Abstract

By performing time-resolved experiments and power-dependent measurements using femtosecond pulses inside submicron cross-section Si photonic-wire waveguides, we demonstrate strong cross-phase modulation (XPM) effects. We find that XPM in Si wires can be significant even for low peak pump powers, i.e., ∼15 mW for π phase shift. Our experimental data closely match numerical simulations using a rigorous coupled-wave theoretical treatment. Our results suggest that XPM is a potentially useful approach for all-optical control of photonic devices in Si wires.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (15)

N. C. Panoiu, X. G. Chen, and R. M. Osgood, “Modulation instability in silicon photonic nanowires,” Opt. Lett 31,3609–3611 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, N. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, and R. M. Osgood, “Third-order Dispersion and Ultrafast Pulse Propagation in Silicon Wire Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 18,2617–2619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Yin, Q. Lin, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion tailoring and soliton propagation in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett 31,1295–1297 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 42,160–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon on insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14,3853–3863 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broadband Optical Parametric Gain on a Silicon Photonic Chip,” Nature 441,960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. McMillan, X. D. Yang, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett 31,1235–1237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, Y. -H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,1182–1188 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Mode conversion losses in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 14,3872–3886 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tailored anomalous GVD in Si channel waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,4357–4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Ultrabroadband parametric generation and wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,4786–4799 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14,5524–5534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dekker, A. Driessen, T. Wahlbrink, C. Moormann, J. Niehusmann, and M. Först, “Ultrafast Kerr-induced all-optical wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides using 1.55 μm femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 14,8336–8346 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "“Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14,9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,12380–12387 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (7)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438,65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. Vlasov, “C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13,4341–4349 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, “Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13,4629–4637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Emelett and R. Soref, “Analysis of dual-microring-resonator cross-connect switches and modulators,” Opt. Express 13,7840–7853 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dimitripoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett 86,071115 (2005)
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433,294–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435,325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (8)

2003 (2)

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 15,1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett 82,2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, TPA and SPM in Si waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett 80,416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Yariv, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A scherer, “Coupled-resonator optical waveguide: a proposal and analysis,” Opt. Lett 24,711–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1989).

G. P. Agrawal, P. L. Baldeck, and R. R. Alfano, “Temporal and spectral effects of cross-phase modulation on copropagating ultrashort pulses in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 40,5063–5072 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects of silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-23123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

L. Yin, Q. Lin, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion tailoring and soliton propagation in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett 31,1295–1297 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Ultrabroadband parametric generation and wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,4786–4799 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 1989).

G. P. Agrawal, P. L. Baldeck, and R. R. Alfano, “Temporal and spectral effects of cross-phase modulation on copropagating ultrashort pulses in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 40,5063–5072 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

G. P. Agrawal, P. L. Baldeck, and R. R. Alfano, “Temporal and spectral effects of cross-phase modulation on copropagating ultrashort pulses in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 40,5063–5072 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asghari, M.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, TPA and SPM in Si waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett 80,416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baldeck, P. L.

G. P. Agrawal, P. L. Baldeck, and R. R. Alfano, “Temporal and spectral effects of cross-phase modulation on copropagating ultrashort pulses in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 40,5063–5072 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects of silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-23123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Boyraz, O.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 42,160–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, N. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, and R. M. Osgood, “Third-order Dispersion and Ultrafast Pulse Propagation in Silicon Wire Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 18,2617–2619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,12380–12387 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14,5524–5534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, S. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, “Cross-Phase Modulation in Si Photonic Wire Waveguides,” CLEO Conference Proceedings, Anaheim, CA (2006).

Chen, X. G.

N. C. Panoiu, X. G. Chen, and R. M. Osgood, “Modulation instability in silicon photonic nanowires,” Opt. Lett 31,3609–3611 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claps, R.

D. Dimitripoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett 86,071115 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

Dadap, J. I.

X. Chen, N. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, and R. M. Osgood, “Third-order Dispersion and Ultrafast Pulse Propagation in Silicon Wire Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 18,2617–2619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,12380–12387 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. Vlasov, “C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13,4341–4349 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Raman amplification in ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12,3713–3718 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Spontaneous Raman scattering in ultrasmall silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett 29,2755 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, S. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, “Cross-Phase Modulation in Si Photonic Wire Waveguides,” CLEO Conference Proceedings, Anaheim, CA (2006).

Day, I. E.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, TPA and SPM in Si waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett 80,416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, R.

Dimitripoulos, D.

D. Dimitripoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett 86,071115 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett 82,2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drake, J.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, TPA and SPM in Si waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett 80,416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

Dulkeith, E.

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14,5524–5534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon on insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14,3853–3863 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Emelett, S.

Espinola, R.

Espinola, R. L.

J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Spontaneous Raman scattering in ultrasmall silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett 29,2755 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 15,1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433,294–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

Fauchet, P. M.

Först, M.

Foster, M. A.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broadband Optical Parametric Gain on a Silicon Photonic Chip,” Nature 441,960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tailored anomalous GVD in Si channel waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,4357–4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukuda, H.

Gaeta, A. L.

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tailored anomalous GVD in Si channel waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,4357–4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broadband Optical Parametric Gain on a Silicon Photonic Chip,” Nature 441,960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett 82,2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geis, M. W.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond, submilliwatt, silicon on insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 16,2514–2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon on insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14,3853–3863 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433,294–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438,65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harpin, A.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, TPA and SPM in Si waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett 80,416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, I.

X. Chen, N. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, and R. M. Osgood, “Third-order Dispersion and Ultrafast Pulse Propagation in Silicon Wire Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 18,2617–2619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,12380–12387 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, S. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, “Cross-Phase Modulation in Si Photonic Wire Waveguides,” CLEO Conference Proceedings, Anaheim, CA (2006).

Indukuri, T.

Itabashi, S.

Jalali, B.

Jhaveri, R.

D. Dimitripoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett 86,071115 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "“Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14,9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433,294–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koonath, P.

Kuo, Y. -H.

Lee, R. K.

A. Yariv, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A scherer, “Coupled-resonator optical waveguide: a proposal and analysis,” Opt. Lett 24,711–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liang, T. K.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, TPA and SPM in Si waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett 80,416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broadband Optical Parametric Gain on a Silicon Photonic Chip,” Nature 441,960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tailored anomalous GVD in Si channel waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,4357–4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435,325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

H. Rong, Y. -H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,1182–1188 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433,294–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond, submilliwatt, silicon on insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 16,2514–2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manolatou, C.

McMillan, J. E.

J. E. McMillan, X. D. Yang, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett 31,1235–1237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNab, S.

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438,65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Raman amplification in ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12,3713–3718 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12,1622–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Spontaneous Raman scattering in ultrasmall silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett 29,2755 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moormann, C.

Nicolaescu, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433,294–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Niehusmann, J.

O’Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438,65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osgood, R.

Osgood, R. M.

J. E. McMillan, X. D. Yang, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett 31,1235–1237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, N. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, and R. M. Osgood, “Third-order Dispersion and Ultrafast Pulse Propagation in Silicon Wire Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 18,2617–2619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Panoiu, X. G. Chen, and R. M. Osgood, “Modulation instability in silicon photonic nanowires,” Opt. Lett 31,3609–3611 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 42,160–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14,5524–5534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,12380–12387 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Spontaneous Raman scattering in ultrasmall silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett 29,2755 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 15,1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, S. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, “Cross-Phase Modulation in Si Photonic Wire Waveguides,” CLEO Conference Proceedings, Anaheim, CA (2006).

Paniccia, M.

H. Rong, Y. -H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,1182–1188 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433,294–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

Panoiu, N.

X. Chen, N. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, and R. M. Osgood, “Third-order Dispersion and Ultrafast Pulse Propagation in Silicon Wire Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 18,2617–2619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N. C.

N. C. Panoiu, X. G. Chen, and R. M. Osgood, “Modulation instability in silicon photonic nanowires,” Opt. Lett 31,3609–3611 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 42,160–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. McMillan, X. D. Yang, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett 31,1235–1237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14,5524–5534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,12380–12387 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, S. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, “Cross-Phase Modulation in Si Photonic Wire Waveguides,” CLEO Conference Proceedings, Anaheim, CA (2006).

Park, H.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435,325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett 82,2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raghunathan, V.

Rieger, G. W.

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 μm pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett 84,900–902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, S.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, TPA and SPM in Si waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett 80,416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

H. Rong, Y. -H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,1182–1188 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433,294–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schares, L.

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon on insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14,3853–3863 (2006).
[CrossRef]

scherer, A

A. Yariv, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A scherer, “Coupled-resonator optical waveguide: a proposal and analysis,” Opt. Lett 24,711–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435,325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B. S.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broadband Optical Parametric Gain on a Silicon Photonic Chip,” Nature 441,960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tailored anomalous GVD in Si channel waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,4357–4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekaric, L.

Sharping, J. E.

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tailored anomalous GVD in Si channel waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,4357–4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broadband Optical Parametric Gain on a Silicon Photonic Chip,” Nature 441,960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shoji, T.

Soref, R.

S. Emelett and R. Soref, “Analysis of dual-microring-resonator cross-connect switches and modulators,” Opt. Express 13,7840–7853 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects of silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-23123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond, submilliwatt, silicon on insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 16,2514–2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tai, M.-C.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 15,1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

Takahashi, M.

Tsang, H. K.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, TPA and SPM in Si waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett 80,416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

Turner, A. C.

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tailored anomalous GVD in Si channel waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,4357–4362 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broadband Optical Parametric Gain on a Silicon Photonic Chip,” Nature 441,960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virk, K. S.

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 μm pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett 84,900–902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y.

Vlasov, Y. A.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Mode conversion losses in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 14,3872–3886 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon on insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14,3853–3863 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14,5524–5534 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,12380–12387 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438,65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Raman amplification in ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12,3713–3718 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12,1622–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Spontaneous Raman scattering in ultrasmall silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett 29,2755 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, S. McNab, Y. A. Vlasov, and R. M. Osgood, “Cross-Phase Modulation in Si Photonic Wire Waveguides,” CLEO Conference Proceedings, Anaheim, CA (2006).

Wahlbrink, T.

Watanabe, T.

Williamson, R. C.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond, submilliwatt, silicon on insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 16,2514–2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. S.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, TPA and SPM in Si waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett 80,416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

J. E. McMillan, X. D. Yang, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett 31,1235–1237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woo, J. C. S.

D. Dimitripoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett 86,071115 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon on insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14,3853–3863 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Mode conversion losses in silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 14,3872–3886 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435,325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

A. Yariv, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A scherer, “Coupled-resonator optical waveguide: a proposal and analysis,” Opt. Lett 24,711–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

Yang, X. D.

J. E. McMillan, X. D. Yang, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, and C. W. Wong, “Enhanced stimulated Raman scattering in slow-light photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Lett 31,1235–1237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yardley, J. T.

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 15,1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, and A scherer, “Coupled-resonator optical waveguide: a proposal and analysis,” Opt. Lett 24,711–713 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, Q. Lin, and G. P. Agrawal, “Dispersion tailoring and soliton propagation in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett 31,1295–1297 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, J. F.

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 μm pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett 84,900–902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Appl. Phys. Lett (4)

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, TPA and SPM in Si waveguides at 1.5 μm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett 80,416–418 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitripoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett 86,071115 (2005)
[CrossRef]

G. W. Rieger, K. S. Virk, and J. F. Young, “Nonlinear propagation of ultrafast 1.5 μm pulses in high-index-contrast silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett 84,900–902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett 82,2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Express (1)

E. Dulkeith, F. Xia, L. Schares, W. M. J. Green, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Group index and group velocity dispersion in silicon on insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14,3853–3863 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (2)

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, “Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron 42,160–170 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects of silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-23123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett (3)

X. Chen, N. Panoiu, I. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, and R. M. Osgood, “Third-order Dispersion and Ultrafast Pulse Propagation in Silicon Wire Waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 18,2617–2619 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Espinola, M.-C. Tai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood, “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 15,1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Submicrosecond, submilliwatt, silicon on insulator thermooptic switch,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 16,2514–2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nature (4)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O’Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, “Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides,” Nature 438,65–69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broadband Optical Parametric Gain on a Silicon Photonic Chip,” Nature 441,960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433,294–296 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435,325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (16)

S. Emelett and R. Soref, “Analysis of dual-microring-resonator cross-connect switches and modulators,” Opt. Express 13,7840–7853 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. Osgood, S. McNab, and Y. Vlasov, “C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13,4341–4349 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, “Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13,4629–4637 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Ultrabroadband parametric generation and wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,4786–4799 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, Y. -H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14,1182–1188 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express 12,5269–5273 (2004).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Effective and group indices of the silicon photonic wire waveguide; in (b) second-(solid) and third-order (dashed) dispersion coefficients of the silicon photonic wire.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison between experimental and theoretical normalized pump spectra, corresponding to Pp = 40mW. Figures in inset show experimental results of pump spectra corresponding to peak pump powers of (i) 5 mW, (ii) 20 mW, and (iii) 35 mW.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental spectra showing the dependence of the probe spectrum on the peak pump power for Td = 200 fs. For each subplot, the red curve shows the probe spectrum without the presence of the pump and the blue curve shows the probe spectrum with the pump. Strong pump power dependence is observed.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental spectra showing the dependence of the probe spectrum on the probe power for a fixed pump-probe delay and a fixed pump power of Pp = 20 mW.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Panel (a): Simulated probe spectra in linear scale for different values of peak pump powers (Note: probe spectra are vertically offset for clarity). Inset in panel (a): probe spectra in logarithmic scale. Panel (b): Dependence of probe spectra on probe power (in logarithmic scale) at a fixed pump power Pp = 100 mW. Note that the shape of the output spectrum remains unchanged with increasing peak probe power by 10×.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Experimental (a) and numerical simulation (b) results showing the dependence of the XPM on the time delay. The sub-plots show the output probe spectra measured at several time delays. For each sub-plot, on the y-axis, the optical power is normalized to the peak of the output at Td = 2000 fs. The center wavelength of the probe is 1590 nm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Temporal (a) and spectral (b) profiles of the probe pulse. Red line: experiment; blue dotted line: numerical simulation.

Fig 8.
Fig 8.

Center wavelength shift as a function of time delay, Td. Td is positive (negative) when the pump is trailing (leading) the probe at the input of Si-wire waveguide.

Equations (7)

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i ( u p z + 1 v g , p u p t ) β 2 , p 2 2 u p t 2 i β 3 , p 6 3 u p t 3 = icκ p 2 nv g , p ( α in + α FC p ) u p ω p κ p nv g , p δn FC p u p 3 ω p ε 0 A 0 v g , p ( P p Γ p v g , p u p 2 + 2 P s Γ sp v g , s u s 2 ) u p ,
i ( u s z + 1 v g , s u s t ) β 2 , s 2 2 u s t 2 i β 3 , s 6 3 u s t 3 = icκ s 2 nv g , s ( α in + α FC s ) u s ω s κ s nv g , s δ n FC s u s 3 ω s ε 0 A 0 v g , s ( P s Γ s v g , s u s 2 + 2 P p Γ ps v g , p u p 2 ) u s ,
N t = N t c + 3 ε 0 A 0 2 [ P p 2 Γ p " v g , p 2 u p 4 + P s 2 Γ s " v g , s 2 u s 4 + 4 ( ω p Γ sp " + ω s Γ ps " ) P p P s ( ω p + ω s ) v g , p v g , s u p u s 2 ] ,
ϕ s z T = z γ s P s u s 0 T 2 + 2 γ ps P p 0 z u p ( 0 , T + z ' Δ ) 2 dz ' .
ϕ s z τ = γ ps P p z π δ [ erf ( τ τ d + δ ) erf ( τ τ d ) ] ,
δω s z τ = 1 T p ϕ s ( z , τ ) τ = 2 γ ps P p z T p δ { exp [ ( τ τ d + δ ) 2 ] exp [ ( τ τ d ) 2 ] } .
u s 0 T = P s { exp [ 1 2 ( T T s ) 2 T αT s ] + A exp [ 1 2 ( T αT s ) 2 ] }

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