Abstract

Planar electric split ring resonator (eSRR) metamaterials and their corresponding inverse structures are designed and characterized computationally and experimentally utilizing finite element modeling and THz time domain spectroscopy. A complementary response is observed in transmission. Specifically, for the eSRRs a decrease in transmission is observed at resonance whereas the inverse structures display an increase in transmission. The frequency dependent effective complex dielectric functions are extracted from the experimental data and, in combination with simulations to determine the surface current density and local electric field,provide considerable insight into the electromagnetic response of our planar metamaterials. These structures may find applications in the construction of various THz filters, transparent THz windows, or THz grid structures ideal for constructing THz switching/modulation devices.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: Theoretical and experimental investigations," Phys. Rev. B (in press) (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (9)

J. F. O’Hara, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Enhanced terahertz detection via ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Uhd Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., "Metal-insulator phase transition in VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ulf Leonhardt, "Optical conformal mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Bossard, D. H. Werner, T. S. Mayer, J. A. Smith, Y. U. Tang, R. P. Drupp, and L. Li, "The design and fabrication of planar multiband metallodielectric frequency selective surfaces for infrared applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 54, 1265-1276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, "Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

T. W. Crowe, T. Globus, D. L. Woolard and J. L. Hesler, "Terahertz sources and detectors and their application to biological sensing," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A 362, 365-377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

D. Zimdars, "Fiber-pigtailed terahertz time domain spectroscopy instrumentation for package inspection and security imaging," Proc. SPIE 5070, 108-116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Baumann, W. A. Bailey, Jr., A. Naweed, W. D. Goodhue, and A. J. Gatesman, "Wet-etch optimization of free-standing terahertz frequency-selective structures," Opt. Lett. 28, 938-940 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

R. Marqués, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, "Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

D. M. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss and M. Geva, "Noncontact semiconductor wafer characterization with the terahertz Hall effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 16-18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Jacobsen, D. M. Mittleman and M. C. Nuss, "Chemical recognition of gases and gas mixtures with terahertz waves," Opt. Lett. 21, 2011-2013 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

J. E. Davis, "Bandpass interference filters for very far infrared astronomy," Infrared Phys. 20, 287-290 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1968 (2)

R. Ulrich, "Interference filters for the far infrared," Appl. Opt. 7, 1987-1996 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. USP. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

R. Ulrich, "Far-infrared properties of metallic mesh and its complementary structure," Infrared Phys. 7, 37-55 (1967).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Rawcliffe and C. M. Randall, "Metal mesh interference filters for the far infrared," Appl. Opt. 6, 1353-1357 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aronsson, M. T.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: Theoretical and experimental investigations," Phys. Rev. B (in press) (2007).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: Theoretical and experimental investigations," Phys. Rev. B (in press) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. O’Hara, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Enhanced terahertz detection via ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, W. A.

Barat, R.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, F.

Bossard, J. A.

J. A. Bossard, D. H. Werner, T. S. Mayer, J. A. Smith, Y. U. Tang, R. P. Drupp, and L. Li, "The design and fabrication of planar multiband metallodielectric frequency selective surfaces for infrared applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 54, 1265-1276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chase, S. T.

Chen, H.-T.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crowe, T. W.

T. W. Crowe, T. Globus, D. L. Woolard and J. L. Hesler, "Terahertz sources and detectors and their application to biological sensing," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A 362, 365-377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Porterfield, J. L. Hesler, R. Densing, E. R. Mueller, T. W. Crowe, and R. M. WeikleII, "Resonant metal-mesh bandpass filters for the far infrared," Appl. Opt. 33, 6046-6052 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J.

D. M. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss and M. Geva, "Noncontact semiconductor wafer characterization with the terahertz Hall effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 16-18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. E.

J. E. Davis, "Bandpass interference filters for very far infrared astronomy," Infrared Phys. 20, 287-290 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, D. H.

Densing, R.

Drupp, R. P.

J. A. Bossard, D. H. Werner, T. S. Mayer, J. A. Smith, Y. U. Tang, R. P. Drupp, and L. Li, "The design and fabrication of planar multiband metallodielectric frequency selective surfaces for infrared applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 54, 1265-1276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Edewaard, D. C.

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fattinger, Ch.

Federici, J. F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

P. Uhd Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., "Metal-insulator phase transition in VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gary, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gatesman, A. J.

Geva, M.

D. M. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss and M. Geva, "Noncontact semiconductor wafer characterization with the terahertz Hall effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 16-18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gillan, P.

Globus, T.

T. W. Crowe, T. Globus, D. L. Woolard and J. L. Hesler, "Terahertz sources and detectors and their application to biological sensing," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A 362, 365-377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goodhue, W. D.

Gossard, A. C.

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. O’Hara, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Enhanced terahertz detection via ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Haglund, R. F.

P. Uhd Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., "Metal-insulator phase transition in VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

P. Uhd Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., "Metal-insulator phase transition in VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hesler, J. L.

T. W. Crowe, T. Globus, D. L. Woolard and J. L. Hesler, "Terahertz sources and detectors and their application to biological sensing," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A 362, 365-377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Porterfield, J. L. Hesler, R. Densing, E. R. Mueller, T. W. Crowe, and R. M. WeikleII, "Resonant metal-mesh bandpass filters for the far infrared," Appl. Opt. 33, 6046-6052 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: Theoretical and experimental investigations," Phys. Rev. B (in press) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, B. B.

Huang, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. H.

Joseph, R. D.

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keiding, S.

Krug, P. A.

Lee, M.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: Theoretical and experimental investigations," Phys. Rev. B (in press) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

J. A. Bossard, D. H. Werner, T. S. Mayer, J. A. Smith, Y. U. Tang, R. P. Drupp, and L. Li, "The design and fabrication of planar multiband metallodielectric frequency selective surfaces for infrared applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 54, 1265-1276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, R.

P. Uhd Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., "Metal-insulator phase transition in VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, J. C.

Marqués, R.

R. Marqués, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, "Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, T. S.

J. A. Bossard, D. H. Werner, T. S. Mayer, J. A. Smith, Y. U. Tang, R. P. Drupp, and L. Li, "The design and fabrication of planar multiband metallodielectric frequency selective surfaces for infrared applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 54, 1265-1276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McPhedran, R. C.

Medina, F.

R. Marqués, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, "Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss and M. Geva, "Noncontact semiconductor wafer characterization with the terahertz Hall effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 16-18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jacobsen, D. M. Mittleman and M. C. Nuss, "Chemical recognition of gases and gas mixtures with terahertz waves," Opt. Lett. 21, 2011-2013 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, "Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Möller, K. D.

Mueller, E. R.

Naweed, A.

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuss, M. C.

O’Hara, J. F.

J. F. O’Hara, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Enhanced terahertz detection via ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, F.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: Theoretical and experimental investigations," Phys. Rev. B (in press) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porterfield, D. W.

Rafii-El-Idrissi, R.

R. Marqués, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, "Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Randall, C. M.

Rawcliffe, R. D.

Schulkin, B.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, "Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skocpol, W. J.

Smith, D. R.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, "Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, J. A.

J. A. Bossard, D. H. Werner, T. S. Mayer, J. A. Smith, Y. U. Tang, R. P. Drupp, and L. Li, "The design and fabrication of planar multiband metallodielectric frequency selective surfaces for infrared applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 54, 1265-1276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, J. Y.

P. Uhd Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., "Metal-insulator phase transition in VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y. U.

J. A. Bossard, D. H. Werner, T. S. Mayer, J. A. Smith, Y. U. Tang, R. P. Drupp, and L. Li, "The design and fabrication of planar multiband metallodielectric frequency selective surfaces for infrared applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 54, 1265-1276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: Theoretical and experimental investigations," Phys. Rev. B (in press) (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. O’Hara, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Enhanced terahertz detection via ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thoman, A.

P. Uhd Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., "Metal-insulator phase transition in VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tinkham, M.

Tomaselli, V. P.

Uhd Jepsen, P.

P. Uhd Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., "Metal-insulator phase transition in VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich, "Interference filters for the far infrared," Appl. Opt. 7, 1987-1996 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ulrich, "Far-infrared properties of metallic mesh and its complementary structure," Infrared Phys. 7, 37-55 (1967).
[CrossRef]

van Exter, M.

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. USP. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weikle, R. M.

Weitz, D. A.

Werner, D. H.

J. A. Bossard, D. H. Werner, T. S. Mayer, J. A. Smith, Y. U. Tang, R. P. Drupp, and L. Li, "The design and fabrication of planar multiband metallodielectric frequency selective surfaces for infrared applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 54, 1265-1276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Whitbourn, L. B.

Woolard, D. L.

T. W. Crowe, T. Globus, D. L. Woolard and J. L. Hesler, "Terahertz sources and detectors and their application to biological sensing," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A 362, 365-377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wright, W.

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Youngs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zide, J. M. O.

J. F. O’Hara, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Enhanced terahertz detection via ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimdars, D.

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Zimdars, "Fiber-pigtailed terahertz time domain spectroscopy instrumentation for package inspection and security imaging," Proc. SPIE 5070, 108-116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. F. O’Hara, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Enhanced terahertz detection via ErAs:GaAs nanoisland superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 251119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Mittleman, J. Cunningham, M. C. Nuss and M. Geva, "Noncontact semiconductor wafer characterization with the terahertz Hall effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 16-18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, "Electric-field-coupled resonators for negative permittivity metamaterials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

J. A. Bossard, D. H. Werner, T. S. Mayer, J. A. Smith, Y. U. Tang, R. P. Drupp, and L. Li, "The design and fabrication of planar multiband metallodielectric frequency selective surfaces for infrared applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 54, 1265-1276 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. (2)

R. Ulrich, "Far-infrared properties of metallic mesh and its complementary structure," Infrared Phys. 7, 37-55 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Davis, "Bandpass interference filters for very far infrared astronomy," Infrared Phys. 20, 287-290 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nat. Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature 444, 597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A (1)

T. W. Crowe, T. Globus, D. L. Woolard and J. L. Hesler, "Terahertz sources and detectors and their application to biological sensing," Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A 362, 365-377 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: Theoretical and experimental investigations," Phys. Rev. B (in press) (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Uhd Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., "Metal-insulator phase transition in VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. B 74, 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Marqués, F. Medina, and R. Rafii-El-Idrissi, "Role of bianisotropy in negative permeability and left-handed metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, "Dynamical electric and magnetic response at terahertz frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Zimdars, "Fiber-pigtailed terahertz time domain spectroscopy instrumentation for package inspection and security imaging," Proc. SPIE 5070, 108-116 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (5)

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulf Leonhardt, "Optical conformal mapping," Science 312, 1777-1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780-1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. F. Federici, B. Schulkin, F. Huang, D. Gary, R. Barat, F. Oliveira and D. Zimdars, "THz imaging and sensing for security applications - explosives, weapons and drugs," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S266-S280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. USP. (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. USP. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. A. Kong, "Electromagnetic wave theory," 2nd Edition, (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1990).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Geometry of original planar metamaterial unit cells (OE1-OE6) and their complements (CE1-CE6) with dimensions described in the text. The polarization of normally incident THz radiation is configured as shown in OE1 and CE1 for the original and complementary metamaterials, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of the experimental configuration for measurements of THz transmission in time domain. The black curves indicate the measured time domain waveforms of the incident and transmitted THz pulses through a complementary metamaterial sample (CE2).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Frequency dependent THz electric field transmission coefficients of the original (red curves) and the complementary (blue curves) metamaterials. The field configuration of the THz radiation is shown in OE1 (CE1) of Fig. 1 for the original (complementary) metamaterials.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Numerical simulation results of original planar metamaterials. All simulations are for the low frequency resonant response. The red arrows indicate the induced surface current density, and the color represents the electric field norm. The incident field is configured as indicated in OE1 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Numerical simulation results of complementary planar metamaterials. All simulations are for the low frequency resonant response. The red arrows indicate the induced surface current density, and the color represents the electric field norm. The incident field is configured as indicated in CE1 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Extracted frequency dependent dielectric function for the original metamaterials assuming a cubic unit cell. The red and blue curves show the real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric function.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Extracted frequency dependent dielectric function for the complementary metamaterials assuming a cubic unit cell. The red and blue curves show the real and imaginary parts of the complex dielectric function.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E c Z 0 H = E 0 c , H c + E Z 0 = H 0 c
t ( ω ) = t c ( ω ) = 1 .

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