Abstract

The modal characteristics of a Photonic-Crystal Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting diode Laser (PC-VCSEL) have been investigated. Photonic crystal structure, realized by a regular net of air holes within the layers, has been etched in the upper DBR mirror. An advanced three-dimensional, vectorial electromagnetic model has been applied to a phosphide – based device design featuring InGaAlAs active region, AlGaAs/GaAs mirrors and a tunnel junction to confine the current flow. For the structure under consideration a single mode operation has been found for the hole diameter over photonic crystal lattice constant ratio between 0.1–0.3.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. S. Ivanov, H. J. Unold, R. Michalzik, J. Maehnss, K. J. Ebeling, I. A. Sukhoivanov, "Theoretical study of cold-cavity single-mode conditions in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with incorporated two-dimensional photonic crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2442 - 2447 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. Yokouchi, A. J. Danner, K. D. Choquette "Etching depth dependence of the effective refractive index in two-dimensional photonic-crystal-patterned vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1344 - 1346 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Czyszanowski, W. Nakwaski "Usability limits of the scalar effective frequency method used to determine modes distributions in oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, 30 - 35 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Dems, R. Kotynski, K. Panajotov "Plane Wave Admittance Method — a novel approach for determining the electromagnetic modes in photonic structures," Opt. Express 13, 3196 - 3207 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Yamada, T. Anan, H. Hatakeyama, K. Tokutome, N. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, and K. Nishi, "Low-Threshold Operation of 1.34-mm GaInNAs VCSEL Grown by MOVPE," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 950 - 952 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R.P. Sarzala; P. Mackowiak; M. Wasiak; T. Czyszanowski; W. Nakwaski "Simulation of performance characteristics of GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics 150, 83 - 85 (2003).
  7. J. Chang, C. L. Shieh, X. Huang, G. Liu, M. V. R. Murty, C. C. Lin, and D. X. Xu, "Efficient CW lasing and high-speed modulation of 1.3 mm AlGaInAs VCSELs with good high temperature lasing performance," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 7 - 9 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Czyszanowski, M. Dems, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov "Validation of Plane Wave Admittance MethodApplied to Vertical - Cavity Surface - Emitting Diode Lasers,"submitted to J. Opt. Soc Am. B
  9. P. Koonath, S. Kim, W.-J. Cho, A. Gopinath "Polarization-Insensitive Quantum-Well Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers" IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 1282-1290 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2006

T. Czyszanowski, W. Nakwaski "Usability limits of the scalar effective frequency method used to determine modes distributions in oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, 30 - 35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Dems, R. Kotynski, K. Panajotov "Plane Wave Admittance Method — a novel approach for determining the electromagnetic modes in photonic structures," Opt. Express 13, 3196 - 3207 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamada, T. Anan, H. Hatakeyama, K. Tokutome, N. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, and K. Nishi, "Low-Threshold Operation of 1.34-mm GaInNAs VCSEL Grown by MOVPE," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 950 - 952 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Chang, C. L. Shieh, X. Huang, G. Liu, M. V. R. Murty, C. C. Lin, and D. X. Xu, "Efficient CW lasing and high-speed modulation of 1.3 mm AlGaInAs VCSELs with good high temperature lasing performance," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 7 - 9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. S. Ivanov, H. J. Unold, R. Michalzik, J. Maehnss, K. J. Ebeling, I. A. Sukhoivanov, "Theoretical study of cold-cavity single-mode conditions in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with incorporated two-dimensional photonic crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 2442 - 2447 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Yokouchi, A. J. Danner, K. D. Choquette "Etching depth dependence of the effective refractive index in two-dimensional photonic-crystal-patterned vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1344 - 1346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R.P. Sarzala; P. Mackowiak; M. Wasiak; T. Czyszanowski; W. Nakwaski "Simulation of performance characteristics of GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics 150, 83 - 85 (2003).

2002

P. Koonath, S. Kim, W.-J. Cho, A. Gopinath "Polarization-Insensitive Quantum-Well Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers" IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 1282-1290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anan, T.

M. Yamada, T. Anan, H. Hatakeyama, K. Tokutome, N. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, and K. Nishi, "Low-Threshold Operation of 1.34-mm GaInNAs VCSEL Grown by MOVPE," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 950 - 952 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, J.

J. Chang, C. L. Shieh, X. Huang, G. Liu, M. V. R. Murty, C. C. Lin, and D. X. Xu, "Efficient CW lasing and high-speed modulation of 1.3 mm AlGaInAs VCSELs with good high temperature lasing performance," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 7 - 9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, W.-J.

P. Koonath, S. Kim, W.-J. Cho, A. Gopinath "Polarization-Insensitive Quantum-Well Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers" IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 1282-1290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choquette, K. D.

N. Yokouchi, A. J. Danner, K. D. Choquette "Etching depth dependence of the effective refractive index in two-dimensional photonic-crystal-patterned vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1344 - 1346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Czyszanowski, T.

T. Czyszanowski, W. Nakwaski "Usability limits of the scalar effective frequency method used to determine modes distributions in oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, 30 - 35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R.P. Sarzala; P. Mackowiak; M. Wasiak; T. Czyszanowski; W. Nakwaski "Simulation of performance characteristics of GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics 150, 83 - 85 (2003).

T. Czyszanowski, M. Dems, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov "Validation of Plane Wave Admittance MethodApplied to Vertical - Cavity Surface - Emitting Diode Lasers,"submitted to J. Opt. Soc Am. B

Danner, A. J.

N. Yokouchi, A. J. Danner, K. D. Choquette "Etching depth dependence of the effective refractive index in two-dimensional photonic-crystal-patterned vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1344 - 1346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dems, M.

M. Dems, R. Kotynski, K. Panajotov "Plane Wave Admittance Method — a novel approach for determining the electromagnetic modes in photonic structures," Opt. Express 13, 3196 - 3207 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Czyszanowski, M. Dems, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov "Validation of Plane Wave Admittance MethodApplied to Vertical - Cavity Surface - Emitting Diode Lasers,"submitted to J. Opt. Soc Am. B

Ebeling, K. J.

Gopinath, A.

P. Koonath, S. Kim, W.-J. Cho, A. Gopinath "Polarization-Insensitive Quantum-Well Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers" IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 1282-1290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hatakeyama, H.

M. Yamada, T. Anan, H. Hatakeyama, K. Tokutome, N. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, and K. Nishi, "Low-Threshold Operation of 1.34-mm GaInNAs VCSEL Grown by MOVPE," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 950 - 952 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

J. Chang, C. L. Shieh, X. Huang, G. Liu, M. V. R. Murty, C. C. Lin, and D. X. Xu, "Efficient CW lasing and high-speed modulation of 1.3 mm AlGaInAs VCSELs with good high temperature lasing performance," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 7 - 9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, P. S.

Kim, S.

P. Koonath, S. Kim, W.-J. Cho, A. Gopinath "Polarization-Insensitive Quantum-Well Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers" IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 1282-1290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koonath, P.

P. Koonath, S. Kim, W.-J. Cho, A. Gopinath "Polarization-Insensitive Quantum-Well Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers" IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 1282-1290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kotynski, R.

Lin, C. C.

J. Chang, C. L. Shieh, X. Huang, G. Liu, M. V. R. Murty, C. C. Lin, and D. X. Xu, "Efficient CW lasing and high-speed modulation of 1.3 mm AlGaInAs VCSELs with good high temperature lasing performance," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 7 - 9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

J. Chang, C. L. Shieh, X. Huang, G. Liu, M. V. R. Murty, C. C. Lin, and D. X. Xu, "Efficient CW lasing and high-speed modulation of 1.3 mm AlGaInAs VCSELs with good high temperature lasing performance," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 7 - 9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mackowiak, P.

R.P. Sarzala; P. Mackowiak; M. Wasiak; T. Czyszanowski; W. Nakwaski "Simulation of performance characteristics of GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics 150, 83 - 85 (2003).

Maehnss, J.

Michalzik, R.

Murty, M. V. R.

J. Chang, C. L. Shieh, X. Huang, G. Liu, M. V. R. Murty, C. C. Lin, and D. X. Xu, "Efficient CW lasing and high-speed modulation of 1.3 mm AlGaInAs VCSELs with good high temperature lasing performance," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 7 - 9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

M. Yamada, T. Anan, H. Hatakeyama, K. Tokutome, N. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, and K. Nishi, "Low-Threshold Operation of 1.34-mm GaInNAs VCSEL Grown by MOVPE," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 950 - 952 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakwaski, W.

T. Czyszanowski, W. Nakwaski "Usability limits of the scalar effective frequency method used to determine modes distributions in oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, 30 - 35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R.P. Sarzala; P. Mackowiak; M. Wasiak; T. Czyszanowski; W. Nakwaski "Simulation of performance characteristics of GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics 150, 83 - 85 (2003).

Nishi, K.

M. Yamada, T. Anan, H. Hatakeyama, K. Tokutome, N. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, and K. Nishi, "Low-Threshold Operation of 1.34-mm GaInNAs VCSEL Grown by MOVPE," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 950 - 952 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Panajotov, K.

M. Dems, R. Kotynski, K. Panajotov "Plane Wave Admittance Method — a novel approach for determining the electromagnetic modes in photonic structures," Opt. Express 13, 3196 - 3207 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Czyszanowski, M. Dems, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov "Validation of Plane Wave Admittance MethodApplied to Vertical - Cavity Surface - Emitting Diode Lasers,"submitted to J. Opt. Soc Am. B

Sarzala, R.P.

R.P. Sarzala; P. Mackowiak; M. Wasiak; T. Czyszanowski; W. Nakwaski "Simulation of performance characteristics of GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics 150, 83 - 85 (2003).

Shieh, C. L.

J. Chang, C. L. Shieh, X. Huang, G. Liu, M. V. R. Murty, C. C. Lin, and D. X. Xu, "Efficient CW lasing and high-speed modulation of 1.3 mm AlGaInAs VCSELs with good high temperature lasing performance," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 7 - 9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sukhoivanov, I. A.

Suzuki, N.

M. Yamada, T. Anan, H. Hatakeyama, K. Tokutome, N. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, and K. Nishi, "Low-Threshold Operation of 1.34-mm GaInNAs VCSEL Grown by MOVPE," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 950 - 952 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

T. Czyszanowski, M. Dems, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov "Validation of Plane Wave Admittance MethodApplied to Vertical - Cavity Surface - Emitting Diode Lasers,"submitted to J. Opt. Soc Am. B

Tokutome, K.

M. Yamada, T. Anan, H. Hatakeyama, K. Tokutome, N. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, and K. Nishi, "Low-Threshold Operation of 1.34-mm GaInNAs VCSEL Grown by MOVPE," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 950 - 952 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Unold, H. J.

Wasiak, M.

R.P. Sarzala; P. Mackowiak; M. Wasiak; T. Czyszanowski; W. Nakwaski "Simulation of performance characteristics of GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics 150, 83 - 85 (2003).

Xu, D. X.

J. Chang, C. L. Shieh, X. Huang, G. Liu, M. V. R. Murty, C. C. Lin, and D. X. Xu, "Efficient CW lasing and high-speed modulation of 1.3 mm AlGaInAs VCSELs with good high temperature lasing performance," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 7 - 9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, T. Anan, H. Hatakeyama, K. Tokutome, N. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, and K. Nishi, "Low-Threshold Operation of 1.34-mm GaInNAs VCSEL Grown by MOVPE," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 950 - 952 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yokouchi, N.

N. Yokouchi, A. J. Danner, K. D. Choquette "Etching depth dependence of the effective refractive index in two-dimensional photonic-crystal-patterned vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1344 - 1346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

N. Yokouchi, A. J. Danner, K. D. Choquette "Etching depth dependence of the effective refractive index in two-dimensional photonic-crystal-patterned vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1344 - 1346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics

R.P. Sarzala; P. Mackowiak; M. Wasiak; T. Czyszanowski; W. Nakwaski "Simulation of performance characteristics of GaInNAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEE Proceedings-Optoelectronics 150, 83 - 85 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron

P. Koonath, S. Kim, W.-J. Cho, A. Gopinath "Polarization-Insensitive Quantum-Well Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers" IEEE J. Quantum Electron 38, 1282-1290 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Chang, C. L. Shieh, X. Huang, G. Liu, M. V. R. Murty, C. C. Lin, and D. X. Xu, "Efficient CW lasing and high-speed modulation of 1.3 mm AlGaInAs VCSELs with good high temperature lasing performance," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 7 - 9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, T. Anan, H. Hatakeyama, K. Tokutome, N. Suzuki, T. Nakamura, and K. Nishi, "Low-Threshold Operation of 1.34-mm GaInNAs VCSEL Grown by MOVPE," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 950 - 952 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc Am. B

T. Czyszanowski, M. Dems, H. Thienpont, K. Panajotov "Validation of Plane Wave Admittance MethodApplied to Vertical - Cavity Surface - Emitting Diode Lasers,"submitted to J. Opt. Soc Am. B

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.

T. Czyszanowski, W. Nakwaski "Usability limits of the scalar effective frequency method used to determine modes distributions in oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, 30 - 35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic layer structure of a VCSEL with Photonic Crystal Structure in the upper DBR.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The wavelength of emission as a function of the 1/N for different a/L ratios.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Real a) and imaginary b) wavelength of emission as a function of the a\L ratio for the fundamental and the first order mode in a passive (pas) and active (act) structure. The insets show the distribution of the optical field within the active region cross-section.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Profiles of the fundamental mode within active region for hole/lattice ratios: 0.1 a), 0.3 b) and 0.7 c).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table. 1. Construction details of the AlGaInAs multiple quantum-well InP-based 1.3-μm PC VCSEL under consideration.

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