Abstract

We present the experimental demonstration of imaging of a point source by negative refraction at near-infrared frequencies using a hybrid photonic crystal device. The photonic crystal device, fabricated by patterning holes in 260nm silicon-on-insulator, integrates a triangular-lattice photonic crystal with a large photonic bandgap and square-lattice photonic crystal with negative refraction. Experimental results show that the output of a line-defect photonic bandgap waveguide provides a nearly ideal point source and then is imaged through the photonic crystal by negative refraction.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic wave: negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401(4) (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907(3) (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153901(4) (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Z. Lu, S. Shi, C. A. Schuetz, J. A. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, "Three-dimensional photonic crystal flat lens by full 3D negative refraction," Opt. Express 13, 5592-5599 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902(4) (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Schonbrun, T. Yamashita, W. Park, and C. J. Summers, "Negative-index imaging by an index-matched photonic crystal slab, " Phys. Rev. B 73, 195117(6) (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkawy, C. Chen, and D. Pustai, "High-efficiency coupling structure for a single-line-defect photonic-crystal waveguide," Opt. Lett. 27, 1601-1603 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Jannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (4) (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2006

E. Schonbrun, T. Yamashita, W. Park, and C. J. Summers, "Negative-index imaging by an index-matched photonic crystal slab, " Phys. Rev. B 73, 195117(6) (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907(3) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153901(4) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, S. Shi, C. A. Schuetz, J. A. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, "Three-dimensional photonic crystal flat lens by full 3D negative refraction," Opt. Express 13, 5592-5599 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic wave: negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkawy, C. Chen, and D. Pustai, "High-efficiency coupling structure for a single-line-defect photonic-crystal waveguide," Opt. Lett. 27, 1601-1603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Jannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (4) (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Anand, S.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic wave: negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berrier, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907(3) (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkawy, C. Chen, and D. Pustai, "High-efficiency coupling structure for a single-line-defect photonic-crystal waveguide," Opt. Lett. 27, 1601-1603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic wave: negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derov, J. S.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foteinopoulou, S.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic wave: negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jannopoulos, J. D.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Jannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (4) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Jannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (4) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lu, W. T.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Z.

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153901(4) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, S. Shi, C. A. Schuetz, J. A. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, "Three-dimensional photonic crystal flat lens by full 3D negative refraction," Opt. Express 13, 5592-5599 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907(3) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, C.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Jannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (4) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mulot, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murakowski, J.

Murakowski, J. A.

Z. Lu, S. Shi, C. A. Schuetz, J. A. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, "Three-dimensional photonic crystal flat lens by full 3D negative refraction," Opt. Express 13, 5592-5599 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153901(4) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907(3) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic wave: negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parimi, P. V.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, W.

E. Schonbrun, T. Yamashita, W. Park, and C. J. Summers, "Negative-index imaging by an index-matched photonic crystal slab, " Phys. Rev. B 73, 195117(6) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Jannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (4) (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prather, D. W.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907(3) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153901(4) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, S. Shi, C. A. Schuetz, J. A. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, "Three-dimensional photonic crystal flat lens by full 3D negative refraction," Opt. Express 13, 5592-5599 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkawy, C. Chen, and D. Pustai, "High-efficiency coupling structure for a single-line-defect photonic-crystal waveguide," Opt. Lett. 27, 1601-1603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pustai, D.

Qiu, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneider, G. J.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907(3) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153901(4) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schonbrun, E.

E. Schonbrun, T. Yamashita, W. Park, and C. J. Summers, "Negative-index imaging by an index-matched photonic crystal slab, " Phys. Rev. B 73, 195117(6) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schuetz, C. A.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907(3) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153901(4) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, S. Shi, C. A. Schuetz, J. A. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, "Three-dimensional photonic crystal flat lens by full 3D negative refraction," Opt. Express 13, 5592-5599 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharkawy, A.

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, S.

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153901(4) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, S. Shi, C. A. Schuetz, J. A. Murakowski, and D. W. Prather, "Three-dimensional photonic crystal flat lens by full 3D negative refraction," Opt. Express 13, 5592-5599 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907(3) (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Prather, J. Murakowski, S. Shi, S. Venkataraman, A. Sharkawy, C. Chen, and D. Pustai, "High-efficiency coupling structure for a single-line-defect photonic-crystal waveguide," Opt. Lett. 27, 1601-1603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokoloff, J.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic wave: negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sridhar, S.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Summers, C. J.

E. Schonbrun, T. Yamashita, W. Park, and C. J. Summers, "Negative-index imaging by an index-matched photonic crystal slab, " Phys. Rev. B 73, 195117(6) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Swillo, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talneau, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thylen, L.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkataraman, S.

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vodo, P.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashita, T.

E. Schonbrun, T. Yamashita, W. Park, and C. J. Summers, "Negative-index imaging by an index-matched photonic crystal slab, " Phys. Rev. B 73, 195117(6) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Z. Lu, C. Chen, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, J. A. Murakowski, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Sub-wavelength imaging by a flat cylindrical lens using optimized negative refraction," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 091907(3) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic wave: negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604-605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

E. Schonbrun, T. Yamashita, W. Park, and C. J. Summers, "Negative-index imaging by an index-matched photonic crystal slab, " Phys. Rev. B 73, 195117(6) (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Jannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "All-angle negative refraction without negative effective index," Phys. Rev. B 65, 201104(R) (4) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Z. Lu, J. A. Murakowski, C. A. Schuetz, S. Shi, G. J. Schneider, and D. W. Prather, "Three-dimensional subwavelength imaging by a photonic-crystal flat lens using negative refraction at microwave frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 153901(4) (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylen, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokoloff, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction and left-handed electromagnetism in microwave photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401(4) (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp.

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). The band structure of the triangular-lattice PhC to achieve the PBG waveguide. (b). The simulation of light (amplitude) propagating in the PBG waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dispersion diagrams of the square-lattice PhC designed to achieve negative refraction imaging. The lattice constant is a and air hole diameter is 2r=0.85a. The equi-frequency dispersion contours extend over the first and second Brillouin zones.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). The layout of the hybrid PhC device. (b). The simulation of amplitude for the negative refraction imaging of a point source through the designed PhC.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). SEM picture of the device used to demonstrate negative refraction imaging. (b) Imaging by negative refraction using a square-lattice PhC. (c) SEM picture of the device with the negative refraction PhC removed. (d) Radiation from the device shown in (c).

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