Abstract

Fluorescence spectra of Nd:YVO4 under excitation of a continuous wave (CW) diode laser and a femtosecond laser at 800nm were investigated. It was found that Nd:YVO4 shows different upconversion and downconversion luminescencent behaviors when excited by the diode laser and the femtosecond laser. The dependence of the upconversion luminescence intensity on the pump power of the femtosecond laser was discussed. The populations of the upper energy levels for upconversion and downconversion luminescence were calculated based on the Bloch equations. The calculations agree well with the experimental results.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. F. Johnson, G. J. Guggenheim, "Infrared-pumped visible laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44-47 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. C.  Goh, R.  Pattie, C.  Byrne, and D.  Coulson, "Blue and red laser action in Nd3+:Pr3+ co-doped fluorozirconate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett.  67, 768-770 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, "Three-dimensional optical storage memory," Science. 245, 843-845 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science. 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Up-conversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620-4625(1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. S. Oliveira, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. M. Neto, A. S. B. Sombra, and Y. Messaddeq, "Frequency upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped chalcogenide glass" Appl. Phys. Lett.,  72, 753-755 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Fornasiero, S. Kück, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, " Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part 2: YVO4, GdVO4, and Sr5(PO4)3F,"Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998)
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystal, Translated by H. F. Ivey (Springer-Verlag, 1981).
  9. M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, and H. U. Güdel, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 - 3346 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Joffre, "Coherent effects in femtosecond spectroscopy: a simple picture using the Bloch equation," in Femtosecond Laser Pulses Principles and Experiments, 2nd ed., C. Rullière ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2005)

2000 (1)

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, and H. U. Güdel, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 - 3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

A. S. Oliveira, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. M. Neto, A. S. B. Sombra, and Y. Messaddeq, "Frequency upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped chalcogenide glass" Appl. Phys. Lett.,  72, 753-755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Fornasiero, S. Kück, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, " Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part 2: YVO4, GdVO4, and Sr5(PO4)3F,"Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998)
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science. 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. C.  Goh, R.  Pattie, C.  Byrne, and D.  Coulson, "Blue and red laser action in Nd3+:Pr3+ co-doped fluorozirconate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett.  67, 768-770 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Up-conversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620-4625(1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, "Three-dimensional optical storage memory," Science. 245, 843-845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

L. F. Johnson, G. J. Guggenheim, "Infrared-pumped visible laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44-47 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, C.

S. C.  Goh, R.  Pattie, C.  Byrne, and D.  Coulson, "Blue and red laser action in Nd3+:Pr3+ co-doped fluorozirconate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett.  67, 768-770 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chai, B. H. T.

L. Fornasiero, S. Kück, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, " Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part 2: YVO4, GdVO4, and Sr5(PO4)3F,"Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Coulson, D.

S. C.  Goh, R.  Pattie, C.  Byrne, and D.  Coulson, "Blue and red laser action in Nd3+:Pr3+ co-doped fluorozirconate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett.  67, 768-770 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, M. T.

A. S. Oliveira, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. M. Neto, A. S. B. Sombra, and Y. Messaddeq, "Frequency upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped chalcogenide glass" Appl. Phys. Lett.,  72, 753-755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Downing, E.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science. 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fornasiero, L.

L. Fornasiero, S. Kück, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, " Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part 2: YVO4, GdVO4, and Sr5(PO4)3F,"Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Gamelin, D. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, and H. U. Güdel, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 - 3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goh, S. C.

S. C.  Goh, R.  Pattie, C.  Byrne, and D.  Coulson, "Blue and red laser action in Nd3+:Pr3+ co-doped fluorozirconate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett.  67, 768-770 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gouveia-Neto, A. S.

A. S. Oliveira, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. M. Neto, A. S. B. Sombra, and Y. Messaddeq, "Frequency upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped chalcogenide glass" Appl. Phys. Lett.,  72, 753-755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Güdel, H. U.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, and H. U. Güdel, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 - 3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guggenheim, G. J.

L. F. Johnson, G. J. Guggenheim, "Infrared-pumped visible laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44-47 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science. 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Up-conversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620-4625(1992).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

L. Fornasiero, S. Kück, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, " Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part 2: YVO4, GdVO4, and Sr5(PO4)3F,"Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Jensen, T.

L. Fornasiero, S. Kück, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, " Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part 2: YVO4, GdVO4, and Sr5(PO4)3F,"Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. F.

L. F. Johnson, G. J. Guggenheim, "Infrared-pumped visible laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44-47 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Kück, S.

L. Fornasiero, S. Kück, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, " Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part 2: YVO4, GdVO4, and Sr5(PO4)3F,"Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Lüthi, S. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, and H. U. Güdel, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 - 3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, R.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science. 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

A. S. Oliveira, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. M. Neto, A. S. B. Sombra, and Y. Messaddeq, "Frequency upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped chalcogenide glass" Appl. Phys. Lett.,  72, 753-755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neto, J. A. M.

A. S. Oliveira, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. M. Neto, A. S. B. Sombra, and Y. Messaddeq, "Frequency upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped chalcogenide glass" Appl. Phys. Lett.,  72, 753-755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, A. S.

A. S. Oliveira, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. M. Neto, A. S. B. Sombra, and Y. Messaddeq, "Frequency upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped chalcogenide glass" Appl. Phys. Lett.,  72, 753-755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Parthenopoulos, D. A.

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, "Three-dimensional optical storage memory," Science. 245, 843-845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pattie, R.

S. C.  Goh, R.  Pattie, C.  Byrne, and D.  Coulson, "Blue and red laser action in Nd3+:Pr3+ co-doped fluorozirconate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett.  67, 768-770 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, and H. U. Güdel, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 - 3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ralston, J.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science. 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rentzepis, P. M.

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, "Three-dimensional optical storage memory," Science. 245, 843-845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soga, N.

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Up-conversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620-4625(1992).
[CrossRef]

Sombra, A. S. B.

A. S. Oliveira, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. M. Neto, A. S. B. Sombra, and Y. Messaddeq, "Frequency upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped chalcogenide glass" Appl. Phys. Lett.,  72, 753-755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, S.

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Up-conversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620-4625(1992).
[CrossRef]

Yoshii, S.

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Up-conversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620-4625(1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. Fornasiero, S. Kück, T. Jensen, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, " Excited state absorption and stimulated emission of Nd3+ in crystals. Part 2: YVO4, GdVO4, and Sr5(PO4)3F,"Appl. Phys. B 67, 549-553 (1998)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. S. Oliveira, M. T. de Araujo, A. S. Gouveia-Neto, J. A. M. Neto, A. S. B. Sombra, and Y. Messaddeq, "Frequency upconversion in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped chalcogenide glass" Appl. Phys. Lett.,  72, 753-755 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson, G. J. Guggenheim, "Infrared-pumped visible laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44-47 (1971).
[CrossRef]

S. C.  Goh, R.  Pattie, C.  Byrne, and D.  Coulson, "Blue and red laser action in Nd3+:Pr3+ co-doped fluorozirconate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett.  67, 768-770 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. Tanabe, S. Yoshii, K. Hirao, and N. Soga, "Up-conversion properties, multiphonon relaxation, and local environment of rare-earth ions in fluorophosphate glasses," Phys. Rev. B 45, 4620-4625(1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, and H. U. Güdel, "Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems," Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337 - 3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science. (2)

D. A. Parthenopoulos and P. M. Rentzepis, "Three-dimensional optical storage memory," Science. 245, 843-845 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensional Display," Science. 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystal, Translated by H. F. Ivey (Springer-Verlag, 1981).

M. Joffre, "Coherent effects in femtosecond spectroscopy: a simple picture using the Bloch equation," in Femtosecond Laser Pulses Principles and Experiments, 2nd ed., C. Rullière ed. (Springer-Verlag, 2005)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Emission spectra of the Nd3+:YVO4 crystal sample under (a) 267nm monochromatic light, (b) femtosecond laser and CW diode laser excitation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Energy-level diagram for Nd3+:YVO4 upconversion process pumped at 800nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Log-log plot of the upconversion emission intensity as a function of the femtosecond laser power at 800nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plot of the population at energy level 1T2, 4F5/2 and 4I9/2 as a function of the interaction time of femtosecond laser with Nd3+:YVO4.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Characteristic slopes of the steady-state excited-state population densities N i of levels i=1…, n and luminescences from these states for n-photon excitation. The investigated limits are: (1) small upconversion or (2) large upconversion by (A) energy-transfer upconversion (ETU) or (B) excited-state absorption (ESA), decay predominantly (i) into the next lower-lying state or (ii) by luminescence to the ground state, and (a) a small or (b) a large fraction of pump power absorbed in the crystal. [9]

Equations (9)

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I u I p m
dt = ( i ħ ) [ H , ρ ] γρ
d ρ 11 dt = [ i E ˜ ( t ) 2 ħ ] ( μ 12 ρ ˜ 21 μ 21 ρ ˜ 12 )
d ρ 22 dt = [ i E ˜ ( t ) 2 ħ ] ( μ 21 ρ ˜ 12 μ 12 ρ ˜ 21 + μ 23 ρ ˜ 32 μ 32 ρ ˜ 23 )
d ρ 33 dt = [ i E ˜ ( t ) 2 ħ ] ( μ 32 ρ ˜ 23 μ 23 ρ ˜ 32 )
d ρ ˜ 12 dt = [ i E ˜ ( t ) 2 ħ ] [ μ 12 ( ρ 22 ρ 11 ) 2 μ 32 ρ ˜ 13 cos ( ωt ) ] + i Δ 12 ρ ˜ 12
d ρ ˜ 13 dt = [ i E ˜ ( t ) cos ( ωt ) ħ ] [ μ 12 ρ ˜ 23 μ 23 ρ ˜ 12 ] + i Δ 13 ρ ˜ 13
d ρ ˜ 23 dt = [ i E ˜ ( t ) 2 ħ ] [ μ 23 ( ρ 33 ρ 22 ) + 2 μ 21 ρ ˜ 13 cos ( ωt ) ] + i Δ 23 ρ ˜ 23
ρ ˜ ij = ρ ˜ ji * ( i j )

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