Abstract

Three-dimensional classical ensembles are employed to study recollision dynamics in double ionization of atoms by 780-nm intense lasers. After recollision one electron typically remains bound to the atom for a portion of a laser cycle, during which time the nucleus strongly influences its direction of motion. The electron then escapes over a suppressed barrier, with its final momentum depending critically on the laser phase at escape. The other electron remains unbound after collision, and typically drifts out in a momentum hemisphere opposite from its motion just after the collision. Several example trajectories at intensity 0.4 PW/cm2 with various time delays between recollision and ionization are presented.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. N. Fittinghof, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer and K. C. Kulander, "Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  4. A. Becker and F.H.M. Faisal, "Intense-field many-body S-matrix theory," J. Phys. B 38, R1 -R56 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Becker, R. Dorner, and R. Moshammer, "Multiple fragmentation of atoms in femtosecond laser pulses," J. Phys. B 38, S753-S772 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schr¨oter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, "Momentum Distributions of Nen+ Ions Created by an Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447-450 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses," J. Phys. B 37, L161-L167 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V.L.B. de Jesus, A. Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, C.D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Reaction microsopes applied to study atomic and molecular fragmentation in intense laser fields: non-sequential double ionization of helium," Journal of Electron Spectroscopy 141, 127 -142 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L.B. Fu, J. Liu, and S.G. Chen, "Correlated electron emission in laser-induced nonsequence double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. A 65, 021406 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Becker and F.H.M. Faisal, "S-Matrix Analysis of Coincident Measurement of Two-Electron Energy Distribution for Double Ionization of He in an Intense Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 193003 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S.L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J.H. Eberly, "Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Thomas Brabec, Misha Yu. Ivanov, and Paul B. Corkum, "Coulomb focusing in intense field atomic processes," Phys. Rev. A 54R2551-4 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. Phay J. Ho, R. Panfili, S.L. Haan, and J.H. Eberly, "Nonsequential Double Ionization as a Completely Classical Photoelectric Effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. Panfili, S.L. Haan, and J.H. Eberly, "Dynamics of classical slow-down collisions in non-sequential double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113001 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Pierre Agostini and Louis F. DeMauro, "The physics of attosecond light pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813-855 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G.G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, "Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model," J. Phys. B 27, L703-L708 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2006

S.L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J.H. Eberly, "Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

Phay J. Ho, R. Panfili, S.L. Haan, and J.H. Eberly, "Nonsequential Double Ionization as a Completely Classical Photoelectric Effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Becker and F.H.M. Faisal, "Intense-field many-body S-matrix theory," J. Phys. B 38, R1 -R56 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, R. Dorner, and R. Moshammer, "Multiple fragmentation of atoms in femtosecond laser pulses," J. Phys. B 38, S753-S772 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses," J. Phys. B 37, L161-L167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V.L.B. de Jesus, A. Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, C.D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Reaction microsopes applied to study atomic and molecular fragmentation in intense laser fields: non-sequential double ionization of helium," Journal of Electron Spectroscopy 141, 127 -142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pierre Agostini and Louis F. DeMauro, "The physics of attosecond light pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

L.B. Fu, J. Liu, and S.G. Chen, "Correlated electron emission in laser-induced nonsequence double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. A 65, 021406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker and F.H.M. Faisal, "S-Matrix Analysis of Coincident Measurement of Two-Electron Energy Distribution for Double Ionization of He in an Intense Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 193003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Panfili, S.L. Haan, and J.H. Eberly, "Dynamics of classical slow-down collisions in non-sequential double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dorner, Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, M. Hattass, R. Moshammer, J. Ulrich, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, "Multiple Ionization in Strong Laser Fields," Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics 48, 1-35 (2002).

2001

G.L. Yudin andM. Y. Ivanov, "Physics of correlated double ionization of atoms in intense laser fields: Quasistatic tunneling limit," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

HugoW. van der Hart, "Sequential versus non-sequentail double ionization in strong laser fields," J. Phys. B 33, L699-L705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schr¨oter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, "Momentum Distributions of Nen+ Ions Created by an Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447-450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

Thomas Brabec, Misha Yu. Ivanov, and Paul B. Corkum, "Coulomb focusing in intense field atomic processes," Phys. Rev. A 54R2551-4 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

K. C. Kulander, J. Cooper, and K. J. Schafer, "Laser-assisted inelastic rescattering during above-threshold ionization," Phys. Rev. A 51, 561-568 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer and K. C. Kulander, "Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, "Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model," J. Phys. B 27, L703-L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

D. N. Fittinghof, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Afanch, F.

V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses," J. Phys. B 37, L161-L167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Afaneh, F.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. D¨orner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer and K. C. Kulander, "Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

A. Becker and F.H.M. Faisal, "Intense-field many-body S-matrix theory," J. Phys. B 38, R1 -R56 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker, R. Dorner, and R. Moshammer, "Multiple fragmentation of atoms in femtosecond laser pulses," J. Phys. B 38, S753-S772 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker and F.H.M. Faisal, "S-Matrix Analysis of Coincident Measurement of Two-Electron Energy Distribution for Double Ionization of He in an Intense Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 193003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

G.G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, "Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model," J. Phys. B 27, L703-L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bolton, P. R.

D. N. Fittinghof, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Breen, L.

S.L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J.H. Eberly, "Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, B.

D. N. Fittinghof, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.G.

L.B. Fu, J. Liu, and S.G. Chen, "Correlated electron emission in laser-induced nonsequence double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. A 65, 021406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J.

K. C. Kulander, J. Cooper, and K. J. Schafer, "Laser-assisted inelastic rescattering during above-threshold ionization," Phys. Rev. A 51, 561-568 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Jesus, V.L.B.

V.L.B. de Jesus, A. Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, C.D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Reaction microsopes applied to study atomic and molecular fragmentation in intense laser fields: non-sequential double ionization of helium," Journal of Electron Spectroscopy 141, 127 -142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses," J. Phys. B 37, L161-L167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DiMauro, L. F.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer and K. C. Kulander, "Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorn, A.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schr¨oter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, "Momentum Distributions of Nen+ Ions Created by an Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447-450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberly, J.H.

S.L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J.H. Eberly, "Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Panfili, S.L. Haan, and J.H. Eberly, "Dynamics of classical slow-down collisions in non-sequential double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faisal, F.H.M.

A. Becker and F.H.M. Faisal, "Intense-field many-body S-matrix theory," J. Phys. B 38, R1 -R56 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Becker and F.H.M. Faisal, "S-Matrix Analysis of Coincident Measurement of Two-Electron Energy Distribution for Double Ionization of He in an Intense Laser Field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 193003 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feuerstein, B.

V.L.B. de Jesus, A. Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, C.D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Reaction microsopes applied to study atomic and molecular fragmentation in intense laser fields: non-sequential double ionization of helium," Journal of Electron Spectroscopy 141, 127 -142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses," J. Phys. B 37, L161-L167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schr¨oter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, "Momentum Distributions of Nen+ Ions Created by an Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447-450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, D.

V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses," J. Phys. B 37, L161-L167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fittinghof, D. N.

D. N. Fittinghof, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.B.

L.B. Fu, J. Liu, and S.G. Chen, "Correlated electron emission in laser-induced nonsequence double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. A 65, 021406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. D¨orner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haan, S.L.

S.L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J.H. Eberly, "Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Panfili, S.L. Haan, and J.H. Eberly, "Dynamics of classical slow-down collisions in non-sequential double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, Phay J.

Phay J. Ho, R. Panfili, S.L. Haan, and J.H. Eberly, "Nonsequential Double Ionization as a Completely Classical Photoelectric Effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hugo,

HugoW. van der Hart, "Sequential versus non-sequentail double ionization in strong laser fields," J. Phys. B 33, L699-L705 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M. Y.

G.L. Yudin andM. Y. Ivanov, "Physics of correlated double ionization of atoms in intense laser fields: Quasistatic tunneling limit," Phys. Rev. A 63, 033404 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jagutzki, O.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. D¨orner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karim, A.

S.L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J.H. Eberly, "Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong-field double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulander, K. C.

K. C. Kulander, J. Cooper, and K. J. Schafer, "Laser-assisted inelastic rescattering during above-threshold ionization," Phys. Rev. A 51, 561-568 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer and K. C. Kulander, "Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Fittinghof, P. R. Bolton, B. Chang and K. C. Kulander, "Observation of nonsequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

L.B. Fu, J. Liu, and S.G. Chen, "Correlated electron emission in laser-induced nonsequence double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. A 65, 021406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mergel, V.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. D¨orner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moshammer, R.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schr¨oter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, "Momentum Distributions of Nen+ Ions Created by an Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447-450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicklich, W.

G.G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, "Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model," J. Phys. B 27, L703-L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Panfili, R.

R. Panfili, S.L. Haan, and J.H. Eberly, "Dynamics of classical slow-down collisions in non-sequential double ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 113001 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G.G.

G.G. Paulus, W. Becker, W. Nicklich, and H. Walther, "Rescattering effects in above-threshold ionization: a classical model," J. Phys. B 27, L703-L708 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rudenko, A.

V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses," J. Phys. B 37, L161-L167 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V.L.B. de Jesus, A. Rudenko, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, C.D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Reaction microsopes applied to study atomic and molecular fragmentation in intense laser fields: non-sequential double ionization of helium," Journal of Electron Spectroscopy 141, 127 -142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K. J.

K. C. Kulander, J. Cooper, and K. J. Schafer, "Laser-assisted inelastic rescattering during above-threshold ionization," Phys. Rev. A 51, 561-568 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer and K. C. Kulander, "Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, W.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schr¨oter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, "Momentum Distributions of Nen+ Ions Created by an Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulse," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447-450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheehy, B.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer and K. C. Kulander, "Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielberger, L.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. D¨orner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staudte, A.

Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. D¨orner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urbasch, G.

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Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. D¨orner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443-446 (2000).
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Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. D¨orner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443-446 (2000).
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V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, "Atomic structure dependence of nonsequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses," J. Phys. B 37, L161-L167 (2004).
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Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics

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J. Phys. B

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Th. Weber, M. Weckenbrock, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, F. Afaneh, G. Urbasch, M. Vollmer, H. Giessen, and R. D¨orner, "Recoil-Ion Momentum Distributions for Single and Double Ionization of Helium in Strong Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 443-446 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (7)

» Media 1: MOV (130 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (957 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (237 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (785 KB)     
» Media 5: MOV (72 KB)     
» Media 6: MOV (238 KB)     
» Media 7: MOV (62 KB)     

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scatter plots of final momentum components along the laser polarization axis for laser intensity 4 × 1014 W/cm2 and for the indicated time delay intervals between rec-ollision and double ionization. For each trajectory, p2z denotes final z-component of the momentum of the recolliding electron, and p1z the struck electron. The signs of the final momenta are defined so that all recollision events occur with the recolliding electron having p2z > 0. The boxes show (4Up )1/2, with Up =0.838 au. For time delays less than 0.25 cycle, most electrons emerge in the momentum hemisphere opposite from recollision, so pz < 0 in the plot.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Percent of doubly ionizing trajectories vs. laser phase for recollision (left column) and double ionization (right column) for laser intensity 4×1014 W/cm2. The red and green respectively show the same-hemisphere and opposite-hemisphere trajectories for various maximum time lags, with blue giving all remaining DI trajectories. The top three rows show time delays of less than 1/25 cycle, 1/4 cycle, and 1/2 cycle respectively. The fourth row classifies all trajectories as same- or opposite-hemisphere regardless of time delay. The phase difference between recollision and double ionization is clearly evident.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Distribution of time delays for four different laser intensities. Red and green indicate same-hemisphere and opposite-hemisphere trajectories, respectively. Plots only extend to a delay time of 1 cycle, but there are scattered delay times up to 6.9 cycles. The percent of DI trajectories with delay times of one cycle or less are 86%, 88%, 90%, and 89%, for the respective laser intensities. Total yields for the four intensities were 1721, 3503, 4320, and 4927 trajectories of 400,000.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

On the left is a movie (64 kB) of one two-electron trajectory that exhibits direct recollision ionization for laser intensity I = 0.4 PW/cm2. There is a change in direction of the electrons after recollision. The still shows time 3.90 c with both electrons traveling outward after ionization. On the right is an energy vs time plot for the two electrons. The energy transfer at recollision is clearly visible in the inset. [Media 1]

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Energy plot for a double ionization that has delay time 0.18 cycle between recollision and final ionization.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Movies (72 and 244 kB)of the trajectory of Fig. 5. The right plot shows the z-part of the motion, with effective potential energy plots for each electron. The curves have a parametric dependence on the x and y values.The still images show times shortly after recollision when the struck (blue-coded) electron still has energy less than zero. [Media 2] [Media 3]

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Energy vs. time for a trajectory that features opposite-hemisphere electrons. The second ionization occurs after the field maximum at 6.75 c.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Trajectory and effective energy movies (132 and 964 kB) for the trajectory of Fig. 7. The struck electron ionizes after the field maximum and drifts out opposite from its initial ionization. Still images are shortly after ionization, which by our definition occurs at 6.79 c. [Media 4] [Media 5]

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Energy and trajectory plots for a trajectory that illustrates other characteristics–a miss, coulomb focusing, multiple recollision, and electron exchange. Movies are 240 and 792 kB. [Media 6] [Media 7]

Equations (3)

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H = p 1 2 2 + p 2 2 2 2 r 1 2 + a 2 2 r 2 2 + a 2 + 1 ( r 1 r 2 ) 2 + b 2 + ( z 1 + z 2 ) E 0 f ( t ) sin ( ωt )
V eff 1 ( z ) = 2 x 1 2 + y 1 2 + z 2 + a 2 + 1 ( x 1 x 2 ) 2 + ( y 1 y 2 ) 2 + ( z z 2 ) 2 + b 2
+ zE 0 f ( t ) sin ( ωt )

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