Abstract

A negative permeability in a periodic array of pairs of thin silver strips is demonstrated experimentally for two distinct samples. The effect of the strip surface roughness on negative permeability is evaluated. The first sample, Sample A, is fabricated of thinner strips with a root mean square roughness of 7 nm, while Sample B is made of thicker strips with 3-nm roughness. The real part of permeability, μ́, is -1 at a wavelength of 770 nm in Sample A and -1.7 at 725 nm in Sample B. Relative to prototypes simulated with ideal strips, larger strip roughness acts to decrease |μ́| by a factor of 7.8 in Sample A versus a factor of 2.4 decrease for Sample B.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoŝ, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative refractive index in optics of metal-dielectric composites," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 423-433 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, T. A. Klar, and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative index metamaterial combining magnetic resonators with metal films," Opt. Express 14, 7872-7877 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Shvets and Y. A. Urzhumov, "Negative index meta-materials based on two-dimensional metallic structures," J. Opt. A 8, S122 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 65-74 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 434-438 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(R) (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. N. Grigorenko, "Negative refractive index in artificial metamaterials," Opt. Lett. 31, 2483-2485 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, D. Werner, D.-H. Kwon, and V. M. Shalaev, "Comment on "Negative Refractive Index in Artificial Metamaterials," accepted for publication in Opt. Lett.
  14. A. V. Kildishev and U. K. Chettiar, "Cascading optical negative index metamaterials," accepted for publication in the Journal of Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society.
  15. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden," Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (6)

2005 (2)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 65-74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoŝ, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 434-438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burger, S.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Chettiar, U. K.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dolling, G.

Drachev, V. P.

Enkrich, C.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 434-438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frauenglass, A.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Klar, T. A.

Koschny, T.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koschny, Th.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden," Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 434-438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markos, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoŝ, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Minhas, B. K.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

Padilla, W. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

Pendry, J. B.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podolskiy, V. A.

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 65-74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

A. V. Kildishev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Negative refractive index in optics of metal-dielectric composites," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 423-433 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 65-74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoŝ, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shvets, G.

G. Shvets and Y. A. Urzhumov, "Negative index meta-materials based on two-dimensional metallic structures," J. Opt. A 8, S122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoŝ, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden," Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoŝ, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle, G.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Urzhumov, Y. A.

G. Shvets and Y. A. Urzhumov, "Negative index meta-materials based on two-dimensional metallic structures," J. Opt. A 8, S122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden," Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength," Opt. Lett. 32, 53-55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H.-K.

Zhang, L.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, K. J. Malloy, S. R. J. Brueck, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood, "Demonstration of metal-dielectric negative-index metamaterials with improved performance at optical frequencies," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 434-438 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zschiedrich, L.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

V. A. Podolskiy, A. K. Sarychev, and V. M. Shalaev, "Plasmon modes in metal nanowires and left-handed materials," J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 11, 65-74 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

G. Shvets and Y. A. Urzhumov, "Negative index meta-materials based on two-dimensional metallic structures," J. Opt. A 8, S122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoŝ, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients," Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative index materials using simple short wire pairs," Phys. Rev. B 73, 041101(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. Zhang, W. Fan, B. K. Minhas, A. Frauenglass, K. J. Malloy, and S. R. J. Brueck, "Midinfrared resonant magnetic nanostructures exhibiting a negative permeability," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 037402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and Visible frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

T. J. Yen, W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz magnetic response from artificial materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351-1353 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, D. Werner, D.-H. Kwon, and V. M. Shalaev, "Comment on "Negative Refractive Index in Artificial Metamaterials," accepted for publication in Opt. Lett.

A. V. Kildishev and U. K. Chettiar, "Cascading optical negative index metamaterials," accepted for publication in the Journal of Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Ideal unit cell for the array of coupled silver nano-strips of width w that are separated by an alumina spacer of the same width; here t is the thickness of both strips and d is the thickness of the spacer. The strips are infinite in y and periodic in x with period p. (b) The real part of ϵ and μ shown for the cell with w = 140 nm, t = 35 nm, d = 40 nm, and p = 300 nm. The optical constants of bulk silver [15] are taken for the strips. The refractive index of the substrate is 1.52. (c) The actual cross-section of samples obtained after fabrication (left half). Right half shows that the total B-field between the strips is opposite to the incident H-field at the magnetic resonance.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). FE SEM picture of the periodic array of coupled silver strips (Sample A). (b) Transmission and reflection spectra of Sample A measured at normal incidence with TE polarization, here λd is the diffraction threshold. The experimental spectra are compared to the results of numerical modeling. The optical constants of silver strips are taken from the experimental data for bulk silver [15]. (c) Transmission, absorption and reflection spectra of Sample A at normal incidence with TM polarization compared to spectra obtained from simulations. In this case, e of the silver strips was adjusted to match excessive losses. (d) The real part of the effective permeability (μ́) and effective permittivity (ϵ́)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). FE SEM picture of Sample B. (The inset shows an AFM image of the sample.) (b) Comparison of the loss-adjustment factor a obtained for Samples A and B. Sample A demonstrates more excessive loss in comparison to bulk metal [15] and Sample B. (c) Transmission, absorption and reflection spectra of Sample B at normal incidence with TM polarization compared to spectra obtained from simulations. In this case, ϵ″ of the silver strips was adjusted to match excessive losses. (d) The real part of the effective permeability (μ́) and effective permittivity (ϵ́). A minimum μ́ of - 1.7 is obtained at 725 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Section analysis obtained from AFM scans of Sample A and Sample B (shown in panels (a) and (b) respectively).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Transmission, absoption and reflection spectra of Sample B at normal incidence with TM polarization compared to spectra obtained from simulations; here ϵ″ of silver was adjusted using a factor of α = 3 . (b) The real part of the effective values of μ, and ϵ́ obtained using the wavelength-independent factor α = 3 .

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