Abstract

Soft glass photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) have been fabricated for the first time with the stack and draw process. The same SF6-PCFs have been successfully tapered using a brush flame method. The transverse structure of the PCF does not collapse in the tapering process and core dimensions of the fabricated photonic nanowire has been measured to be 400 nm in diameter. Supercontinuum radiation in excess of one octave has been generated in both the untapered and tapered PCF and, in the latter case, pulse energy thresholds of 65 picojoules at a pump wavelength of 1550 nm were observed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys., 78,1135–1184 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. D. V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, I. T. Sorokina, V. V. R. Kumar, A. K. George, “Low-threshold supercontinuum generation from an extruded SF6- PCF using a compact Cr4+: YAG laser,” App. Phys. B 79,591–596 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Hundertmark, D. Kracht, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, V. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, “Supercontinuum generation with 200 pJ laser pulses in an extruded SF6 fiber at 1560 nm,” Opt. Express 11,3196–3201 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Petropoulos, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, V. Finazzi, R. Moore, K. Frampton, D. J. Richardson, T. M. Monro, “Highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive lead silicate glass holey fibers,” Opt. Express, 11,3568–3573 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Hori, J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, “Flatly broadened, wideband and low noise supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear hybrid fiber,” Opt. Express 12,317–324 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. V. Kumar, A. K. George, W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, “Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 10,1520–1525 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  7. F. G. Omenetto, N. A. Wolchover, et al., Opt. Express, “Spectrally smooth supercontinuum from 350 nm to 3 μm in sub-centimeter lengths of soft-glass photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 14,4928–4934 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Z. Guiyao, H. Zhiyun, L. Shuguang, H. Lantian, “Fabrication of glass photonic crystal fibers with a die-cast process,” Appl. Optics 45,4433–4436 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, et al., “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source,” JOSA B 19,2148–2155 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, et al., “Two-octave spectral broadening of subnanojoule Cr : forsterite femtosecond laser pulses in tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. B, 74307–311 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Zaharieva Maxwell, E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426,816–819 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. A. Foster, J. Dudley, B. Kibler, Cao et al., “Nonlinear pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic nanowires: experiment and simulation,” Appl. Phys. B, 81,363–367 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys., 78,1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Guiyao, H. Zhiyun, L. Shuguang, H. Lantian, “Fabrication of glass photonic crystal fibers with a die-cast process,” Appl. Optics 45,4433–4436 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. G. Omenetto, N. A. Wolchover, et al., Opt. Express, “Spectrally smooth supercontinuum from 350 nm to 3 μm in sub-centimeter lengths of soft-glass photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 14,4928–4934 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. A. Foster, J. Dudley, B. Kibler, Cao et al., “Nonlinear pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic nanowires: experiment and simulation,” Appl. Phys. B, 81,363–367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. D. V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, I. T. Sorokina, V. V. R. Kumar, A. K. George, “Low-threshold supercontinuum generation from an extruded SF6- PCF using a compact Cr4+: YAG laser,” App. Phys. B 79,591–596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Hori, J. Takayanagi, N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, “Flatly broadened, wideband and low noise supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear hybrid fiber,” Opt. Express 12,317–324 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

V. Kumar, A. K. George, W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. S. Russell, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, “Extruded soft glass photonic crystal fiber for ultrabroad supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 10,1520–1525 (2002).
[PubMed]

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, et al., “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source,” JOSA B 19,2148–2155 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, et al., “Two-octave spectral broadening of subnanojoule Cr : forsterite femtosecond laser pulses in tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. B, 74307–311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, D. A.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, et al., “Two-octave spectral broadening of subnanojoule Cr : forsterite femtosecond laser pulses in tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. B, 74307–311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alfimov, M. V.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, et al., “Two-octave spectral broadening of subnanojoule Cr : forsterite femtosecond laser pulses in tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. B, 74307–311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Zaharieva Maxwell, E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426,816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys., 78,1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J.

M. A. Foster, J. Dudley, B. Kibler, Cao et al., “Nonlinear pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic nanowires: experiment and simulation,” Appl. Phys. B, 81,363–367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys., 78,1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

Fallnich, C.

Finazzi, V.

Foster, M. A.

M. A. Foster, J. Dudley, B. Kibler, Cao et al., “Nonlinear pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic nanowires: experiment and simulation,” Appl. Phys. B, 81,363–367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frampton, K.

Gattass, R. R.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Zaharieva Maxwell, E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426,816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys., 78,1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

George, A. K.

Goto, T.

Guiyao, Z.

Z. Guiyao, H. Zhiyun, L. Shuguang, H. Lantian, “Fabrication of glass photonic crystal fibers with a die-cast process,” Appl. Optics 45,4433–4436 (2006).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Zaharieva Maxwell, E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426,816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hori, T.

Hundertmark, H.

Ivanov, A. A.

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, et al., “Two-octave spectral broadening of subnanojoule Cr : forsterite femtosecond laser pulses in tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. B, 74307–311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kalashnikov, M. D. V. L.

M. D. V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, I. T. Sorokina, V. V. R. Kumar, A. K. George, “Low-threshold supercontinuum generation from an extruded SF6- PCF using a compact Cr4+: YAG laser,” App. Phys. B 79,591–596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kibler, B.

M. A. Foster, J. Dudley, B. Kibler, Cao et al., “Nonlinear pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic nanowires: experiment and simulation,” Appl. Phys. B, 81,363–367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

Kracht, D.

Kumar, V.

Kumar, V. V. R.

M. D. V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, I. T. Sorokina, V. V. R. Kumar, A. K. George, “Low-threshold supercontinuum generation from an extruded SF6- PCF using a compact Cr4+: YAG laser,” App. Phys. B 79,591–596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lantian, H.

Z. Guiyao, H. Zhiyun, L. Shuguang, H. Lantian, “Fabrication of glass photonic crystal fibers with a die-cast process,” Appl. Optics 45,4433–4436 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lou, J.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Zaharieva Maxwell, E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426,816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Zaharieva Maxwell, E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426,816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monro, T. M.

Moore, R.

Naumov, S.

M. D. V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, I. T. Sorokina, V. V. R. Kumar, A. K. George, “Low-threshold supercontinuum generation from an extruded SF6- PCF using a compact Cr4+: YAG laser,” App. Phys. B 79,591–596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, N.

Omenetto, F. G.

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, et al., “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source,” JOSA B 19,2148–2155 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

Reeves, W. H.

Richardson, D. J.

Russell, P. S.

Shen, M.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Zaharieva Maxwell, E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426,816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shuguang, L.

Z. Guiyao, H. Zhiyun, L. Shuguang, H. Lantian, “Fabrication of glass photonic crystal fibers with a die-cast process,” Appl. Optics 45,4433–4436 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sorokin, E.

M. D. V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, I. T. Sorokina, V. V. R. Kumar, A. K. George, “Low-threshold supercontinuum generation from an extruded SF6- PCF using a compact Cr4+: YAG laser,” App. Phys. B 79,591–596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sorokina, I. T.

M. D. V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, I. T. Sorokina, V. V. R. Kumar, A. K. George, “Low-threshold supercontinuum generation from an extruded SF6- PCF using a compact Cr4+: YAG laser,” App. Phys. B 79,591–596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takayanagi, J.

Taylor, A. J.

Tong, L.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Zaharieva Maxwell, E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426,816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, et al., “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source,” JOSA B 19,2148–2155 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wandt, D.

Wolchover, N. A.

Zaharieva Maxwell, I.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Zaharieva Maxwell, E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426,816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhiyun, H.

Z. Guiyao, H. Zhiyun, L. Shuguang, H. Lantian, “Fabrication of glass photonic crystal fibers with a die-cast process,” Appl. Optics 45,4433–4436 (2006).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. B

M. D. V. L. Kalashnikov, E. Sorokin, S. Naumov, I. T. Sorokina, V. V. R. Kumar, A. K. George, “Low-threshold supercontinuum generation from an extruded SF6- PCF using a compact Cr4+: YAG laser,” App. Phys. B 79,591–596 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Optics

Z. Guiyao, H. Zhiyun, L. Shuguang, H. Lantian, “Fabrication of glass photonic crystal fibers with a die-cast process,” Appl. Optics 45,4433–4436 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

D. A. Akimov, A. A. Ivanov, M. V. Alfimov, et al., “Two-octave spectral broadening of subnanojoule Cr : forsterite femtosecond laser pulses in tapered fibers,” Appl. Phys. B, 74307–311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, J. Dudley, B. Kibler, Cao et al., “Nonlinear pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in photonic nanowires: experiment and simulation,” Appl. Phys. B, 81,363–367 (2005).
[CrossRef]

JOSA B

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, et al., “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: a novel light source,” JOSA B 19,2148–2155 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Zaharieva Maxwell, E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426,816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Rev. Mod. Phys.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys., 78,1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Microscope image of the cross section of stacked and drawn high-Δ SF6 PCF used in the experiments.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Supercontinuum trace from coupling 35 mW in a 6 mm segment of the SF6-PCF shown in Fig. 1. The supercontinuum is generated in a self-phase modulation dominated regime and is lacking typical spectral structure associated to high order nonlinear effects.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Scanning electron microscope image of the cross section of the tapered SF6-PCF. The supporting structure is still present and the core measures to be 400 nanometers across.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Supercontinuum trace generated in (a) an untapered 4 cm segment of PCF and (b) in an equally long piece of PCF with a tapered tip. The length of the tapered fiber is Z=z1+z2=4 cm with the length of the untapered part z1=3.5 cm and where z2 represents the length of the tapered segment of the PCF z2=5 mm. Both traces shown are measured for average powers in the fiber equal to 15 mW. Supercontinuum is convincingly generated in the tapered PCF as opposed to the slight broadening occurring in the untapered piece.

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