Abstract

We theoretically investigate the properties of compact couplers between high-index contrast dielectric slab waveguides and two-dimensional metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides. We show that a coupler created by simply placing a dielectric waveguide terminated flat at the exit end of a plasmonic waveguide can be designed to have a transmission efficiency of ~70% at the optical communication wavelength. We also show that the transmission efficiency of the couplers can be further increased by using optimized multisection tapers. In both cases the transmission response is broadband. In addition, we investigate the properties of a Fabry-Perot structure in which light is coupled in and out of a plasmonic waveguide sandwiched between dielectric waveguides. Finally, we discuss potential fabrication processes for structures that demonstrate the predicted effects.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides," Nano Lett. 6, 1928-1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chen, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "Subwavelength confinement in an integrated metal slot waveguide on silicon," Opt. Lett. 31, 2133-2135 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (8)

F. Kusunoki, T. Yotsuya, J. Takahara, and T. Kobayashi, "Propagation properties of guided waves in index-guided two-dimensional optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Veronis and S. Fan, "Guided subwavelength plasmonic mode supported by a slot in a thin metal film," Opt. Lett. 30, 3359-3361 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, "Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration," Opt. Express 13, 6645-6650 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, "Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lipson, "Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on Silicon - Challenges and opportunities," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 4222-4238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon,W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, "A compact photonic horizontal spot-size converter realized in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73-75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, "Efficient nonadiabatic planar waveguide tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2462-2468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

2003 (4)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, "Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158-1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, "Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Koonath, K. Kishima, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, "Sculpting of three-dimensional nano-optical structures in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4909-4911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Nondiffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Wu, and E. N. Glytsis, "Finite-number-of-periods holographic gratings with finite-width incident beams: analysis using the finite-difference frequency-domain method," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 2018-2029 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Takakura, "Optical resonance in a narrow slit in a thick metallic screen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5601-5603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Moller, "One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.  2, 48-51 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Astilean, P. Lalanne, M. Palamaru, "Light transmission through metallic channels much smaller than the wavelength," Opt. Commun. 175, 265-273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, "Electromagnetic energy transfer and switching in nanoparticle chain arrays below the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356-R16359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, C. Girard, J. R. Krenn, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Plasmon polaritons of metallic nanowires for controlling submicron propagation of light," Phys. Rev. B 60, 9061-9068 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, "Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845-2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1989 (1)

K. Krishnakumar, "Micro-genetic algorithms for stationary and non-stationary function optimization," Proc. SPIE 1196, 289-296 (1989).

1979 (1)

H. Henke, H. Fruchting, and R. Winz, "Diffraction by a flanged parallel-plate waveguide and a slit in a thick screen," Radio Sci. 14, 11-18 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. N. Economou, "Surface plasmons in thin films," Phys. Rev. 182, 539-554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Astilean, S.

S. Astilean, P. Lalanne, M. Palamaru, "Light transmission through metallic channels much smaller than the wavelength," Opt. Commun. 175, 265-273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Moller, "One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.  2, 48-51 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides," Nano Lett. 6, 1928-1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, "Electromagnetic energy transfer and switching in nanoparticle chain arrays below the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356-R16359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Nondiffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon,W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, "A compact photonic horizontal spot-size converter realized in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73-75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, "Efficient nonadiabatic planar waveguide tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2462-2468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon,W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, "A compact photonic horizontal spot-size converter realized in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73-75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon,W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, "A compact photonic horizontal spot-size converter realized in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73-75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, "Efficient nonadiabatic planar waveguide tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2462-2468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon,W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, "A compact photonic horizontal spot-size converter realized in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73-75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bona, G. L.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, "Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 2442-2446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, "Electromagnetic energy transfer and switching in nanoparticle chain arrays below the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356-R16359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Catrysse, P. B.

Chen, L.

Dereux, A.

J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, C. Girard, J. R. Krenn, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Plasmon polaritons of metallic nanowires for controlling submicron propagation of light," Phys. Rev. B 60, 9061-9068 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides," Nano Lett. 6, 1928-1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Nondiffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon,W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, "A compact photonic horizontal spot-size converter realized in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73-75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, "Efficient nonadiabatic planar waveguide tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2462-2468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, R. W.

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, "Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Economou, E. N.

E. N. Economou, "Surface plasmons in thin films," Phys. Rev. 182, 539-554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Erni, D.

Fan, S.

Fruchting, H.

H. Henke, H. Fruchting, and R. Winz, "Diffraction by a flanged parallel-plate waveguide and a slit in a thick screen," Radio Sci. 14, 11-18 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, M.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, "Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, "Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, "Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845-2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Germann, R.

Girard, C.

J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, C. Girard, J. R. Krenn, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Plasmon polaritons of metallic nanowires for controlling submicron propagation of light," Phys. Rev. B 60, 9061-9068 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

Goudonnet, J. P.

J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, C. Girard, J. R. Krenn, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Plasmon polaritons of metallic nanowires for controlling submicron propagation of light," Phys. Rev. B 60, 9061-9068 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, "Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.

Haraguchi, M.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, "Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harel, E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartman, J. W.

M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, "Electromagnetic energy transfer and switching in nanoparticle chain arrays below the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356-R16359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Henke, H.

H. Henke, H. Fruchting, and R. Winz, "Diffraction by a flanged parallel-plate waveguide and a slit in a thick screen," Radio Sci. 14, 11-18 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Hugonin, J. P.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Moller, "One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.  2, 48-51 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Indukuri, T.

P. Koonath, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, "Vertically-coupled micro-resonators realized using three-dimensional sculpting in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1018-1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Koonath, K. Kishima, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, "Sculpting of three-dimensional nano-optical structures in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4909-4911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

P. Koonath, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, "Vertically-coupled micro-resonators realized using three-dimensional sculpting in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1018-1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Koonath, K. Kishima, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, "Sculpting of three-dimensional nano-optical structures in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4909-4911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, J.

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kishima, K.

P. Koonath, K. Kishima, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, "Sculpting of three-dimensional nano-optical structures in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4909-4911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

F. Kusunoki, T. Yotsuya, J. Takahara, and T. Kobayashi, "Propagation properties of guided waves in index-guided two-dimensional optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Takahara, S. Yamagishi, H. Taki, A. Morimoto, and T. Kobayashi, "Guiding of a one-dimensional optical beam with nanometer diameter," Opt. Lett. 22, 475-477 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koel, B. E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koonath, P.

P. Koonath, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, "Vertically-coupled micro-resonators realized using three-dimensional sculpting in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1018-1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Koonath, K. Kishima, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, "Sculpting of three-dimensional nano-optical structures in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4909-4911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Nondiffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, C. Girard, J. R. Krenn, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Plasmon polaritons of metallic nanowires for controlling submicron propagation of light," Phys. Rev. B 60, 9061-9068 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krishnakumar, K.

K. Krishnakumar, "Micro-genetic algorithms for stationary and non-stationary function optimization," Proc. SPIE 1196, 289-296 (1989).

Kusunoki, F.

F. Kusunoki, T. Yotsuya, J. Takahara, and T. Kobayashi, "Propagation properties of guided waves in index-guided two-dimensional optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Moller, "One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.  2, 48-51 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Astilean, P. Lalanne, M. Palamaru, "Light transmission through metallic channels much smaller than the wavelength," Opt. Commun. 175, 265-273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lamprecht, B.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Nondiffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Nondiffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides," Nano Lett. 6, 1928-1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, "Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Liu, L.

Luyssaert, B.

B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, "Efficient nonadiabatic planar waveguide tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2462-2468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon,W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, "A compact photonic horizontal spot-size converter realized in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73-75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, "Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massarek, I.

Matsuzaki, Y.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, "Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moller, K. D.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Moller, "One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.  2, 48-51 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, A.

Nordin, G. P.

Offrein, B. J.

Ogawa, T.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, "Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, "Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palamaru, M.

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Moller, "One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.  2, 48-51 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Astilean, P. Lalanne, M. Palamaru, "Light transmission through metallic channels much smaller than the wavelength," Opt. Commun. 175, 265-273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, "Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845-2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, "Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Porto, J. A.

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, "Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845-2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Requicha, A. A. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salerno, M.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Nondiffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Schider, G.

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Nondiffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Selker, M. D.

Shakya, J.

Spuhler, M. M.

Taillaert, D.

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon,W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, "A compact photonic horizontal spot-size converter realized in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73-75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahara, J.

F. Kusunoki, T. Yotsuya, J. Takahara, and T. Kobayashi, "Propagation properties of guided waves in index-guided two-dimensional optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Takahara, S. Yamagishi, H. Taki, A. Morimoto, and T. Kobayashi, "Guiding of a one-dimensional optical beam with nanometer diameter," Opt. Lett. 22, 475-477 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takakura, Y.

Y. Takakura, "Optical resonance in a narrow slit in a thick metallic screen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5601-5603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taki, H.

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, "Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158-1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, "Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158-1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon,W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, "A compact photonic horizontal spot-size converter realized in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73-75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vandersteegen, P.

B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, "Efficient nonadiabatic planar waveguide tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2462-2468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon,W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, "A compact photonic horizontal spot-size converter realized in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73-75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vernon, K. C.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, "Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, C.

Wang, B.

Weeber, J. C.

J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, C. Girard, J. R. Krenn, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Plasmon polaritons of metallic nanowires for controlling submicron propagation of light," Phys. Rev. B 60, 9061-9068 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wiaux, V.

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon,W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, "A compact photonic horizontal spot-size converter realized in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73-75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Winz, R.

H. Henke, H. Fruchting, and R. Winz, "Diffraction by a flanged parallel-plate waveguide and a slit in a thick screen," Radio Sci. 14, 11-18 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. D.

Yamagishi, S.

Yamaguchi, K.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, "Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yotsuya, T.

F. Kusunoki, T. Yotsuya, J. Takahara, and T. Kobayashi, "Propagation properties of guided waves in index-guided two-dimensional optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zia, R.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, "Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158-1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Kusunoki, T. Yotsuya, J. Takahara, and T. Kobayashi, "Propagation properties of guided waves in index-guided two-dimensional optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 211101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, "Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Koonath, K. Kishima, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, "Sculpting of three-dimensional nano-optical structures in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4909-4911 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Koonath, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, "Vertically-coupled micro-resonators realized using three-dimensional sculpting in silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1018-1020 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

J. R. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, H. Ditlbacher, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Nondiffraction-limited light transport by gold nanowires," Europhys. Lett. 60, 663-669 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

B. Luyssaert, P. Vandersteegen, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon,W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, and R. Baets, "A compact photonic horizontal spot-size converter realized in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 73-75 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. A, (1)

P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, S. Astilean, M. Palamaru, and K. D. Moller, "One-mode model and Airy-like formulae for one-dimensional metallic gratings," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.  2, 48-51 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nano Lett. (1)

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides," Nano Lett. 6, 1928-1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Astilean, P. Lalanne, M. Palamaru, "Light transmission through metallic channels much smaller than the wavelength," Opt. Commun. 175, 265-273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. N. Economou, "Surface plasmons in thin films," Phys. Rev. 182, 539-554 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. C. Weeber, A. Dereux, C. Girard, J. R. Krenn, and J. P. Goudonnet, "Plasmon polaritons of metallic nanowires for controlling submicron propagation of light," Phys. Rev. B 60, 9061-9068 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Brongersma, J. W. Hartman, and H. A. Atwater, "Electromagnetic energy transfer and switching in nanoparticle chain arrays below the diffraction limit," Phys. Rev. B 62, R16356-R16359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Takakura, "Optical resonance in a narrow slit in a thick metallic screen," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5601-5603 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Martin-Moreno, "Multiple paths to enhance optical transmission through a single subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 213901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, "Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2845-2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. Krishnakumar, "Micro-genetic algorithms for stationary and non-stationary function optimization," Proc. SPIE 1196, 289-296 (1989).

Radio Sci. (1)

H. Henke, H. Fruchting, and R. Winz, "Diffraction by a flanged parallel-plate waveguide and a slit in a thick screen," Radio Sci. 14, 11-18 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, edited by E. D. Palik (Academic, New York, 1985).

J. Jin, The Finite Element Method in Electromagnetics, (Wiley, New York, 2002).

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics, (Artech House, Boston, 1995).

D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, (Wiley, New York, 1998).

P. Ginzburg, D. Arbel, and M. Orenstein, "Efficient coupling of nano-plasmonics to micro-photonic circuitry," in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper CWN5.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Power transmission efficiency (blue line) of a coupler between a dielectric and a MDM waveguide as a function of the width of the plasmonic waveguide wp at λ0 =1.55 μm calculated using FDFD. The coupler, created by placing the dielectric waveguide terminated flat at the exit end of the MDM waveguide, is shown in the inset. Results are shown for wd = 300 nm. Also shown is the transmission efficiency, if the metal in the MDM waveguide is lossless (black line), or perfect electric conductor (red line). (b) Coupler reflection coefficients Rdp (blue line), and Rpd (red line) as a function of the width of the plasmonic waveguide wp . All other parameters are as in Fig. 1(a). Experimental data are used for the dielectric constant of the metal, including both the real and imaginary parts.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Transmission efficiency as a function of ϵp for wp =50 nm. All other parameters are as in Fig. 1(a). Experimental data are used for the dielectric constant of the metal, including both the real and imaginary parts. (b) Transmission efficiency as a function of wd for wp =50 nm (blue line), wp =100 nm (red line). All other parameters are as in Fig. 1(a). Experimental data are used for the dielectric constant of the metal, including both the real and imaginary parts.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Profile of the magnetic field amplitude |H| for wd =300 nm, wp =50 nm (Fig. 1(a)). (b) Profile of the electric field amplitude |E| for wd =300 nm, wp =50 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Schematic of a coupler consisting of a multisection taper. (b) Profile of the magnetic field amplitude |H| of the optimized coupler design for wd =300 nm, wp =50 nm and 8 waveguide sections. The optimized widths of the dielectric waveguide sections are w 1 =420 nm, w 2 =440 nm, w 3 =440 nm, w 4 =340 nm, while the widths of the MDM waveguide sections are w 5 =330 nm, w 6 =40 nm, w 7 =40 nm, w 8 =120 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission efficiency as a function of wavelength for the couplers of Fig. 1(a) (blue line) and Fig. 4(a) (red line). In both cases the coupler parameters were optimized at a single wavelength of λ0 =1.55 μm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Schematic of a Fabry-Perot cavity structure consisting of a MDM waveguide sandwiched between two dielectric waveguides. (b) Transmission efficiency for the structure of Fig. 6(a) as a function of l at λ0 =1.55 μm. Results are shown for wd =300 nm, wp =50 nm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Schematic of a coupler structure in which a silica-silicon-silica dielectric slab waveguide is coupled to a two-dimensional silver-silica-silver MDM waveguide.

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