Abstract

We present a self-collimation-based directional emitter and compact beam splitters in a two-dimensional photonic crystal by using the surface modification method. The simulation results show that highly directional emission with a small angular divergence is achieved over a relative bandwidth of about 10.2%. Furthermore, by only modifying the monolayer structure of the output surface, the compact beam splitters, including the Y-shaped, one-to-three, and one-to-five structures are realized. Such beam splitters have remarkable properties such as symmetrical energy distribution and high transmission.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  4. A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in Photonic Crystal Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 - 3790 (1996).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in media with a Negative Refractive Index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
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2006 (2)

2005 (4)

P. J. Yao, B. Chen, J. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Chen, P. Wang, and H. Ming, "Y-shaped beam splitters for self-collimated beams in 2D photonic crystals," Europhys. Lett. 70, 197-203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Bulu, H. Caglayan, and E. Ozbay, "Beaming of light and enhanced transmission via surface modes of photonic crystals," Opt. Lett. 30, 3078-3080 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Morrison and Y. S. Kivshar, "Engineering of directional emission from photonic-crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Li, J. Y Pan, J. Zeng, J. W. Dong, and H. Z. Wang, "Band engineering and periodic defects doping by lattices compounding," Opt. Express 13, 8526-8531 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (6)

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, "Efficient coupling of light into and out of a photonic crystal waveguide via surface modes," Photon. Nano. Fundam. Appl. 2, 97-102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Enhanced transmission and beaming of light via photonic crystal surface modes," Phys. Rev. B 69, 121402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chen, H. D. Chien, and P. G. Luan, "Photonic crystal beam splitters," Appl. Opt. 43, 6187-6190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Shi, A. Sharkawy, C. H. Chen, D. M. Pustai, and D. W. Prather, "Dispersion-based beam splitter in photonic crystals," Opt. Lett. 29, 617-619 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Pustai, S. Y. Shi, C. H. Chen, A. Sharkawy, and D. W. Prather, "Analysis of splitters for self-collimated beams in planar photonic crystals," Opt. Express 12, 1823-1831 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

X. F. Yu and S. H. Fan, "Bends and splitters for self-collimated beams in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3251-3253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, G. P. Nordin, J. B. Cai, and J. H. Jiang, "Ultracompact high-efficiency polarizing beam splitter with a hybrid photonic crystal and conventional waveguide structure," Opt. Lett. 28, 2384 - 2386 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in media with a Negative Refractive Index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional Emission from a single subwavelength Aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944 - 947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

J. Witzens, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, "Self-collimation in Planar Photonic Crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1246 - 1257 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820 - 822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Nordin, S. Kim, J. B. Cai, and J. H. Jiang, "Hybrid integration of conventional waveguide and photonic crystal structures," Opt. Express 10, 1334-1341 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, "Photonic-crystal-based beam splitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3902-3904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Sóndergaard and K. H. Dridi, "Energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 61, 15688-15696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 - 1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in Photonic Crystal Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 - 3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (2)

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 - 2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 - 2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agio, M.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944 - 947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944 - 947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayindir, M.

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, "Photonic-crystal-based beam splitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3902-3904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Birner, A.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulu, I.

Caglayan, H.

Cai, J. B.

Chen, B.

P. J. Yao, B. Chen, J. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Chen, P. Wang, and H. Ming, "Y-shaped beam splitters for self-collimated beams in 2D photonic crystals," Europhys. Lett. 70, 197-203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

Chen, C. H.

Chen, J. C.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in Photonic Crystal Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 - 3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X. Y.

P. J. Yao, B. Chen, J. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Chen, P. Wang, and H. Ming, "Y-shaped beam splitters for self-collimated beams in 2D photonic crystals," Europhys. Lett. 70, 197-203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chien, H. D.

De La Rue, R. M.

Degiron, A.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional Emission from a single subwavelength Aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820 - 822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820 - 822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, J. W.

Dridi, K. H.

T. Sóndergaard and K. H. Dridi, "Energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 61, 15688-15696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional Emission from a single subwavelength Aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820 - 822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Economou, E. N.

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in media with a Negative Refractive Index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S. H.

X. F. Yu and S. H. Fan, "Bends and splitters for self-collimated beams in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3251-3253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in Photonic Crystal Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 - 3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foteinopoulou, S.

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in media with a Negative Refractive Index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional Emission from a single subwavelength Aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820 - 822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, "Efficient coupling of light into and out of a photonic crystal waveguide via surface modes," Photon. Nano. Fundam. Appl. 2, 97-102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Enhanced transmission and beaming of light via photonic crystal surface modes," Phys. Rev. B 69, 121402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gösele, U.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iliew, R.

Jiang, J. H.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

S. G. Johnson and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell's equations in a planewave basis," Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in Photonic Crystal Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 - 3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, S.

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 - 2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

Kawakami, S.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 - 1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 - 1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

Kivshar, Y. S.

S. K. Morrison and Y. S. Kivshar, "Engineering of directional emission from photonic-crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kosaka, H.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 - 1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kramper, P.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurland, I.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in Photonic Crystal Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 - 3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, F.

Lezec, H. J.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional Emission from a single subwavelength Aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820 - 822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y. W.

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820 - 822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

J. Witzens, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, "Self-collimation in Planar Photonic Crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1246 - 1257 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luan, P. G.

Martin-Moreno, L.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional Emission from a single subwavelength Aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820 - 822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Enhanced transmission and beaming of light via photonic crystal surface modes," Phys. Rev. B 69, 121402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, "Efficient coupling of light into and out of a photonic crystal waveguide via surface modes," Photon. Nano. Fundam. Appl. 2, 97-102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mastroiacovo, S.

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in Photonic Crystal Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 - 3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ming, H.

P. J. Yao, B. Chen, J. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Chen, P. Wang, and H. Ming, "Y-shaped beam splitters for self-collimated beams in 2D photonic crystals," Europhys. Lett. 70, 197-203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, E.

E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Enhanced transmission and beaming of light via photonic crystal surface modes," Phys. Rev. B 69, 121402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, "Efficient coupling of light into and out of a photonic crystal waveguide via surface modes," Photon. Nano. Fundam. Appl. 2, 97-102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, S. K.

S. K. Morrison and Y. S. Kivshar, "Engineering of directional emission from photonic-crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Müller, F.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noda, S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944 - 947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordin, G. P.

Notomi, M.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 - 1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

I. Bulu, H. Caglayan, and E. Ozbay, "Beaming of light and enhanced transmission via surface modes of photonic crystals," Opt. Lett. 30, 3078-3080 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, "Photonic-crystal-based beam splitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3902-3904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J. Y

Pertsch, T.

Pottier, P.

Prather, D. W.

Pustai, D. M.

Sandoghdar, V.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 - 1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

J. Witzens, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, "Self-collimation in Planar Photonic Crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1246 - 1257 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sharkawy, A.

Shi, S. Y.

Sóndergaard, T.

T. Sóndergaard and K. H. Dridi, "Energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 61, 15688-15696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Song, B. S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944 - 947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in media with a Negative Refractive Index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tamamura, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 - 1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Temelkuran, B.

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, "Photonic-crystal-based beam splitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3902-3904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, A.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 - 1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

Villeneuve, P. R.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in Photonic Crystal Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 - 3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. Z.

Wang, P.

P. J. Yao, B. Chen, J. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Chen, P. Wang, and H. Ming, "Y-shaped beam splitters for self-collimated beams in 2D photonic crystals," Europhys. Lett. 70, 197-203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witzens, J.

J. Witzens, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, "Self-collimation in Planar Photonic Crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1246 - 1257 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 - 2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, P. J.

P. J. Yao, B. Chen, J. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Chen, P. Wang, and H. Ming, "Y-shaped beam splitters for self-collimated beams in 2D photonic crystals," Europhys. Lett. 70, 197-203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X. F.

X. F. Yu and S. H. Fan, "Bends and splitters for self-collimated beams in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3251-3253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, J.

Zhang, J. Y.

P. J. Yao, B. Chen, J. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Chen, P. Wang, and H. Ming, "Y-shaped beam splitters for self-collimated beams in 2D photonic crystals," Europhys. Lett. 70, 197-203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

X. F. Yu and S. H. Fan, "Bends and splitters for self-collimated beams in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3251-3253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomena in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 - 1214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Morrison and Y. S. Kivshar, "Engineering of directional emission from photonic-crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayindir, B. Temelkuran, and E. Ozbay, "Photonic-crystal-based beam splitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3902-3904 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

P. J. Yao, B. Chen, J. Y. Zhang, X. Y. Chen, P. Wang, and H. Ming, "Y-shaped beam splitters for self-collimated beams in 2D photonic crystals," Europhys. Lett. 70, 197-203 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Witzens, M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, "Self-collimation in Planar Photonic Crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 1246 - 1257 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944 - 947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Photon. Nano. Fundam (1)

E. Moreno, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, "Efficient coupling of light into and out of a photonic crystal waveguide via surface modes," Photon. Nano. Fundam. Appl. 2, 97-102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, and L. Martín-Moreno, "Enhanced transmission and beaming of light via photonic crystal surface modes," Phys. Rev. B 69, 121402 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Sóndergaard and K. H. Dridi, "Energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 61, 15688-15696 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

P. Kramper, M. Agio, C. M. Soukoulis, A. Birner, F. Müller, R. B. Wehrspohn, U. Gösele, and V. Sandoghdar, "Highly directional emission from photonic crystal waveguides of subwavelength width," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional Emission from a single subwavelength Aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. H. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "High transmission through sharp bends in Photonic Crystal Waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3787 - 3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059 - 2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486 - 2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in media with a Negative Refractive Index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820 - 822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 2nd ed. (Artech House, Boston, 2000), Chap. 3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). The H-polarization dispersion diagram of the square PC consisting of dielectric cylinders in air, with dielectric constant εr =9 and radius R=0.5a. The inset is the first Brillouin zone of the square PC. The grey area denotes the self-collimation frequency range. (b) The corresponding EFSs at several frequencies ω=0.27–0.32(2πc/a) (from outer to inner) in the K-space of the second photonic band for H-polarization.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The 2D PC structure with the size of 11a×37a and the spatial distribution of the Poynting vector. The PC area is denoted by the two black vertical lines. The point source is at (-3a, 0). (a) Unchanged surface; (b) The PC structure is modified as follows. For the input surface, keeping the center seven cylinders unchanged, the radius ri and the refractive index ni of the rest cylinders are changed to be ri =0.29a and ni =4.5, respectively; for the output surface, six cylinders at (10a, 3a), (10a, 4a) (10a, 5a) and (10a, -3a), (10a, -4a), (10a, -5a) are removed.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). The 2D PC structure and the spatial distribution of the Poynting vector for the Y-shaped beam splitter. The radius of the center five cylinders of the output surface is changed to be ro =0.18a. The short black line at (49a, 0) denotes the position of the power detector to measure PN . (b) The relation between PN and ro .

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The 2D PC structure and the spatial distribution of the Poynting vector. (a) One-to-three beam splitter. The radius ro of four cylinders at (10a, 3a), (10a, 4a) and (10a, -3a), (10a, -4a), as well as the radius rc of the center cylinder of the output surface at (10a, 0), are changed to be ro = rc =0. Two short black lines denote the positions of two detectors. (b) One-to-five beam splitter. Letting rc =0, and keeping every five cylinders next to (10a, 0) at both sides unchanged, the radius of the rest output surface cylinders is symmetrically changed to be ro =0.25a. 1, 2 and 3 denote the split beams and the three short black lines denote the positions of the detectors.

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