Abstract

We present new methods to produce polymerized nanotips via two-photon photopolymerization. By gradually changing the laser power, we fabricate a single polymerized tip with the size of 120nm. When two rectangle anchors with protuberances are close enough, lines with the slimmest part of about 20–30nm and tips with the widths of about 35nm are produced between anchors, which are the best resolution obtained with the resin SCR-500 to our knowledge. As the tips are adhered to larger polymerized structures, they can survive post processing in spite of their small sizes.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional micro- devices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109(2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, C. Y. Wu, H. C. Guo, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, F. P. Wu, T. Wang, and M. Q. Shi,"Two-photon polymerization of gratings by interference of a femtosecond laser pulse," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 381-384 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. J. Qi, Y. Li, H. C. Guo, H. Yang and Q. H. Gong, "Wavy lines in two-photon photopolymerization microfabrication", Optics Express 12, 4725-4730(2004)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. H. Park, S.H. Lee, D.Y. Yang, H.J. Kong, and K.S. Lee, "Subregional slicing method to increase three-dimensional nanofabrication efficiency in two-photon polymerization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 154108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, "Selective electroless plating to fabricate complex three-dimensional metallic micro/nanostructures," Appl.Phys.Lett. 88, 083110 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312-314 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Mima, and H. Misawa, "Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist," Nanotechnology 16, 846-849 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. H. Nguyen, M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Acrylated-based photopolymer for two-photon microfarication and photonic applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 209-216 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Takada, H.B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "The study on spatial resolution in two-photon induced polymerization," in Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics and Nano-Optics IV, E. G. Johnson, G. P. Nordin, T. J.Suleski eds, Proc. SPIE 6110, 611000A (2006).
  12. J.M. Kim and H. Muramatsu, "Two-photon photopolymerized tips for adhesion-free scanning-probe microscopy," Nano. Lett. 5, 309-314(2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. B. Sun, K. Takada, M.S. Kim, K.S. Lee, and S. Kawata, "Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photo- polymerization nanofabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104-1106 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2006

F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, "Selective electroless plating to fabricate complex three-dimensional metallic micro/nanostructures," Appl.Phys.Lett. 88, 083110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, H.B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "The study on spatial resolution in two-photon induced polymerization," in Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics and Nano-Optics IV, E. G. Johnson, G. P. Nordin, T. J.Suleski eds, Proc. SPIE 6110, 611000A (2006).

2005

J.M. Kim and H. Muramatsu, "Two-photon photopolymerized tips for adhesion-free scanning-probe microscopy," Nano. Lett. 5, 309-314(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Mima, and H. Misawa, "Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist," Nanotechnology 16, 846-849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Nguyen, M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Acrylated-based photopolymer for two-photon microfarication and photonic applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 209-216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, S.H. Lee, D.Y. Yang, H.J. Kong, and K.S. Lee, "Subregional slicing method to increase three-dimensional nanofabrication efficiency in two-photon polymerization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 154108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

F. J. Qi, Y. Li, H. C. Guo, H. Yang and Q. H. Gong, "Wavy lines in two-photon photopolymerization microfabrication", Optics Express 12, 4725-4730(2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, C. Y. Wu, H. C. Guo, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, F. P. Wu, T. Wang, and M. Q. Shi,"Two-photon polymerization of gratings by interference of a femtosecond laser pulse," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 381-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Sun, K. Takada, M.S. Kim, K.S. Lee, and S. Kawata, "Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photo- polymerization nanofabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312-314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional micro- devices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ananthavel, S. P.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, S.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Braun, K. L.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cammack, J. K.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiyoda, K.

F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, "Selective electroless plating to fabricate complex three-dimensional metallic micro/nanostructures," Appl.Phys.Lett. 88, 083110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cumpston, B. H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, D. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, J. E.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Erskine, L. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Formanek, F.

F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, "Selective electroless plating to fabricate complex three-dimensional metallic micro/nanostructures," Appl.Phys.Lett. 88, 083110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q. H.

F. J. Qi, Y. Li, H. C. Guo, H. Yang and Q. H. Gong, "Wavy lines in two-photon photopolymerization microfabrication", Optics Express 12, 4725-4730(2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, C. Y. Wu, H. C. Guo, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, F. P. Wu, T. Wang, and M. Q. Shi,"Two-photon polymerization of gratings by interference of a femtosecond laser pulse," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 381-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

L. H. Nguyen, M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Acrylated-based photopolymer for two-photon microfarication and photonic applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 209-216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H. C.

F. J. Qi, Y. Li, H. C. Guo, H. Yang and Q. H. Gong, "Wavy lines in two-photon photopolymerization microfabrication", Optics Express 12, 4725-4730(2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, C. Y. Wu, H. C. Guo, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, F. P. Wu, T. Wang, and M. Q. Shi,"Two-photon polymerization of gratings by interference of a femtosecond laser pulse," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 381-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, C. Y. Wu, H. C. Guo, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, F. P. Wu, T. Wang, and M. Q. Shi,"Two-photon polymerization of gratings by interference of a femtosecond laser pulse," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 381-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heikal, A. A.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, A.

F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, "Selective electroless plating to fabricate complex three-dimensional metallic micro/nanostructures," Appl.Phys.Lett. 88, 083110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. B.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, C. Y. Wu, H. C. Guo, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, F. P. Wu, T. Wang, and M. Q. Shi,"Two-photon polymerization of gratings by interference of a femtosecond laser pulse," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 381-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Mima, and H. Misawa, "Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist," Nanotechnology 16, 846-849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, "Selective electroless plating to fabricate complex three-dimensional metallic micro/nanostructures," Appl.Phys.Lett. 88, 083110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Takada, H.B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "The study on spatial resolution in two-photon induced polymerization," in Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics and Nano-Optics IV, E. G. Johnson, G. P. Nordin, T. J.Suleski eds, Proc. SPIE 6110, 611000A (2006).

H. B. Sun, K. Takada, M.S. Kim, K.S. Lee, and S. Kawata, "Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photo- polymerization nanofabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312-314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional micro- devices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.M.

J.M. Kim and H. Muramatsu, "Two-photon photopolymerized tips for adhesion-free scanning-probe microscopy," Nano. Lett. 5, 309-314(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M.S.

H. B. Sun, K. Takada, M.S. Kim, K.S. Lee, and S. Kawata, "Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photo- polymerization nanofabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kong, H.J.

S. H. Park, S.H. Lee, D.Y. Yang, H.J. Kong, and K.S. Lee, "Subregional slicing method to increase three-dimensional nanofabrication efficiency in two-photon polymerization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 154108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuebler, S. M.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I.-Y.S.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.S.

S. H. Park, S.H. Lee, D.Y. Yang, H.J. Kong, and K.S. Lee, "Subregional slicing method to increase three-dimensional nanofabrication efficiency in two-photon polymerization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 154108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Sun, K. Takada, M.S. Kim, K.S. Lee, and S. Kawata, "Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photo- polymerization nanofabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.H.

S. H. Park, S.H. Lee, D.Y. Yang, H.J. Kong, and K.S. Lee, "Subregional slicing method to increase three-dimensional nanofabrication efficiency in two-photon polymerization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 154108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

F. J. Qi, Y. Li, H. C. Guo, H. Yang and Q. H. Gong, "Wavy lines in two-photon photopolymerization microfabrication", Optics Express 12, 4725-4730(2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, L.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, C. Y. Wu, H. C. Guo, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, F. P. Wu, T. Wang, and M. Q. Shi,"Two-photon polymerization of gratings by interference of a femtosecond laser pulse," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 381-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCord-Maughon, D.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mima, M.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Mima, and H. Misawa, "Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist," Nanotechnology 16, 846-849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Mima, and H. Misawa, "Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist," Nanotechnology 16, 846-849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mizeikis, V.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Mima, and H. Misawa, "Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist," Nanotechnology 16, 846-849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Muramatsu, H.

J.M. Kim and H. Muramatsu, "Two-photon photopolymerized tips for adhesion-free scanning-probe microscopy," Nano. Lett. 5, 309-314(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, L. H.

L. H. Nguyen, M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Acrylated-based photopolymer for two-photon microfarication and photonic applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 209-216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ober, C. K.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park, S.H. Lee, D.Y. Yang, H.J. Kong, and K.S. Lee, "Subregional slicing method to increase three-dimensional nanofabrication efficiency in two-photon polymerization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 154108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qi, F. J.

F. J. Qi, Y. Li, H. C. Guo, H. Yang and Q. H. Gong, "Wavy lines in two-photon photopolymerization microfabrication", Optics Express 12, 4725-4730(2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, J.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rockel, H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rumi, M.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seet, K. K.

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Mima, and H. Misawa, "Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist," Nanotechnology 16, 846-849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, M. Q.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, C. Y. Wu, H. C. Guo, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, F. P. Wu, T. Wang, and M. Q. Shi,"Two-photon polymerization of gratings by interference of a femtosecond laser pulse," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 381-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Straub, M.

L. H. Nguyen, M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Acrylated-based photopolymer for two-photon microfarication and photonic applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 209-216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

H. B. Sun, K. Takada, M.S. Kim, K.S. Lee, and S. Kawata, "Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photo- polymerization nanofabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312-314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional micro- devices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H.B.

K. Takada, H.B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "The study on spatial resolution in two-photon induced polymerization," in Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics and Nano-Optics IV, E. G. Johnson, G. P. Nordin, T. J.Suleski eds, Proc. SPIE 6110, 611000A (2006).

Takada, K.

K. Takada, H.B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "The study on spatial resolution in two-photon induced polymerization," in Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics and Nano-Optics IV, E. G. Johnson, G. P. Nordin, T. J.Suleski eds, Proc. SPIE 6110, 611000A (2006).

H. B. Sun, K. Takada, M.S. Kim, K.S. Lee, and S. Kawata, "Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photo- polymerization nanofabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional micro- devices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeyasu, N.

F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, "Selective electroless plating to fabricate complex three-dimensional metallic micro/nanostructures," Appl.Phys.Lett. 88, 083110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, T.

F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, "Selective electroless plating to fabricate complex three-dimensional metallic micro/nanostructures," Appl.Phys.Lett. 88, 083110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312-314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional micro- devices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, C. Y. Wu, H. C. Guo, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, F. P. Wu, T. Wang, and M. Q. Shi,"Two-photon polymerization of gratings by interference of a femtosecond laser pulse," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 381-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, C. Y. Wu, H. C. Guo, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, F. P. Wu, T. Wang, and M. Q. Shi,"Two-photon polymerization of gratings by interference of a femtosecond laser pulse," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 381-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. Y.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, C. Y. Wu, H. C. Guo, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, F. P. Wu, T. Wang, and M. Q. Shi,"Two-photon polymerization of gratings by interference of a femtosecond laser pulse," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 381-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F. P.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, C. Y. Wu, H. C. Guo, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, F. P. Wu, T. Wang, and M. Q. Shi,"Two-photon polymerization of gratings by interference of a femtosecond laser pulse," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 381-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.Y.

S. H. Park, S.H. Lee, D.Y. Yang, H.J. Kong, and K.S. Lee, "Subregional slicing method to increase three-dimensional nanofabrication efficiency in two-photon polymerization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 154108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

F. J. Qi, Y. Li, H. C. Guo, H. Yang and Q. H. Gong, "Wavy lines in two-photon photopolymerization microfabrication", Optics Express 12, 4725-4730(2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, T.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, W.

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

L. H. Nguyen, M. Straub, and M. Gu, "Acrylated-based photopolymer for two-photon microfarication and photonic applications," Adv. Funct. Mater. 15, 209-216 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. B. Sun, K. Takada, M.S. Kim, K.S. Lee, and S. Kawata, "Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photo- polymerization nanofabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, S.H. Lee, D.Y. Yang, H.J. Kong, and K.S. Lee, "Subregional slicing method to increase three-dimensional nanofabrication efficiency in two-photon polymerization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 154108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, H. B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "Rapid sub-diffraction-limit laser micro/nanoprocessing in a threshold material system," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 312-314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl.Phys.Lett.

F. Formanek, N. Takeyasu, T. Tanaka, K. Chiyoda, A. Ishikawa, and S. Kawata, "Selective electroless plating to fabricate complex three-dimensional metallic micro/nanostructures," Appl.Phys.Lett. 88, 083110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

H. C. Guo, H. B. Jiang, L. Luo, C. Y. Wu, H. C. Guo, X. Wang, Q. H. Gong, F. P. Wu, T. Wang, and M. Q. Shi,"Two-photon polymerization of gratings by interference of a femtosecond laser pulse," Chem. Phys. Lett. 374, 381-384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano. Lett.

J.M. Kim and H. Muramatsu, "Two-photon photopolymerized tips for adhesion-free scanning-probe microscopy," Nano. Lett. 5, 309-314(2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology

S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Mima, and H. Misawa, "Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist," Nanotechnology 16, 846-849 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I.-Y.S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabriction," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional micro- devices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Optics Express

F. J. Qi, Y. Li, H. C. Guo, H. Yang and Q. H. Gong, "Wavy lines in two-photon photopolymerization microfabrication", Optics Express 12, 4725-4730(2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

K. Takada, H.B. Sun, and S. Kawata, "The study on spatial resolution in two-photon induced polymerization," in Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics and Nano-Optics IV, E. G. Johnson, G. P. Nordin, T. J.Suleski eds, Proc. SPIE 6110, 611000A (2006).

Science

W. Zhou, S. M. Kuebler, K. L. Braun, T. Yu, J. K. Cammack, C. K. Ober, J. W. Perry, and S. R. Marder, "An efficient two-photon-generated photoacid applied to positive-tone 3D microfabrication," Science 296, 1106-1109(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the fabrication of nanotips in y or z direction by power attenuation. The laser power was decreased by rotating a half wave plate before a Glan prism while the sample was moved along the y or z direction.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Polymerized nanotips in the y direction (a) or in the z direction (b). The tips were produced by gradually decreasing the laser power from 15mW to 5mW within 10s while the sample was moved at a speed of 5μm/s along the y or z direction.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) a tip and a line obtained between two juxtaposed rectangle structures. (b) and (c) are the enlarged image of the tip and the line, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Schematic of a large anchor with protuberances every 500nm (left) and a SEM image of the polymerized protuberances; (b) Schematic of a series of lines formed between two juxtaposed anchors with protuberances (left) and a SEM image of the produced lines (right).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Enlarged image of a line. The width of the middle of the line is around 20nm. (b) A nanotip obtained by cutting the line with the electron beam.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) A SEM image of a series of polymerized nanotips formed between two juxtaposed rectangles at the distance of 800nm; (b) Enlarged image of a pair of nanotips.

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