Abstract

Distributed feedback waveguide lasers based on dye-doped sol-gel zirconia films with permanent grating structures were demonstrated. The permanent grating was realized by employing a novel epoxy-based azo-polymer that generates a surface relief grating by a photo-isomerization process induced by two interfering writing beams. When employing the rhodamine 6G dye, tuning of the output wavelength of the distributed feedback waveguide laser from around 575 nm to 610 nm can be achieved by adjusting the tilting angle between the orientation of the grating and the pump beam.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. V. M. Katarkevich, A. N. Rubinov, S. A. Ryzhechkin, and T. Sh. Efendiev, "Compact holographic solid state distributed-feedback laser," Quantum Electron. 24, 871-873 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. J. Wadsworth, I. T. Mckinnie, A. D. Woolhouse, and T. G. Haskell, "Efficient distributed feedback solid state dye laser with a dynamic grating," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 69, 163-165 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. L. Zhu, S. K. Lam, and D. Lo, "Distributed-feedback dye-doped solgel silica lasers," Appl. Opt. 39, 3104-3107 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillman, and H.-H. Horhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with oligo phenylene vinylene model compounds,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2125 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. C. Righini and S. Pelli, "Sol-gel glass waveguides," J. Sol-Gel Sci.Technol. 8, 991-997 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Sorek, M. Zevin, R. Reisfeld, T. Hurvits, and S. Ruschin, "Zirconia and zirconia-ORMOSIL planar waveguides prepared at room temperature," Chem. Mater. 9, 670-676 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Ye, L. Shi, J. Wang, D. Lo, and X. L. Zhu, "Simultaneous generation of multiple pairs of transverse electric and transverse magnetic output modes from titania zirconia organically modified silicate distributed feedback waveguide lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4101-4103 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Ye, J. Wang, L. Shi, and D. Lo, "Polarization and threshold energy variation of distributed feedback lasing of oxazine dye in zirzonia waveguides and in solutions," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 78, 189-194 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, "Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography," Thin Solid Films 345, 185-187 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. H. J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, "Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography," Opt. Commun. 185, 19-24 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. J. Kang, J.-K. Kim, and B.-S. Bae, "Simple fabrication of diffraction gratings by two-beam interference method in highly photosensitive hybrid sol-gel films," Opt. Express 12, 3947-3953 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansoh, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, "Soft crosslinkable Azo polymer for rapid surface relief formation and persistent fixation," Adv. Mater. 13, 1693-1697 (2001).
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  21. N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface relief structures on azo polymer films," J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941-1955 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. X.-C. Yuan, W. X. Yu, N. Q. Ngo, and W. C. Cheong, "Cost-effective fabrication of microlenses on hybrid sol-gel glass with a high-energy beam-sensitive gray-scale mask," Opt. Express 10, 303-308 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  23. W. X. Yu, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, W. X. Que, W. C. Cheong, and K.V. Koudriachov, "Single-step fabrication of continuous surface relief micro-optical elements in hybrid sol-gel glass by laser direct writing," Opt. Express 10, 443-448 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  24. D. J. Kang, J. U. Park, B. S. Bae, J. Nishii and K. Kintaka, "Single-step photopatterning of diffraction," Opt. Express 11, 1144-1148 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. W. Yu and X. Yuan, "Variable surface profile gratings in sol-gel glass fabricated by holographic interference," Opt. Express 11, 1925-1930 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. G. S. Kumar and D. C. Neckers, "Photochemistry of azobenzene-containing polymers," Chem. Rev. 89, 1915-1925 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. Xie, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, "Recent developments in aromatic azo polymers research," Chem. Mater. 5, 403-411 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Y. He, X. Wang, and Q. Zhou, "Synthesis and characterization of a novel photo processible hyperbranched azo polymer," Syn. Met.,  132, 245-245 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  32. T. Ubukata, M. Hara, K. Ichimura, and T. Seki., "Phototactic Mass Transport in Polymer Films for micropatterning and alignment of functional materials," Adv. Mater. 16, 220-223 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  33. L. Rocha, V. Dumarcher, C. Denis, P. Raimond, C. Foirini, and J.-M. Nunzi, "Laser emission in periodically modulated polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3067-3069 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  34. T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, and F. Kajzar, "Fabrication of flexible distributed feedback laser using photoinduced surface relief grating on azo-polymer film as a template," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 41, L1386-1388 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  35. T. Ubukata, T. Isoshima, and M. Hara, "Wavelength-programmable organic distributed-feedback laser based on a photo assisted polymer-migration system," Adv. Mater. 17, 1630-1633 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  36. D. Wright, E. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, K. Iskra, T. Neger, and W. Kern, "All-optical tunability of holographically multiplexed organic distributed feedback lasers," Opt. Express 12, 325-330 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. Y. He, X. Wang, and Q. Zhou, "Epoxy-based azo polymer: synthesis, characterization and photo-induced surface-relief-gratings," Polymer 43, 7325-7333 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  38. A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, "Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers," Chem. Rev. 102, 4139-4175 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

T. Ubukata, T. Isoshima, and M. Hara, "Wavelength-programmable organic distributed-feedback laser based on a photo assisted polymer-migration system," Adv. Mater. 17, 1630-1633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

T. Ubukata, M. Hara, K. Ichimura, and T. Seki., "Phototactic Mass Transport in Polymer Films for micropatterning and alignment of functional materials," Adv. Mater. 16, 220-223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Ye, J. Wang, L. Shi, and D. Lo, "Polarization and threshold energy variation of distributed feedback lasing of oxazine dye in zirzonia waveguides and in solutions," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 78, 189-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Wright, E. Brasselet, J. Zyss, G. Langer, A. Pogantsch, K. Iskra, T. Neger, and W. Kern, "All-optical tunability of holographically multiplexed organic distributed feedback lasers," Opt. Express 12, 325-330 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Kang, J.-K. Kim, and B.-S. Bae, "Simple fabrication of diffraction gratings by two-beam interference method in highly photosensitive hybrid sol-gel films," Opt. Express 12, 3947-3953 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

C. Ye, L. Shi, J. Wang, D. Lo, and X. L. Zhu, "Simultaneous generation of multiple pairs of transverse electric and transverse magnetic output modes from titania zirconia organically modified silicate distributed feedback waveguide lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4101-4103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, X. Wang, and Q. Zhou, "Synthesis and characterization of a novel photo processible hyperbranched azo polymer," Syn. Met.,  132, 245-245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kang, J. U. Park, B. S. Bae, J. Nishii and K. Kintaka, "Single-step photopatterning of diffraction," Opt. Express 11, 1144-1148 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yu and X. Yuan, "Variable surface profile gratings in sol-gel glass fabricated by holographic interference," Opt. Express 11, 1925-1930 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

X.-C. Yuan, W. X. Yu, N. Q. Ngo, and W. C. Cheong, "Cost-effective fabrication of microlenses on hybrid sol-gel glass with a high-energy beam-sensitive gray-scale mask," Opt. Express 10, 303-308 (2002).
[PubMed]

W. X. Yu, X.-C. Yuan, N. Q. Ngo, W. X. Que, W. C. Cheong, and K.V. Koudriachov, "Single-step fabrication of continuous surface relief micro-optical elements in hybrid sol-gel glass by laser direct writing," Opt. Express 10, 443-448 (2002).
[PubMed]

T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, and F. Kajzar, "Fabrication of flexible distributed feedback laser using photoinduced surface relief grating on azo-polymer film as a template," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 41, L1386-1388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, X. Wang, and Q. Zhou, "Epoxy-based azo polymer: synthesis, characterization and photo-induced surface-relief-gratings," Polymer 43, 7325-7333 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, "Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers," Chem. Rev. 102, 4139-4175 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

L. Rocha, V. Dumarcher, C. Denis, P. Raimond, C. Foirini, and J.-M. Nunzi, "Laser emission in periodically modulated polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3067-3069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, "Soft crosslinkable Azo polymer for rapid surface relief formation and persistent fixation," Adv. Mater. 13, 1693-1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

H. J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, "Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography," Opt. Commun. 185, 19-24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillman, and H.-H. Horhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with oligo phenylene vinylene model compounds,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Zhu, S. K. Lam, and D. Lo, "Distributed-feedback dye-doped solgel silica lasers," Appl. Opt. 39, 3104-3107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (6)

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, "Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography," Thin Solid Films 345, 185-187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162, 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, P. Prosposito, and R. Pizzoferrato, "Optical investigation of infrared dyes in hybrid thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2172-2174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Del Monte, P. Cheben, C. P. Grover, and J. D. Mackenzie, "Preparation and optical characterization of thick-film zirconia and titania ormosils," J. Sol-Gel Sci.Technol. 15, 73-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface relief structures on azo polymer films," J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941-1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, I. T. Mckinnie, A. D. Woolhouse, and T. G. Haskell, "Efficient distributed feedback solid state dye laser with a dynamic grating," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 69, 163-165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, Y. Levy, and J.-P. Boilot, "Photoinscription of Surface Relief Gratings on Azo-Hybrid Gels," Adv. Mater. 10, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

G. C. Righini and S. Pelli, "Sol-gel glass waveguides," J. Sol-Gel Sci.Technol. 8, 991-997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sorek, M. Zevin, R. Reisfeld, T. Hurvits, and S. Ruschin, "Zirconia and zirconia-ORMOSIL planar waveguides prepared at room temperature," Chem. Mater. 9, 670-676 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Zevin and R. Reisfeld, "Preparation and properties of active waveguides based on zirconia glasses," Opt. Mater. 8, 37-41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Pinto and L. Esterowitz, "Distributed-feedback, tunable Ce3 + -doped colquiriite lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 205-207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansoh, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Ikeda, O. Tsutsumi, "Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films," Science 268, 1873-1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

V. M. Katarkevich, A. N. Rubinov, S. A. Ryzhechkin, and T. Sh. Efendiev, "Compact holographic solid state distributed-feedback laser," Quantum Electron. 24, 871-873 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. Xie, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, "Recent developments in aromatic azo polymers research," Chem. Mater. 5, 403-411 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

G. S. Kumar and D. C. Neckers, "Photochemistry of azobenzene-containing polymers," Chem. Rev. 89, 1915-1925 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1972 (1)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152-154 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Äyräs, P.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162, 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bae, B. S.

Bae, B.-S.

Batalla, E.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansoh, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bian, S.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface relief structures on azo polymer films," J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941-1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W. J.

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillman, and H.-H. Horhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with oligo phenylene vinylene model compounds,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boilot, J.-P.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, Y. Levy, and J.-P. Boilot, "Photoinscription of Surface Relief Gratings on Azo-Hybrid Gels," Adv. Mater. 10, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brasselet, E.

Casalboni, M.

M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, P. Prosposito, and R. Pizzoferrato, "Optical investigation of infrared dyes in hybrid thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2172-2174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, Y. C.

H. J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, "Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography," Opt. Commun. 185, 19-24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chaput, F.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, Y. Levy, and J.-P. Boilot, "Photoinscription of Surface Relief Gratings on Azo-Hybrid Gels," Adv. Mater. 10, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

F. Del Monte, P. Cheben, C. P. Grover, and J. D. Mackenzie, "Preparation and optical characterization of thick-film zirconia and titania ormosils," J. Sol-Gel Sci.Technol. 15, 73-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, W. C.

Darracq, B.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, Y. Levy, and J.-P. Boilot, "Photoinscription of Surface Relief Gratings on Azo-Hybrid Gels," Adv. Mater. 10, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De Matteis, F.

M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, P. Prosposito, and R. Pizzoferrato, "Optical investigation of infrared dyes in hybrid thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2172-2174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Del Monte, F.

F. Del Monte, P. Cheben, C. P. Grover, and J. D. Mackenzie, "Preparation and optical characterization of thick-film zirconia and titania ormosils," J. Sol-Gel Sci.Technol. 15, 73-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Denis, C.

L. Rocha, V. Dumarcher, C. Denis, P. Raimond, C. Foirini, and J.-M. Nunzi, "Laser emission in periodically modulated polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3067-3069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dumarcher, V.

L. Rocha, V. Dumarcher, C. Denis, P. Raimond, C. Foirini, and J.-M. Nunzi, "Laser emission in periodically modulated polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3067-3069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillman, and H.-H. Horhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with oligo phenylene vinylene model compounds,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Efendiev, T. Sh.

V. M. Katarkevich, A. N. Rubinov, S. A. Ryzhechkin, and T. Sh. Efendiev, "Compact holographic solid state distributed-feedback laser," Quantum Electron. 24, 871-873 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Esterowitz, L.

J. F. Pinto and L. Esterowitz, "Distributed-feedback, tunable Ce3 + -doped colquiriite lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 205-207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fallahi, M.

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, "Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography," Thin Solid Films 345, 185-187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fiorini, C.

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillman, and H.-H. Horhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with oligo phenylene vinylene model compounds,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foirini, C.

L. Rocha, V. Dumarcher, C. Denis, P. Raimond, C. Foirini, and J.-M. Nunzi, "Laser emission in periodically modulated polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3067-3069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grover, C. P.

F. Del Monte, P. Cheben, C. P. Grover, and J. D. Mackenzie, "Preparation and optical characterization of thick-film zirconia and titania ormosils," J. Sol-Gel Sci.Technol. 15, 73-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hara, M.

T. Ubukata, T. Isoshima, and M. Hara, "Wavelength-programmable organic distributed-feedback laser based on a photo assisted polymer-migration system," Adv. Mater. 17, 1630-1633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Ubukata, M. Hara, K. Ichimura, and T. Seki., "Phototactic Mass Transport in Polymer Films for micropatterning and alignment of functional materials," Adv. Mater. 16, 220-223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haskell, T. G.

W. J. Wadsworth, I. T. Mckinnie, A. D. Woolhouse, and T. G. Haskell, "Efficient distributed feedback solid state dye laser with a dynamic grating," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 69, 163-165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

Y. He, X. Wang, and Q. Zhou, "Synthesis and characterization of a novel photo processible hyperbranched azo polymer," Syn. Met.,  132, 245-245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, X. Wang, and Q. Zhou, "Epoxy-based azo polymer: synthesis, characterization and photo-induced surface-relief-gratings," Polymer 43, 7325-7333 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162, 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, "Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography," Thin Solid Films 345, 185-187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horhold, H.-H.

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillman, and H.-H. Horhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with oligo phenylene vinylene model compounds,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hurvits, T.

Y. Sorek, M. Zevin, R. Reisfeld, T. Hurvits, and S. Ruschin, "Zirconia and zirconia-ORMOSIL planar waveguides prepared at room temperature," Chem. Mater. 9, 670-676 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ichimura, K.

T. Ubukata, M. Hara, K. Ichimura, and T. Seki., "Phototactic Mass Transport in Polymer Films for micropatterning and alignment of functional materials," Adv. Mater. 16, 220-223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, "Soft crosslinkable Azo polymer for rapid surface relief formation and persistent fixation," Adv. Mater. 13, 1693-1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

T. Ikeda, O. Tsutsumi, "Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films," Science 268, 1873-1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iskra, K.

Isoshima, T.

T. Ubukata, T. Isoshima, and M. Hara, "Wavelength-programmable organic distributed-feedback laser based on a photo assisted polymer-migration system," Adv. Mater. 17, 1630-1633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. J.

H. J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, "Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography," Opt. Commun. 185, 19-24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, and F. Kajzar, "Fabrication of flexible distributed feedback laser using photoinduced surface relief grating on azo-polymer film as a template," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 41, L1386-1388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D. J.

Katarkevich, V. M.

V. M. Katarkevich, A. N. Rubinov, S. A. Ryzhechkin, and T. Sh. Efendiev, "Compact holographic solid state distributed-feedback laser," Quantum Electron. 24, 871-873 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kern, W.

Kim, D. Y.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface relief structures on azo polymer films," J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941-1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-K.

Kintaka, K.

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152-154 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Koudriachov, K.V.

Kretsch, K. P.

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillman, and H.-H. Horhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with oligo phenylene vinylene model compounds,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, G. S.

G. S. Kumar and D. C. Neckers, "Photochemistry of azobenzene-containing polymers," Chem. Rev. 89, 1915-1925 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface relief structures on azo polymer films," J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941-1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lahlil, K.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, Y. Levy, and J.-P. Boilot, "Photoinscription of Surface Relief Gratings on Azo-Hybrid Gels," Adv. Mater. 10, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lam, S. K.

Lam, Y. L.

H. J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, "Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography," Opt. Commun. 185, 19-24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Langer, G.

Levy, Y.

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, Y. Levy, and J.-P. Boilot, "Photoinscription of Surface Relief Gratings on Azo-Hybrid Gels," Adv. Mater. 10, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface relief structures on azo polymer films," J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941-1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface relief structures on azo polymer films," J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941-1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lo, D.

C. Ye, J. Wang, L. Shi, and D. Lo, "Polarization and threshold energy variation of distributed feedback lasing of oxazine dye in zirzonia waveguides and in solutions," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 78, 189-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Ye, L. Shi, J. Wang, D. Lo, and X. L. Zhu, "Simultaneous generation of multiple pairs of transverse electric and transverse magnetic output modes from titania zirconia organically modified silicate distributed feedback waveguide lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4101-4103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Zhu, S. K. Lam, and D. Lo, "Distributed-feedback dye-doped solgel silica lasers," Appl. Opt. 39, 3104-3107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mackenzie, J. D.

F. Del Monte, P. Cheben, C. P. Grover, and J. D. Mackenzie, "Preparation and optical characterization of thick-film zirconia and titania ormosils," J. Sol-Gel Sci.Technol. 15, 73-85 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, T.

T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, and F. Kajzar, "Fabrication of flexible distributed feedback laser using photoinduced surface relief grating on azo-polymer film as a template," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 41, L1386-1388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mckinnie, I. T.

W. J. Wadsworth, I. T. Mckinnie, A. D. Woolhouse, and T. G. Haskell, "Efficient distributed feedback solid state dye laser with a dynamic grating," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 69, 163-165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Memdes, S. B.

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162, 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Natansoh, A.

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansoh, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Natansohn, A.

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, "Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers," Chem. Rev. 102, 4139-4175 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xie, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, "Recent developments in aromatic azo polymers research," Chem. Mater. 5, 403-411 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Neckers, D. C.

G. S. Kumar and D. C. Neckers, "Photochemistry of azobenzene-containing polymers," Chem. Rev. 89, 1915-1925 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Neger, T.

Ngo, N. Q.

Nikolova, L.

Nishii, J.

Nunzi, J.-M.

L. Rocha, V. Dumarcher, C. Denis, P. Raimond, C. Foirini, and J.-M. Nunzi, "Laser emission in periodically modulated polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3067-3069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillman, and H.-H. Horhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with oligo phenylene vinylene model compounds,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, and F. Kajzar, "Fabrication of flexible distributed feedback laser using photoinduced surface relief grating on azo-polymer film as a template," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 41, L1386-1388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. U.

Pelli, S.

G. C. Righini and S. Pelli, "Sol-gel glass waveguides," J. Sol-Gel Sci.Technol. 8, 991-997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Penner, R. S.

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, "Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography," Thin Solid Films 345, 185-187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, "Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography," Thin Solid Films 345, 185-187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162, 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, S.

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillman, and H.-H. Horhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with oligo phenylene vinylene model compounds,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, J. F.

J. F. Pinto and L. Esterowitz, "Distributed-feedback, tunable Ce3 + -doped colquiriite lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 205-207 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pizzoferrato, R.

M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, P. Prosposito, and R. Pizzoferrato, "Optical investigation of infrared dyes in hybrid thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2172-2174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pogantsch, A.

Prosposito, P.

M. Casalboni, F. De Matteis, P. Prosposito, and R. Pizzoferrato, "Optical investigation of infrared dyes in hybrid thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2172-2174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Que, W. X.

Raimond, P.

L. Rocha, V. Dumarcher, C. Denis, P. Raimond, C. Foirini, and J.-M. Nunzi, "Laser emission in periodically modulated polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3067-3069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rantala, J. T.

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, "Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography," Thin Solid Films 345, 185-187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Äyräs, J. T. Rantala, S. Honkanen, S. B. Memdes, and N. Peyghambarian, "Diffraction gratings in sol-gel films by direct contact printing using a UV-mercury lamp," Opt. Commun. 162, 215-218 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reisfeld, R.

Y. Sorek, M. Zevin, R. Reisfeld, T. Hurvits, and S. Ruschin, "Zirconia and zirconia-ORMOSIL planar waveguides prepared at room temperature," Chem. Mater. 9, 670-676 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Zevin and R. Reisfeld, "Preparation and properties of active waveguides based on zirconia glasses," Opt. Mater. 8, 37-41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Righini, G. C.

G. C. Righini and S. Pelli, "Sol-gel glass waveguides," J. Sol-Gel Sci.Technol. 8, 991-997 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rocha, L.

L. Rocha, V. Dumarcher, C. Denis, P. Raimond, C. Foirini, and J.-M. Nunzi, "Laser emission in periodically modulated polymer films," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 3067-3069 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillman, and H.-H. Horhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with oligo phenylene vinylene model compounds,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rochon, P.

A. Natansohn and P. Rochon, "Photoinduced motions in azo-containing polymers," Chem. Rev. 102, 4139-4175 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rochon, E. Batalla, and A. Natansoh, "Optically induced surface gratings on azoaromatic polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 136-138 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Xie, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, "Recent developments in aromatic azo polymers research," Chem. Mater. 5, 403-411 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rubinov, A. N.

V. M. Katarkevich, A. N. Rubinov, S. A. Ryzhechkin, and T. Sh. Efendiev, "Compact holographic solid state distributed-feedback laser," Quantum Electron. 24, 871-873 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ruschin, S.

Y. Sorek, M. Zevin, R. Reisfeld, T. Hurvits, and S. Ruschin, "Zirconia and zirconia-ORMOSIL planar waveguides prepared at room temperature," Chem. Mater. 9, 670-676 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ryzhechkin, S. A.

V. M. Katarkevich, A. N. Rubinov, S. A. Ryzhechkin, and T. Sh. Efendiev, "Compact holographic solid state distributed-feedback laser," Quantum Electron. 24, 871-873 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Samuelson, L.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface relief structures on azo polymer films," J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941-1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seki, T.

T. Ubukata, M. Hara, K. Ichimura, and T. Seki., "Phototactic Mass Transport in Polymer Films for micropatterning and alignment of functional materials," Adv. Mater. 16, 220-223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, "Soft crosslinkable Azo polymer for rapid surface relief formation and persistent fixation," Adv. Mater. 13, 1693-1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, "Stimulated emission in a periodic structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 152-154 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

C. Ye, J. Wang, L. Shi, and D. Lo, "Polarization and threshold energy variation of distributed feedback lasing of oxazine dye in zirzonia waveguides and in solutions," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 78, 189-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Ye, L. Shi, J. Wang, D. Lo, and X. L. Zhu, "Simultaneous generation of multiple pairs of transverse electric and transverse magnetic output modes from titania zirconia organically modified silicate distributed feedback waveguide lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4101-4103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sorek, Y.

Y. Sorek, M. Zevin, R. Reisfeld, T. Hurvits, and S. Ruschin, "Zirconia and zirconia-ORMOSIL planar waveguides prepared at room temperature," Chem. Mater. 9, 670-676 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tillman, H.

K. P. Kretsch, W. J. Blau, V. Dumarcher, L. Rocha, C. Fiorini, J.-M. Nunzi, S. Pfeiffer, H. Tillman, and H.-H. Horhold, "Distributed feedback laser action from polymeric waveguides doped with oligo phenylene vinylene model compounds,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2149-2125 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Todorov, T.

Tomova, A.

Tripathy, S. K.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface relief structures on azo polymer films," J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941-1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, S. K. Tripathy, L. Li, and J. Kumar, "Laser-induced holographic surface relief gratings on nonlinear optical polymer films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1166-1168 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, O.

T. Ikeda, O. Tsutsumi, "Optical switching and image storage by means of azobenzene liquid-crystal films," Science 268, 1873-1875 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ubukata, T.

T. Ubukata, T. Isoshima, and M. Hara, "Wavelength-programmable organic distributed-feedback laser based on a photo assisted polymer-migration system," Adv. Mater. 17, 1630-1633 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Ubukata, M. Hara, K. Ichimura, and T. Seki., "Phototactic Mass Transport in Polymer Films for micropatterning and alignment of functional materials," Adv. Mater. 16, 220-223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, "Soft crosslinkable Azo polymer for rapid surface relief formation and persistent fixation," Adv. Mater. 13, 1693-1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vähäkangas, J.

J. T. Rantala, R. S. Penner, S. Honkanen, J. Vähäkangas, M. Fallahi, and N. Peyghambarian, "Negative tone hybrid sol-gel material for electron-beam lithography," Thin Solid Films 345, 185-187 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Viswanathan, N. K.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface relief structures on azo polymer films," J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941-1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

W. J. Wadsworth, I. T. Mckinnie, A. D. Woolhouse, and T. G. Haskell, "Efficient distributed feedback solid state dye laser with a dynamic grating," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 69, 163-165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

C. Ye, J. Wang, L. Shi, and D. Lo, "Polarization and threshold energy variation of distributed feedback lasing of oxazine dye in zirzonia waveguides and in solutions," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 78, 189-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Ye, L. Shi, J. Wang, D. Lo, and X. L. Zhu, "Simultaneous generation of multiple pairs of transverse electric and transverse magnetic output modes from titania zirconia organically modified silicate distributed feedback waveguide lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4101-4103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Y. He, X. Wang, and Q. Zhou, "Synthesis and characterization of a novel photo processible hyperbranched azo polymer," Syn. Met.,  132, 245-245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, X. Wang, and Q. Zhou, "Epoxy-based azo polymer: synthesis, characterization and photo-induced surface-relief-gratings," Polymer 43, 7325-7333 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J.

N. K. Viswanathan, D. Y. Kim, S. Bian, J. Williams, W. Liu, L. Li, L. Samuelson, J. Kumar and S. K. Tripathy, "Surface relief structures on azo polymer films," J. Mater. Chem. 9, 1941-1955 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Woolhouse, A. D.

W. J. Wadsworth, I. T. Mckinnie, A. D. Woolhouse, and T. G. Haskell, "Efficient distributed feedback solid state dye laser with a dynamic grating," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 69, 163-165 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wright, D.

Xie, S.

S. Xie, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, "Recent developments in aromatic azo polymers research," Chem. Mater. 5, 403-411 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C.

C. Ye, J. Wang, L. Shi, and D. Lo, "Polarization and threshold energy variation of distributed feedback lasing of oxazine dye in zirzonia waveguides and in solutions," Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 78, 189-194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Ye, L. Shi, J. Wang, D. Lo, and X. L. Zhu, "Simultaneous generation of multiple pairs of transverse electric and transverse magnetic output modes from titania zirconia organically modified silicate distributed feedback waveguide lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4101-4103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, and F. Kajzar, "Fabrication of flexible distributed feedback laser using photoinduced surface relief grating on azo-polymer film as a template," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 41, L1386-1388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W.

Yu, W. X.

Yuan, X.

Yuan, X.-C.

Zettsu, N.

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, "Soft crosslinkable Azo polymer for rapid surface relief formation and persistent fixation," Adv. Mater. 13, 1693-1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zevin, M.

M. Zevin and R. Reisfeld, "Preparation and properties of active waveguides based on zirconia glasses," Opt. Mater. 8, 37-41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sorek, M. Zevin, R. Reisfeld, T. Hurvits, and S. Ruschin, "Zirconia and zirconia-ORMOSIL planar waveguides prepared at room temperature," Chem. Mater. 9, 670-676 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

Y. He, X. Wang, and Q. Zhou, "Synthesis and characterization of a novel photo processible hyperbranched azo polymer," Syn. Met.,  132, 245-245 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. He, X. Wang, and Q. Zhou, "Epoxy-based azo polymer: synthesis, characterization and photo-induced surface-relief-gratings," Polymer 43, 7325-7333 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

H. J. Jiang, X.-C. Yuan, Y. Zhou, Y. C. Chan, and Y. L. Lam, "Single-step fabrication of diffraction gratings on hybrid sol-gel glass using holographic interference lithography," Opt. Commun. 185, 19-24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X. L.

C. Ye, L. Shi, J. Wang, D. Lo, and X. L. Zhu, "Simultaneous generation of multiple pairs of transverse electric and transverse magnetic output modes from titania zirconia organically modified silicate distributed feedback waveguide lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4101-4103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Zhu, S. K. Lam, and D. Lo, "Distributed-feedback dye-doped solgel silica lasers," Appl. Opt. 39, 3104-3107 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zyss, J.

Adv. Mater. (4)

B. Darracq, F. Chaput, K. Lahlil, Y. Levy, and J.-P. Boilot, "Photoinscription of Surface Relief Gratings on Azo-Hybrid Gels," Adv. Mater. 10, 1133-1136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Zettsu, T. Ubukata, T. Seki, and K. Ichimura, "Soft crosslinkable Azo polymer for rapid surface relief formation and persistent fixation," Adv. Mater. 13, 1693-1697 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Ubukata, M. Hara, K. Ichimura, and T. Seki., "Phototactic Mass Transport in Polymer Films for micropatterning and alignment of functional materials," Adv. Mater. 16, 220-223 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental arrangement for the formation of the surface relief grating.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diffraction efficiency of the surface relief grating as a function of the exposure time.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

AFM image of the surface relief grating formed on a BP-AZ-CA azo polymer film.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependence of the lasing output intensity on the pump energy

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

DFB laser emission from R6G-doped zirconia thin film waveguides of different grating periods.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Laser output spectrum for a circularly polarized pumping. The two distinct peaks are identified as corresponding to the TE0 and TM0 waveguide modes.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Dependence of the DFB laser output wavelength on the angle between the SRG direction and the long side of the focused pump beam spot.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Λ = λ w 2 sin θ ,
Λ = M λ p sin θ ± sinϕ ,
λ L = 2 n Λ M ,
Λ eff = Λ cos ψ ,
λ L = 2 n Λ M cos ψ .

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