the March from Feasibility to Metrology," J. Mod. Opt. 15, 1549- 1557 (2004).

J. Cheung, J. Gardner, A. L. Migdall, S. V. Polyakov, and M. Ware, "High accuracy lens transmittance measurements," submitted to Appl. Opt.

Weinberg, D. L.

D. C. Burnham and D. L. Weinberg, "Observation of Simultaneity in Parametric Production of Optical Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84-87 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Wen, Jesse

Williams, C. J.

Yariv, A.

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, and A. E. Siegman, "Quantum Fluctuations and Noise in Parametric Processes," Phys. Rev. 124, 1646-1654 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. Ware and A. L. Migdall, "Single-photon Detector Characterization Using Correlated Photons: the March from Feasibility to Metrology," J. Mod. Opt. 15, 1549- 1557 (2004).

Metrologia (4)

A. Migdall, R. Datla, A. Sergienko, J. S. Orszak, and Y. H. Shih, "Measuring Absolute Infrared Spectral Radiance with Correlated Visible Photons: Technique Verification and Measurement Uncertainty," Metrologia 32, 479-483 (1995/6).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Quantum Efficiency and Dead Time of Single-Photon Counting Photodiodes: a Ccomparison Between Two Measurement Techniques," Metrologia 37, 625-628 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, I. P. Degiovanni, M. Genovese, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, "Towards an Uncertainty Budget in Quantum-Efficiency Measurements with Parametric Fluorescence," Metrologia 37, 629-632 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, I. P. Degiovanni, S. Castelletto and M. L. Rastello, "Radiometric reference for weak radiations: comparison of methods," Metrologia,  42, 271-277 (2005);A. Ghazi-Bellouati, A. Razet, J. Bastie, M. E. Himbert, "Detector calibration at INM using a correlated photons source," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 35, 211-216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

C. W. Chou, H. de Riedmatten, D. Felinto, S. V. Polyakov, S. J. van Enk, H. J. Kimble, "Measurement-induced entanglement for excitation stored in remote atomic ensembles," Nature 438, 828-832 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

V. M. Ginzburg, N. Keratishvili, E. L. Korzhenevich, G. V. Lunev, A. N. Penin, and V. Sapritsky, "Absolute Meter of Photodetector Quantum Efficiency Based on the Parametric Down-Conversion Effect," Opt. Eng. 32, 2911-2916 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, and A. E. Siegman, "Quantum Fluctuations and Noise in Parametric Processes," Phys. Rev. 124, 1646-1654 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. M. Choy and R. L. Byer, "Accurate 2nd-order Susceptibility Measurements of Visible and Infrared Nonlinear Crystals," Phys. Rev. B 14, 1693-1706 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. C. Burnham and D. L. Weinberg, "Observation of Simultaneity in Parametric Production of Optical Photon Pairs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84-87 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. R. Bowman, Y. H. Shih, and C. O. Alley, "The use of Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes for precise laser ranging at very low light levels: An experimental evaluation," in Laser Radar Technology and Applications I, James M. Cruickshank, Robert C. Harney eds., Proc. SPIE 663, 24-29 (1986).

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (3)

D. N. Klyshko, "Correlation of Stokes and Anti-Stokes Components under Inelastic Light-Scattering," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 591-594 (1977).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Klyshko, "On the Use of a 2-Photon Light for Absolute Calibration of Photoelectric Detectors," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1112-1116 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Malygin, A. N. Penin, and A. V. Sergienko, "An Efficient Emission of a Two-Photon Fields in the Visible Region," Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 939-941 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

F. Zernike and J. E. Midwinter, Applied Nonlinear Optics, (New York: Wiley, 1973).

A. L. Migdall, "Absolute Quantum Efficiency Measurements Using Correlated Photons: Toward a Measurement Protocol," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference: Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 50, (IEEE, 2001) 478-481.

Determination of the Spectrum Responsivity of Optical Radiation Detectors, Publ. 64 (Commission Internationale de L’Éclairage, Paris, 1984).

Budde, W. , Optical Radiation Measurements, Vol. 4: Physical Detectors of Optical Radiation, (Academic Press, Inc., Orlando, FL, 1983).

SPCM-AQR Single Photon Counting Module, product datasheet, available at: http://optoelectronics.perkinelmer.com/content/Datasheets/SPCM-AQR.pdf.

Perkin-ElmerAPD  SPCM-AQR-12 (trigger detector: s/n 12432, DUT: s/n 12433)

Certain commercial equipment, instruments or materials are identified in this paper to foster understanding. Such identification does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor does it imply that the materials or equipment are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

Gamma Scientific Silicon Photodiode p/n: 19830-3 s/n: ND0104

M. Ware, A. L. Migdall, J. C. Bienfang, and S. V. Polyakov, "Calibrating Photon-Counting Detectors to High Accuracy: Background and Deadtime Issues," J. Mod. Opt., to appear.

S. V. Polyakov, M. Ware, and A. L. Migdall, "High-accuracy calibration of photon-counting detectors", in Advanced Photon Counting Techniques, W. Becker, ed., Proc. SPIE 6372 (2006).

B. N. Taylor and C. E. Kuyatt, Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurement Results, NIST Technical Note 1297, 1994 Edition.

T. C. Larason, S. S. Bruce, and A. C. Parr, Spectroradiometric Detector Measurements, Part 1-Ultraviolet Detectors, and Part 2-Ultraviolet and Visible to Near-Infrared Detectors, NIST Special Publication 250-41.

Establishing transmittance with desired accuracy requires temporal stability of associated irradiance measurements. The experimental setup consisted of a He-Ne laser followed by a spatial filter (pinhole), and two trap detectors with a high degree of spatial uniformity. One trap detector monitored the laser’s power and the other measured the transmitted power with and without the crystal. The maximum observed long-term drift of the system was 0.004%/h, and the rms of the signal, normalized to laser power, was 0.02%.

T. J. Quinn, "Meeting of Directors of National Metrology Institutes held in Sevres on 17 and 18 February 1997," Metrologia 34, 61-65 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Calibration setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical histogram and its main features. A – the main peak due to correlated photons, B – extended shoulder due to twilight events (see text), C – the region where the detector is dead after firing, D – peak due to afterpulsing, E – minor correlated photons peak due to double back reflection in the trigger fiber and afterpulsing of the trigger APD. The broad background is due to the uncorrelated firing of the DUT

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Des determined from four substitution calibration runs (points) are compared to Des determined by correlated calibration (lines). Each comparison is for slightly different areas of the DUT and incident photon rates. a) calibration day 1; b) calibration day 2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison between two absolute calibration methods: correlated photon pair and substitution (traceable to NIST scale). The size of the confidence bands reflects the uncertainty of each individual comparison and indicates the consistency of the overall comparison with zero bias between the two methods.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Looking for evidence of backside scatter from a closely placed pinhole and its effect on the conventional photodetector measurements. Signal is shown as the detector was moved away from the masking pinhole. Two experimental datasets are shown, one with small uncertainty (squares) showing zero slope at short distances and one with larger uncertainty (diamonds) confirming the falloff at large distances.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Afterpulsing of the detector under test APD at various count rates. Uncertainty bars are shown.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Reflectance measurements (points) and calculation (line) for LiIO3 at 632.8 nm at incidence angle of 1.7°.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Spatial map of the log of correlated counts at the DUT, as the entire DUT arm with a 1 mm aperture was scanned across the beam. Evidence of a secondary spot due to double reflection is visible below and to the right of the main spot. (Due to noise on the background a constant was added to the counts after background subtraction, but before taking the log.)

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Transmittance spectra of filters measured with SIRCUS. a) FDUT: two measurements (squares, diamonds) taken ~1 hour apart. b) FT.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Detector substitution (conventional) calibration uncertainty budget

Tables Icon

Table 2. Correlated photon calibration method uncertainty budget

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N trig = η trigchan N
N c = η DUTchan η trigchan N ,
η DUTchan = N c N trig ,
Δ = η ¯ DUT , conventional η DUT , correlated ( η ¯ DUT , conventional + η DUT , correlated ) 2 ,
C τ = 0 = C measured 1 τ C measured ,
T measured = T 2 ( 1 + ( 1 T ) 2 ) .

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