Abstract

This paper presents the experimental study on an inductive mesh composed of contiguous metallic rings fabricated using UV-lithography on quartz glass. Experimental results indicate that, at the same period and linewidth as square mesh, ring mesh has better transmissivity for its higher obscuration ratio, stronger electromagnetic shielding performance for its smaller maximum aperture, and less degradation of imaging quality for its lower ratio and uniform distribution of high order diffraction energy. It is therefore concluded that this kind of ring mesh can be used as high-pass filters to provide electromagnetic shielding of optical transparent elements.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. A. Smith, M. Rebbert, and O. Sternberg, "Designer infrared filters using stacked metal lattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3605-3607(2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. P. Drupp, J. A. Bossard, and Y. H. Ye, "Dual-band infrared single-layer metallodielectric photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1835-1837(2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. D. Mõller, O. Sternberg, H. Grebel, and K. P. Stewart, "Inductive cross-shaped metal meshes and dielectrics," Appl. Opt. 41, 3919-3926(2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Z. G. Lu, J. B. Tan, Y. M. Liu, J. Liu, and H. Zhang, "Influence of substrate on shielding effectiveness of metallic mesh under oblique incidence condition," Opt. Precis. Eng. 14, 360-367(2006).
  5. M. Kohin, S. J. Wein, J. D. Traylor, R. C. Chase, and J. E. Chapman, "Analysis and design of transparent conductive coatings and filters," Opt. Eng. 32, 911-925(1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. J. Noll, "Some trade issues for EMI windows," in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials IV, P. Klocek, eds., Proc. SPIE 2286, 403-410(1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Topsakal, and J. L. Volakis, "On the properties of materials for designing filters at optical frequencies," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Antennas and Propagation (2003), pp. 635 - 638.
  8. K. Yutaka, T. Masaharu, and A. Minoru, "Electromagnetic cutoff by metallic lines on the glass," Electron. Commun. Jpn, Part 1,  85, 45-52(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. E. Paul, C. Zhu, J. C. Love, and G. M. Whitesides, "Fabrication of mid-infrared frequency-selective surfaces by soft lithography," Appl. Opt. 40, 4557-4561 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. A. Parker, C. Antonopoulos, and N. E. Simpson, "Microwave band FSS in optically transparent conducting layers: performance of ring element arrays," Micro. Opt. Tech. Lett. 16, 61-63 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Misran, R. Cahill, and V. F. Fusco, "Design optimization of ring elements for broadband reflectarray antennas," inProceedings of IEE Conference on Antennas and Propagation 150, 440-444 (2003).
  12. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1968).
  13. R. Ulrich, "Far-infrared properties of metallic mesh and its complementary structure,"Infrared Phys. 7, 37-55 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. W. Lee, G. Zarrillo, and C. L. Law, "Simple formulas for transmission through periodic metal grids or plates," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 30, 904-909(1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. B. Whitbourn, and R. C. Compton, "Equivalent-circuit for metal grid reflectors at a dielectric boundary," Appl. Opt. 24, 217-220 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Z. G. Lu, J. B. Tan, P. Jin, and J. Liu, "Equivalent refractive index model on shielding effectiveness analysis of high transparency metallic mesh," Opt. Precis. Eng. 14, 949-954(2006).

2006

Z. G. Lu, J. B. Tan, Y. M. Liu, J. Liu, and H. Zhang, "Influence of substrate on shielding effectiveness of metallic mesh under oblique incidence condition," Opt. Precis. Eng. 14, 360-367(2006).

Z. G. Lu, J. B. Tan, P. Jin, and J. Liu, "Equivalent refractive index model on shielding effectiveness analysis of high transparency metallic mesh," Opt. Precis. Eng. 14, 949-954(2006).

2004

R. P. Drupp, J. A. Bossard, and Y. H. Ye, "Dual-band infrared single-layer metallodielectric photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1835-1837(2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

N. Misran, R. Cahill, and V. F. Fusco, "Design optimization of ring elements for broadband reflectarray antennas," inProceedings of IEE Conference on Antennas and Propagation 150, 440-444 (2003).

H. A. Smith, M. Rebbert, and O. Sternberg, "Designer infrared filters using stacked metal lattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3605-3607(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. Yutaka, T. Masaharu, and A. Minoru, "Electromagnetic cutoff by metallic lines on the glass," Electron. Commun. Jpn, Part 1,  85, 45-52(2002).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mõller, O. Sternberg, H. Grebel, and K. P. Stewart, "Inductive cross-shaped metal meshes and dielectrics," Appl. Opt. 41, 3919-3926(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

1997

E. A. Parker, C. Antonopoulos, and N. E. Simpson, "Microwave band FSS in optically transparent conducting layers: performance of ring element arrays," Micro. Opt. Tech. Lett. 16, 61-63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. Kohin, S. J. Wein, J. D. Traylor, R. C. Chase, and J. E. Chapman, "Analysis and design of transparent conductive coatings and filters," Opt. Eng. 32, 911-925(1993).
[CrossRef]

1985

1982

S. W. Lee, G. Zarrillo, and C. L. Law, "Simple formulas for transmission through periodic metal grids or plates," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 30, 904-909(1982).
[CrossRef]

1967

R. Ulrich, "Far-infrared properties of metallic mesh and its complementary structure,"Infrared Phys. 7, 37-55 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Antonopoulos, C.

E. A. Parker, C. Antonopoulos, and N. E. Simpson, "Microwave band FSS in optically transparent conducting layers: performance of ring element arrays," Micro. Opt. Tech. Lett. 16, 61-63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bossard, J. A.

R. P. Drupp, J. A. Bossard, and Y. H. Ye, "Dual-band infrared single-layer metallodielectric photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1835-1837(2004).
[CrossRef]

Cahill, R.

N. Misran, R. Cahill, and V. F. Fusco, "Design optimization of ring elements for broadband reflectarray antennas," inProceedings of IEE Conference on Antennas and Propagation 150, 440-444 (2003).

Chapman, J. E.

M. Kohin, S. J. Wein, J. D. Traylor, R. C. Chase, and J. E. Chapman, "Analysis and design of transparent conductive coatings and filters," Opt. Eng. 32, 911-925(1993).
[CrossRef]

Chase, R. C.

M. Kohin, S. J. Wein, J. D. Traylor, R. C. Chase, and J. E. Chapman, "Analysis and design of transparent conductive coatings and filters," Opt. Eng. 32, 911-925(1993).
[CrossRef]

Compton, R. C.

Drupp, R. P.

R. P. Drupp, J. A. Bossard, and Y. H. Ye, "Dual-band infrared single-layer metallodielectric photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1835-1837(2004).
[CrossRef]

Fusco, V. F.

N. Misran, R. Cahill, and V. F. Fusco, "Design optimization of ring elements for broadband reflectarray antennas," inProceedings of IEE Conference on Antennas and Propagation 150, 440-444 (2003).

Grebel, H.

Jin, P.

Z. G. Lu, J. B. Tan, P. Jin, and J. Liu, "Equivalent refractive index model on shielding effectiveness analysis of high transparency metallic mesh," Opt. Precis. Eng. 14, 949-954(2006).

Kohin, M.

M. Kohin, S. J. Wein, J. D. Traylor, R. C. Chase, and J. E. Chapman, "Analysis and design of transparent conductive coatings and filters," Opt. Eng. 32, 911-925(1993).
[CrossRef]

Law, C. L.

S. W. Lee, G. Zarrillo, and C. L. Law, "Simple formulas for transmission through periodic metal grids or plates," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 30, 904-909(1982).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. W.

S. W. Lee, G. Zarrillo, and C. L. Law, "Simple formulas for transmission through periodic metal grids or plates," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 30, 904-909(1982).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

Z. G. Lu, J. B. Tan, P. Jin, and J. Liu, "Equivalent refractive index model on shielding effectiveness analysis of high transparency metallic mesh," Opt. Precis. Eng. 14, 949-954(2006).

Z. G. Lu, J. B. Tan, Y. M. Liu, J. Liu, and H. Zhang, "Influence of substrate on shielding effectiveness of metallic mesh under oblique incidence condition," Opt. Precis. Eng. 14, 360-367(2006).

Liu, Y. M.

Z. G. Lu, J. B. Tan, Y. M. Liu, J. Liu, and H. Zhang, "Influence of substrate on shielding effectiveness of metallic mesh under oblique incidence condition," Opt. Precis. Eng. 14, 360-367(2006).

Love, J. C.

Lu, Z. G.

Z. G. Lu, J. B. Tan, Y. M. Liu, J. Liu, and H. Zhang, "Influence of substrate on shielding effectiveness of metallic mesh under oblique incidence condition," Opt. Precis. Eng. 14, 360-367(2006).

Z. G. Lu, J. B. Tan, P. Jin, and J. Liu, "Equivalent refractive index model on shielding effectiveness analysis of high transparency metallic mesh," Opt. Precis. Eng. 14, 949-954(2006).

Masaharu, T.

K. Yutaka, T. Masaharu, and A. Minoru, "Electromagnetic cutoff by metallic lines on the glass," Electron. Commun. Jpn, Part 1,  85, 45-52(2002).
[CrossRef]

Minoru, A.

K. Yutaka, T. Masaharu, and A. Minoru, "Electromagnetic cutoff by metallic lines on the glass," Electron. Commun. Jpn, Part 1,  85, 45-52(2002).
[CrossRef]

Misran, N.

N. Misran, R. Cahill, and V. F. Fusco, "Design optimization of ring elements for broadband reflectarray antennas," inProceedings of IEE Conference on Antennas and Propagation 150, 440-444 (2003).

Mõller, K. D.

Parker, E. A.

E. A. Parker, C. Antonopoulos, and N. E. Simpson, "Microwave band FSS in optically transparent conducting layers: performance of ring element arrays," Micro. Opt. Tech. Lett. 16, 61-63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paul, K. E.

Rebbert, M.

H. A. Smith, M. Rebbert, and O. Sternberg, "Designer infrared filters using stacked metal lattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3605-3607(2003).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, N. E.

E. A. Parker, C. Antonopoulos, and N. E. Simpson, "Microwave band FSS in optically transparent conducting layers: performance of ring element arrays," Micro. Opt. Tech. Lett. 16, 61-63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. A.

H. A. Smith, M. Rebbert, and O. Sternberg, "Designer infrared filters using stacked metal lattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3605-3607(2003).
[CrossRef]

Sternberg, O.

H. A. Smith, M. Rebbert, and O. Sternberg, "Designer infrared filters using stacked metal lattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3605-3607(2003).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Mõller, O. Sternberg, H. Grebel, and K. P. Stewart, "Inductive cross-shaped metal meshes and dielectrics," Appl. Opt. 41, 3919-3926(2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, K. P.

Tan, J. B.

Z. G. Lu, J. B. Tan, Y. M. Liu, J. Liu, and H. Zhang, "Influence of substrate on shielding effectiveness of metallic mesh under oblique incidence condition," Opt. Precis. Eng. 14, 360-367(2006).

Z. G. Lu, J. B. Tan, P. Jin, and J. Liu, "Equivalent refractive index model on shielding effectiveness analysis of high transparency metallic mesh," Opt. Precis. Eng. 14, 949-954(2006).

Traylor, J. D.

M. Kohin, S. J. Wein, J. D. Traylor, R. C. Chase, and J. E. Chapman, "Analysis and design of transparent conductive coatings and filters," Opt. Eng. 32, 911-925(1993).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich, "Far-infrared properties of metallic mesh and its complementary structure,"Infrared Phys. 7, 37-55 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Wein, S. J.

M. Kohin, S. J. Wein, J. D. Traylor, R. C. Chase, and J. E. Chapman, "Analysis and design of transparent conductive coatings and filters," Opt. Eng. 32, 911-925(1993).
[CrossRef]

Whitbourn, L. B.

Whitesides, G. M.

Ye, Y. H.

R. P. Drupp, J. A. Bossard, and Y. H. Ye, "Dual-band infrared single-layer metallodielectric photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1835-1837(2004).
[CrossRef]

Yutaka, K.

K. Yutaka, T. Masaharu, and A. Minoru, "Electromagnetic cutoff by metallic lines on the glass," Electron. Commun. Jpn, Part 1,  85, 45-52(2002).
[CrossRef]

Zarrillo, G.

S. W. Lee, G. Zarrillo, and C. L. Law, "Simple formulas for transmission through periodic metal grids or plates," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 30, 904-909(1982).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Z. G. Lu, J. B. Tan, Y. M. Liu, J. Liu, and H. Zhang, "Influence of substrate on shielding effectiveness of metallic mesh under oblique incidence condition," Opt. Precis. Eng. 14, 360-367(2006).

Zhu, C.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. A. Smith, M. Rebbert, and O. Sternberg, "Designer infrared filters using stacked metal lattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3605-3607(2003).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Drupp, J. A. Bossard, and Y. H. Ye, "Dual-band infrared single-layer metallodielectric photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1835-1837(2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Commun. Jpn

K. Yutaka, T. Masaharu, and A. Minoru, "Electromagnetic cutoff by metallic lines on the glass," Electron. Commun. Jpn, Part 1,  85, 45-52(2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

S. W. Lee, G. Zarrillo, and C. L. Law, "Simple formulas for transmission through periodic metal grids or plates," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 30, 904-909(1982).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys.

R. Ulrich, "Far-infrared properties of metallic mesh and its complementary structure,"Infrared Phys. 7, 37-55 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Micro. Opt. Tech. Lett.

E. A. Parker, C. Antonopoulos, and N. E. Simpson, "Microwave band FSS in optically transparent conducting layers: performance of ring element arrays," Micro. Opt. Tech. Lett. 16, 61-63 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. Kohin, S. J. Wein, J. D. Traylor, R. C. Chase, and J. E. Chapman, "Analysis and design of transparent conductive coatings and filters," Opt. Eng. 32, 911-925(1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Precis. Eng.

Z. G. Lu, J. B. Tan, P. Jin, and J. Liu, "Equivalent refractive index model on shielding effectiveness analysis of high transparency metallic mesh," Opt. Precis. Eng. 14, 949-954(2006).

Z. G. Lu, J. B. Tan, Y. M. Liu, J. Liu, and H. Zhang, "Influence of substrate on shielding effectiveness of metallic mesh under oblique incidence condition," Opt. Precis. Eng. 14, 360-367(2006).

Proceedings of IEE Conference on Antennas and Propagation

N. Misran, R. Cahill, and V. F. Fusco, "Design optimization of ring elements for broadband reflectarray antennas," inProceedings of IEE Conference on Antennas and Propagation 150, 440-444 (2003).

Other

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, Inc. 1968).

R. J. Noll, "Some trade issues for EMI windows," in Window and Dome Technologies and Materials IV, P. Klocek, eds., Proc. SPIE 2286, 403-410(1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Topsakal, and J. L. Volakis, "On the properties of materials for designing filters at optical frequencies," in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Antennas and Propagation (2003), pp. 635 - 638.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Contiguous metallic rings and array arrangement.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Micrograph of ring mesh surface.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Micrograph of square mesh surface.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Energy transmittance of ring and square meshes at different relative linewidthes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Total stray light ratios of ring and square meshes at different relative linewidthes.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of transmittances measured with SPEX 1000M spectrum analyzer for ring and square meshes with simulation results obtained using Eqs. (5) and (6).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Diffraction spots intensity distribution of ring mesh obtained using Eq. (2).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Diffraction spots intensity distribution of square mesh obtained using Eq. (4).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Experimental observation of diffraction spots intensity distribution for ring mesh.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Experimental observation of diffraction spots intensity distribution for square mesh.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Comparison of RF attenuations measured using Agilent E8363B PNA Seires Network Analyzer with simulation results obtained using Eq. (11) and standard thin-film analysis techniques[5, 16].

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

t r ( x , y ) = circ ( x 2 + y 2 Ng 2 ) × { [ rect ( x g ) rect ( x g ) circ ( x 2 + y 2 g 2 )
+ circ ( x 2 + y 2 2 g 2 a ) ] ∗∗ m n δ ( x ng ) δ ( y mg ) }
I r ( ξ , η ) = m n { [ sin c ( n ) sin c ( m ) J 1 ( π n 2 + m 2 ) 2 n 2 + m 2 + rJ 1 ( n 2 + m 2 ) 2 n 2 + m 2 ] 2
× [ J 1 [ πNg ( ξ n g ) 2 + ( η m g ) 2 ] 2 Ng ( ξ n g ) 2 + ( η m g ) 2 ] 2 }
t s ( x , y ) = circ ( x 2 + y 2 Ng 2 ) { [ rect ( x g 2 a ) rect ( x g 2 a ) ] ∗∗ m n δ ( x ng ) δ ( y mg ) }
I s ( ξ , η ) = r 4 m n [ sin c ( rn ) sin c ( rm ) ] 2 [ J 1 [ πNg ( ξ n g ) 2 + ( η m g ) 2 ] 2 Ng ( ξ n g ) 2 + ( η m g ) 2 ] 2
T r = 1 0.25 π ( 1 r 2 )
T s = r 2
T r ( 0 , 0 ) = [ 1 0.25 π ( 1 r 2 ) ] 2
T s 00 = r 4
S r = T r T r 00
S s = T s T s ( 0 , 0 )
n e = 2 2 { ( n 0 2 + n g 2 ) + [ ( n 0 2 + n g 2 ) 2 4 ( n 0 2 n g 2 E ) ] 1 2 } 1 2
E = [ 1 + 2 ( n 0 + n g ) ( R 0 Z 0 ) ] [ ( X Z 0 ) 2 + ( R 0 Z 0 ) 2 ] 1 ( 2 πd e λ ) 2
X ( ω ) Z 0 = ln csc ( πa 2 g ) ( g g 2 a + 1 2 ω 2 ) 1 ( ω ω 0 ω 0 ω ) 1
R 0 Z 0 = g 2 a ( πε 0 c λσ ) 1 2

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