Abstract

Calf blood flow was measured simultaneously in healthy human subjects (n = 7) during cuff inflation and deflation using near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) and arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI (ASL-MRI). The DCS and ASL-MRI data exhibited highly correlated absolute and relative dynamic flow responses in each individual (p < 0.001). Peak flow variations during hyperemia were also significantly correlated, though more for relative (p = 0.003) than absolute (p = 0.016) flow. Repeated measurement variation was less than 8% for both modalities. The results provide much needed quantitative blood flow validation of the diffuse optical correlation method in humans.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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2006 (6)

T. Binzoni, T. S. Leung, D. Rufenacht, and D. T. Delpy, "Absorption and scattering coefficient dependence of laser-Doppler flowmetry models for large tissue volumes," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 311-333 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and Y. A. G., "Non-invasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Petersen, I. Zimine, Y. C. Ho, and X. Golay, "Non-invasive measurement of perfusion: a critical review of arterial spin labelling techniques," Br. J. Radiol. 79, 688-701 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lu, M. J. Donahue, and P. C. van Zijl, "Detrimental effects of BOLD signal in arterial spin labeling fMRI at high field strength," Magn. Reson. Med. 56, 546-552 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Real-time In Situ Monitoring of Human Prostate Photodynamic Therapy with Diffuse Light," Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 1279-1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, G. Q. Yu, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, "Diffuse optical correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain," Opt. Express 14, 1125-1144 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors," Opt. Lett. 30, 2915-2917 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, H. W. Wang, C. Zhou, E. M. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. Zhang, R. L. Wolf, A. C. Roc, D. C. Alsop, and J. A. Detre, "Amplitude-modulated continuous arterial spin-labeling 3.0-T perfusion MR imaging with a single coil: feasibility study," Radiology 235, 218-228 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent Blood Flow and Oxygenation in Human Skeletal Muscles Measured with Noninvasive Near-infrared Diffuse Optical Spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

C. M. Feng, S. Narayana, J. L. Lancaster, P. A. Jerabek, T. L. Arnow, F. Zhu, L. H. Tan, P. T. Fox, and J. H. Gao, "CBF changes during brain activation: fMRI vs. PET," Neuroimage 22, 443-446 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Parkes, W. Rashid, D. T. Chard, and P. S. Tofts, "Normal cerebral perfusion measurements using arterial spin labeling: reproducibility, stability, and age and gender effects," Magn. Reson. Med. 51, 736-743 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Quaresima, M. Ferrari, M. A. Franceschini, M. L. Hoimes, and S. Fantini, "Spatial distribution of vastus lateralis blood flow and oxyhemoglobin saturation measured at the end of isometric quadriceps contraction by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 413420 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (10)

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia," J Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-924 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Floyd, S. J. Ratcliffe, J. Wang, B. Resch, and J. A. Detre, "Precision of the CASL-perfusion MRI technique for the measurement of cerebral blood flow in whole brain and vascular territories," J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 18, 649-655 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, G. K. Aguirre, D. Y. Kimberg, A. C. Roc, L. Li, and J. A. Detre, "Arterial spin labeling perfusion fMRI with very low task frequency," Magn. Reson. Med. 49, 796-802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Pell, M. D. King, E. Proctor, D. L. Thomas, M. F. Lythgoe, D. G. Gadian, and R. J. Ordidge, "Comparative study of the FAIR technique of perfusion quantification with the hydrogen clearance method," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 689-699 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Weber, M. Gunther, M. P. Lichy, S. Delorme, A. Bongers, C. Thilmann, M. Essig, I. Zuna, L. R. Schad, J. Debus, and H. P. Schlemmer, "Comparison of arterial spin-labeling techniques and dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in perfusion imaging of normal brain tissue," Invest. Radiol. 38, 712-718 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Wolf, D. C. Alsop, M. L. McGarvey, J. A. Maldjian, J. Wang, and J. A. Detre, "Susceptibility contrast and arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI in cerebrovascular disease," J. Neuroimaging 13, 17-27 (2003).
[PubMed]

C. Binggeli, L. E. Spieker, R. Corti, I. Sudano, V. Stojanovic, D. Hayoz, T. F. Luscher, and G. Noll, "Statins enhance postischemic hyperemia in the skin circulation of hypercholesterolemic patients: a monitoring test of endothelial dysfunction for clinical practice," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 42, 71-77 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Binzoni, T. S. Leung, D. Boggett, and D. Delpy, "Non-invasive laser Doppler perfusion measurements of large tissue volumes and human skeletal muscle blood RMS velocity," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2527-2549 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, "Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution," Neuroimage 20, 828-839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

G. K. Aguirre, J. A. Detre, E. Zarahn, and D. C. Alsop, "Experimental design and the relative sensitivity of BOLD and perfusion fMRI," Neuroimage 15, 488-500 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. F. Yen, A. S. Field, E. M. Martin, N. Ari, J. H. Burdette, D. M. Moody, and A. M. Takahashi, "Test-retest reproducibility of quantitative CBF measurements using FAIR perfusion MRI and acetazolamide challenge," Magn. Reson. Med. 47, 921-928 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

J. R. Libonati, A. K. Howell, N. M. Incanno, K. K. Pettee, and H. L. Glassberg, "Brief muscle hypoperfusion/hyperemia: an ergogenic aid?" J. Strength. Cond. Res. 15, 362-366 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. S. Raynaud, S. Duteil, J. T. Vaughan, F. Hennel, C. Wary, A. Leroy-Willig, and P. G. Carlier, "Determination of skeletal muscle perfusion using arterial spin labeling NMRI: validation by comparison with venous occlusion plethysmography," Magn. Reson. Med. 46, 305-311 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. Pogue, R. D. Braun, J. L. Lanzen, C. Erickson, and M. W. Dewhirst, "Analysis of the heterogeneity of pO2 dynamics during photodynamic therapy with verteporfin," Photochem. Photobiol. 74, 700-706 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

F. Q. Ye, K. F. Berman, T. Ellmore, G. Esposito, J. D. van Horn, Y. Yang, J. Duyn, A. M. Smith, J. A. Frank, D. R. Weinberger, and A. C. McLaughlin, "H(2)(15)O PET validation of steady-state arterial spin tagging cerebral blood flow measurements in humans," Magn. Reson. Med. 44, 450-456 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

L. R. Frank, E. C. Wong, L. J. Haseler, and R. B. Buxton, "Dynamic imaging of perfusion in human skeletal muscle during exercise with arterial spin labeling," Magn. Reson. Med. 42, 258-267 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Sorensen, W. A. Copen, L. Ostergaard, F. S. Buonanno, R. G. Gonzalez, G. Rordorf, B. R. Rosen, L. H. Schwamm, R. M. Weisskoff, and W. J. Koroshetz, "Hyperacute stroke: simultaneous measurement of relative cerebral blood volume, relative cerebral blood flow, and mean tissue transit time," Radiology 210, 519-527 (1999).
[PubMed]

1998 (4)

C. A. Mack, C. J. Magovern, K. T. Budenbender, S. R. Patel, E. A. Schwarz, P. Zanzonico, B. Ferris, T. Sanborn, P. Isom, O. W. Isom, R. G. Crystal, and T. K. Rosengart, "Salvage angiogenesis induced by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor protects against ischemic vascular occlusion," J. Vasc. Surg. 27, 699-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Alsop and J. A. Detre, "Multisection cerebral blood flow MR imaging with continuous arterial spin labeling," Radiology 208, 410-416 (1998).
[PubMed]

V. Lebon, P. G. Carlier, C. Brillault-Salvat, and A. Leroy-Willig, "Simultaneous measurement of perfusion and oxygenation changes using a multiple gradient-echo sequence: application to human muscle study," Magn. Reson. Imaging 16, 721-729 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Libonati, M. Cox, N. Incanno, S. K. Melville, F. C. Musante, H. L. Glassberg, and M. Guazzi, "Brief periods of occlusion and reperfusion increase skeletal muscle force output in humans," Cardiologia 43, 1355-1360 (1998).

1997 (4)

W. Burchert, S. Schellong, J. van den Hoff, G. J. Meyer, K. Alexander, and H. Hundeshagen, "Oxygen-15-water PET assessment of muscular blood flow in peripheral vascular disease," J. Nucl. Med. 38, 93-98 (1997).
[PubMed]

B. Siewert, G. Schlaug, R. R. Edelman, and S. Warach, "Comparison of EPISTAR and T2*-weighted gadolinium-enhanced perfusion imaging in patients with acute cerebral ischemia," Neurology 48, 673-679 (1997).
[PubMed]

Heckmeier, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, and R. Maynard, "Imaging of dynamic heterogeneities in multiple-scattering media," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 185-191 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, "Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 192-215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

K. A. Engelke, J. R. Halliwill, D. N. Proctor, N. M. Dietz, and M. J. Joyner, "Contribution of nitric oxide and prostaglandins to reactive hyperemia in human forearm," J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 1807-1814 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. F. Toussaint, K. K. Kwong, F. O. Mkparu, R. M. Weisskoff, P. J. LaRaia, H. L. Kantor, and F. M'Kparu, "Perfusion changes in human skeletal muscle during reactive hyperemia measured by echo-planar imaging," Magn. Reson. Med. 35, 62-69 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Toussaint, K. K. Kwong, F. M'Kparu, R. M. Weisskoff, P. J. LaRaia, and H. L. Kantor, "Interrelationship of oxidative metabolism and local perfusion demonstrated by NMR in human skeletal muscle," J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 2221-2228 (1996).
[PubMed]

1995 (2)

R. Joannides, W. E. Haefeli, L. Linder, V. Richard, E. H. Bakkali, C. Thuillez, and T. F. Luscher, "Nitric oxide is responsible for flow-dependent dilatation of human peripheral conduit arteries in vivo," Circulation 91, 1314-1319 (1995).
[PubMed]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, "Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855-1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

E. G. Walsh, K. Minematsu, J. Leppo, and S. C. Moore, "Radioactive microsphere validation of a volume localized continuous saturation perfusion measurement," Magn. Reson. Med. 31, 147-153 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

D. S. Williams, D. J. Grandis, W. Zhang, and A. P. Koretsky, "Magnetic resonance imaging of perfusion in the isolated rat heart using spin inversion of arterial water," Magn. Reson. Med. 30, 361-365 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

J. A. Detre, J. S. Leigh, D. S. Williams, and A. P. Koretsky, "Perfusion imaging," Magn. Reson. Med. 23, 37-45 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Williams, J. A. Detre, J. S. Leigh, and A. P. Koretsky, "Magnetic resonance imaging of perfusion using spin inversion of arterial water," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 212-216 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media. The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Phys. B 65, 409-413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

C. W. Song, "Effect of local hyperthermia on blood flow and microenvironment: a review," Cancer Res. 44, 4721s-4730s (1984).
[PubMed]

1953 (1)

R. J. Whitney, "The measurement of volume changes in human limbs," J. Physiol. 121, 1-27 (1953).
[PubMed]

1905 (1)

A. Einstein, "On the motion of small particles suspended in liquids at rest required by the molecular-kinetic theory of heat," Annalen. der. Physik 17, 549-560 (1905).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, G. K.

J. Wang, G. K. Aguirre, D. Y. Kimberg, A. C. Roc, L. Li, and J. A. Detre, "Arterial spin labeling perfusion fMRI with very low task frequency," Magn. Reson. Med. 49, 796-802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. K. Aguirre, J. A. Detre, E. Zarahn, and D. C. Alsop, "Experimental design and the relative sensitivity of BOLD and perfusion fMRI," Neuroimage 15, 488-500 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexander, K.

W. Burchert, S. Schellong, J. van den Hoff, G. J. Meyer, K. Alexander, and H. Hundeshagen, "Oxygen-15-water PET assessment of muscular blood flow in peripheral vascular disease," J. Nucl. Med. 38, 93-98 (1997).
[PubMed]

Alkadhi, H.

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, "Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution," Neuroimage 20, 828-839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alsop, D. C.

J. Wang, Y. Zhang, R. L. Wolf, A. C. Roc, D. C. Alsop, and J. A. Detre, "Amplitude-modulated continuous arterial spin-labeling 3.0-T perfusion MR imaging with a single coil: feasibility study," Radiology 235, 218-228 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Wolf, D. C. Alsop, M. L. McGarvey, J. A. Maldjian, J. Wang, and J. A. Detre, "Susceptibility contrast and arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI in cerebrovascular disease," J. Neuroimaging 13, 17-27 (2003).
[PubMed]

G. K. Aguirre, J. A. Detre, E. Zarahn, and D. C. Alsop, "Experimental design and the relative sensitivity of BOLD and perfusion fMRI," Neuroimage 15, 488-500 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Alsop and J. A. Detre, "Multisection cerebral blood flow MR imaging with continuous arterial spin labeling," Radiology 208, 410-416 (1998).
[PubMed]

Ari, N.

Y. F. Yen, A. S. Field, E. M. Martin, N. Ari, J. H. Burdette, D. M. Moody, and A. M. Takahashi, "Test-retest reproducibility of quantitative CBF measurements using FAIR perfusion MRI and acetazolamide challenge," Magn. Reson. Med. 47, 921-928 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnow, T. L.

C. M. Feng, S. Narayana, J. L. Lancaster, P. A. Jerabek, T. L. Arnow, F. Zhu, L. H. Tan, P. T. Fox, and J. H. Gao, "CBF changes during brain activation: fMRI vs. PET," Neuroimage 22, 443-446 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakkali, E. H.

R. Joannides, W. E. Haefeli, L. Linder, V. Richard, E. H. Bakkali, C. Thuillez, and T. F. Luscher, "Nitric oxide is responsible for flow-dependent dilatation of human peripheral conduit arteries in vivo," Circulation 91, 1314-1319 (1995).
[PubMed]

Berman, K. F.

F. Q. Ye, K. F. Berman, T. Ellmore, G. Esposito, J. D. van Horn, Y. Yang, J. Duyn, A. M. Smith, J. A. Frank, D. R. Weinberger, and A. C. McLaughlin, "H(2)(15)O PET validation of steady-state arterial spin tagging cerebral blood flow measurements in humans," Magn. Reson. Med. 44, 450-456 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binggeli, C.

C. Binggeli, L. E. Spieker, R. Corti, I. Sudano, V. Stojanovic, D. Hayoz, T. F. Luscher, and G. Noll, "Statins enhance postischemic hyperemia in the skin circulation of hypercholesterolemic patients: a monitoring test of endothelial dysfunction for clinical practice," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 42, 71-77 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binzoni, T.

T. Binzoni, T. S. Leung, D. Rufenacht, and D. T. Delpy, "Absorption and scattering coefficient dependence of laser-Doppler flowmetry models for large tissue volumes," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 311-333 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Binzoni, T. S. Leung, D. Boggett, and D. Delpy, "Non-invasive laser Doppler perfusion measurements of large tissue volumes and human skeletal muscle blood RMS velocity," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2527-2549 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, "Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 192-215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, "Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855-1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boggett, D.

T. Binzoni, T. S. Leung, D. Boggett, and D. Delpy, "Non-invasive laser Doppler perfusion measurements of large tissue volumes and human skeletal muscle blood RMS velocity," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2527-2549 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bongers, A.

M. A. Weber, M. Gunther, M. P. Lichy, S. Delorme, A. Bongers, C. Thilmann, M. Essig, I. Zuna, L. R. Schad, J. Debus, and H. P. Schlemmer, "Comparison of arterial spin-labeling techniques and dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in perfusion imaging of normal brain tissue," Invest. Radiol. 38, 712-718 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, R. D.

B. W. Pogue, R. D. Braun, J. L. Lanzen, C. Erickson, and M. W. Dewhirst, "Analysis of the heterogeneity of pO2 dynamics during photodynamic therapy with verteporfin," Photochem. Photobiol. 74, 700-706 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brillault-Salvat, C.

V. Lebon, P. G. Carlier, C. Brillault-Salvat, and A. Leroy-Willig, "Simultaneous measurement of perfusion and oxygenation changes using a multiple gradient-echo sequence: application to human muscle study," Magn. Reson. Imaging 16, 721-729 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Budenbender, K. T.

C. A. Mack, C. J. Magovern, K. T. Budenbender, S. R. Patel, E. A. Schwarz, P. Zanzonico, B. Ferris, T. Sanborn, P. Isom, O. W. Isom, R. G. Crystal, and T. K. Rosengart, "Salvage angiogenesis induced by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor protects against ischemic vascular occlusion," J. Vasc. Surg. 27, 699-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buonanno, F. S.

A. G. Sorensen, W. A. Copen, L. Ostergaard, F. S. Buonanno, R. G. Gonzalez, G. Rordorf, B. R. Rosen, L. H. Schwamm, R. M. Weisskoff, and W. J. Koroshetz, "Hyperacute stroke: simultaneous measurement of relative cerebral blood volume, relative cerebral blood flow, and mean tissue transit time," Radiology 210, 519-527 (1999).
[PubMed]

Burchert, W.

W. Burchert, S. Schellong, J. van den Hoff, G. J. Meyer, K. Alexander, and H. Hundeshagen, "Oxygen-15-water PET assessment of muscular blood flow in peripheral vascular disease," J. Nucl. Med. 38, 93-98 (1997).
[PubMed]

Burdette, J. H.

Y. F. Yen, A. S. Field, E. M. Martin, N. Ari, J. H. Burdette, D. M. Moody, and A. M. Takahashi, "Test-retest reproducibility of quantitative CBF measurements using FAIR perfusion MRI and acetazolamide challenge," Magn. Reson. Med. 47, 921-928 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, M. G.

Busch, T. M.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Real-time In Situ Monitoring of Human Prostate Photodynamic Therapy with Diffuse Light," Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 1279-1284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, H. W. Wang, C. Zhou, E. M. Putt, H. M. Saunders, C. M. Sehgal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buxton, R. B.

L. R. Frank, E. C. Wong, L. J. Haseler, and R. B. Buxton, "Dynamic imaging of perfusion in human skeletal muscle during exercise with arterial spin labeling," Magn. Reson. Med. 42, 258-267 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, L. E.

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, "Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1855-1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlier, P. G.

J. S. Raynaud, S. Duteil, J. T. Vaughan, F. Hennel, C. Wary, A. Leroy-Willig, and P. G. Carlier, "Determination of skeletal muscle perfusion using arterial spin labeling NMRI: validation by comparison with venous occlusion plethysmography," Magn. Reson. Med. 46, 305-311 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Lebon, P. G. Carlier, C. Brillault-Salvat, and A. Leroy-Willig, "Simultaneous measurement of perfusion and oxygenation changes using a multiple gradient-echo sequence: application to human muscle study," Magn. Reson. Imaging 16, 721-729 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaikin, P. M.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and Y. A. G., "Non-invasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent Blood Flow and Oxygenation in Human Skeletal Muscles Measured with Noninvasive Near-infrared Diffuse Optical Spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chard, D. T.

L. M. Parkes, W. Rashid, D. T. Chard, and P. S. Tofts, "Normal cerebral perfusion measurements using arterial spin labeling: reproducibility, stability, and age and gender effects," Magn. Reson. Med. 51, 736-743 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheung, C.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia," J Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-924 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and Y. A. G., "Non-invasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow in breast tumors," Opt. Lett. 30, 2915-2917 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J. H.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choudhury, D.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Copen, W. A.

A. G. Sorensen, W. A. Copen, L. Ostergaard, F. S. Buonanno, R. G. Gonzalez, G. Rordorf, B. R. Rosen, L. H. Schwamm, R. M. Weisskoff, and W. J. Koroshetz, "Hyperacute stroke: simultaneous measurement of relative cerebral blood volume, relative cerebral blood flow, and mean tissue transit time," Radiology 210, 519-527 (1999).
[PubMed]

Corti, R.

C. Binggeli, L. E. Spieker, R. Corti, I. Sudano, V. Stojanovic, D. Hayoz, T. F. Luscher, and G. Noll, "Statins enhance postischemic hyperemia in the skin circulation of hypercholesterolemic patients: a monitoring test of endothelial dysfunction for clinical practice," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 42, 71-77 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coussirat, D.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, M.

J. R. Libonati, M. Cox, N. Incanno, S. K. Melville, F. C. Musante, H. L. Glassberg, and M. Guazzi, "Brief periods of occlusion and reperfusion increase skeletal muscle force output in humans," Cardiologia 43, 1355-1360 (1998).

Crystal, R. G.

C. A. Mack, C. J. Magovern, K. T. Budenbender, S. R. Patel, E. A. Schwarz, P. Zanzonico, B. Ferris, T. Sanborn, P. Isom, O. W. Isom, R. G. Crystal, and T. K. Rosengart, "Salvage angiogenesis induced by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor protects against ischemic vascular occlusion," J. Vasc. Surg. 27, 699-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia," J Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-924 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czerniecki, B. J.

Debus, J.

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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and Y. A. G., "Non-invasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
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K. A. Engelke, J. R. Halliwill, D. N. Proctor, N. M. Dietz, and M. J. Joyner, "Contribution of nitric oxide and prostaglandins to reactive hyperemia in human forearm," J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 1807-1814 (1996).
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L. R. Frank, E. C. Wong, L. J. Haseler, and R. B. Buxton, "Dynamic imaging of perfusion in human skeletal muscle during exercise with arterial spin labeling," Magn. Reson. Med. 42, 258-267 (1999).
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V. Quaresima, M. Ferrari, M. A. Franceschini, M. L. Hoimes, and S. Fantini, "Spatial distribution of vastus lateralis blood flow and oxyhemoglobin saturation measured at the end of isometric quadriceps contraction by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 413420 (2004).
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J. R. Libonati, A. K. Howell, N. M. Incanno, K. K. Pettee, and H. L. Glassberg, "Brief muscle hypoperfusion/hyperemia: an ergogenic aid?" J. Strength. Cond. Res. 15, 362-366 (2001).
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U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hundeshagen, H.

W. Burchert, S. Schellong, J. van den Hoff, G. J. Meyer, K. Alexander, and H. Hundeshagen, "Oxygen-15-water PET assessment of muscular blood flow in peripheral vascular disease," J. Nucl. Med. 38, 93-98 (1997).
[PubMed]

Iftime, D.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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J. R. Libonati, M. Cox, N. Incanno, S. K. Melville, F. C. Musante, H. L. Glassberg, and M. Guazzi, "Brief periods of occlusion and reperfusion increase skeletal muscle force output in humans," Cardiologia 43, 1355-1360 (1998).

Incanno, N. M.

J. R. Libonati, A. K. Howell, N. M. Incanno, K. K. Pettee, and H. L. Glassberg, "Brief muscle hypoperfusion/hyperemia: an ergogenic aid?" J. Strength. Cond. Res. 15, 362-366 (2001).
[PubMed]

Isom, O. W.

C. A. Mack, C. J. Magovern, K. T. Budenbender, S. R. Patel, E. A. Schwarz, P. Zanzonico, B. Ferris, T. Sanborn, P. Isom, O. W. Isom, R. G. Crystal, and T. K. Rosengart, "Salvage angiogenesis induced by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor protects against ischemic vascular occlusion," J. Vasc. Surg. 27, 699-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isom, P.

C. A. Mack, C. J. Magovern, K. T. Budenbender, S. R. Patel, E. A. Schwarz, P. Zanzonico, B. Ferris, T. Sanborn, P. Isom, O. W. Isom, R. G. Crystal, and T. K. Rosengart, "Salvage angiogenesis induced by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor protects against ischemic vascular occlusion," J. Vasc. Surg. 27, 699-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jerabek, P. A.

C. M. Feng, S. Narayana, J. L. Lancaster, P. A. Jerabek, T. L. Arnow, F. Zhu, L. H. Tan, P. T. Fox, and J. H. Gao, "CBF changes during brain activation: fMRI vs. PET," Neuroimage 22, 443-446 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannides, R.

R. Joannides, W. E. Haefeli, L. Linder, V. Richard, E. H. Bakkali, C. Thuillez, and T. F. Luscher, "Nitric oxide is responsible for flow-dependent dilatation of human peripheral conduit arteries in vivo," Circulation 91, 1314-1319 (1995).
[PubMed]

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K. A. Engelke, J. R. Halliwill, D. N. Proctor, N. M. Dietz, and M. J. Joyner, "Contribution of nitric oxide and prostaglandins to reactive hyperemia in human forearm," J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 1807-1814 (1996).
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J. F. Toussaint, K. K. Kwong, F. M'Kparu, R. M. Weisskoff, P. J. LaRaia, and H. L. Kantor, "Interrelationship of oxidative metabolism and local perfusion demonstrated by NMR in human skeletal muscle," J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 2221-2228 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. F. Toussaint, K. K. Kwong, F. O. Mkparu, R. M. Weisskoff, P. J. LaRaia, H. L. Kantor, and F. M'Kparu, "Perfusion changes in human skeletal muscle during reactive hyperemia measured by echo-planar imaging," Magn. Reson. Med. 35, 62-69 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, E.

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, "Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution," Neuroimage 20, 828-839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kilger, A.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and Y. A. G., "Non-invasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
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Kimberg, D. Y.

J. Wang, G. K. Aguirre, D. Y. Kimberg, A. C. Roc, L. Li, and J. A. Detre, "Arterial spin labeling perfusion fMRI with very low task frequency," Magn. Reson. Med. 49, 796-802 (2003).
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G. S. Pell, M. D. King, E. Proctor, D. L. Thomas, M. F. Lythgoe, D. G. Gadian, and R. J. Ordidge, "Comparative study of the FAIR technique of perfusion quantification with the hydrogen clearance method," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 689-699 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kollias, S. S.

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, "Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution," Neuroimage 20, 828-839 (2003).
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Koretsky, A. P.

D. S. Williams, D. J. Grandis, W. Zhang, and A. P. Koretsky, "Magnetic resonance imaging of perfusion in the isolated rat heart using spin inversion of arterial water," Magn. Reson. Med. 30, 361-365 (1993).
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J. A. Detre, J. S. Leigh, D. S. Williams, and A. P. Koretsky, "Perfusion imaging," Magn. Reson. Med. 23, 37-45 (1992).
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D. S. Williams, J. A. Detre, J. S. Leigh, and A. P. Koretsky, "Magnetic resonance imaging of perfusion using spin inversion of arterial water," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 212-216 (1992).
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Koroshetz, W. J.

A. G. Sorensen, W. A. Copen, L. Ostergaard, F. S. Buonanno, R. G. Gonzalez, G. Rordorf, B. R. Rosen, L. H. Schwamm, R. M. Weisskoff, and W. J. Koroshetz, "Hyperacute stroke: simultaneous measurement of relative cerebral blood volume, relative cerebral blood flow, and mean tissue transit time," Radiology 210, 519-527 (1999).
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J. F. Toussaint, K. K. Kwong, F. M'Kparu, R. M. Weisskoff, P. J. LaRaia, and H. L. Kantor, "Interrelationship of oxidative metabolism and local perfusion demonstrated by NMR in human skeletal muscle," J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 2221-2228 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. F. Toussaint, K. K. Kwong, F. O. Mkparu, R. M. Weisskoff, P. J. LaRaia, H. L. Kantor, and F. M'Kparu, "Perfusion changes in human skeletal muscle during reactive hyperemia measured by echo-planar imaging," Magn. Reson. Med. 35, 62-69 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancaster, J. L.

C. M. Feng, S. Narayana, J. L. Lancaster, P. A. Jerabek, T. L. Arnow, F. Zhu, L. H. Tan, P. T. Fox, and J. H. Gao, "CBF changes during brain activation: fMRI vs. PET," Neuroimage 22, 443-446 (2004).
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Lanzen, J. L.

B. W. Pogue, R. D. Braun, J. L. Lanzen, C. Erickson, and M. W. Dewhirst, "Analysis of the heterogeneity of pO2 dynamics during photodynamic therapy with verteporfin," Photochem. Photobiol. 74, 700-706 (2001).
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J. F. Toussaint, K. K. Kwong, F. M'Kparu, R. M. Weisskoff, P. J. LaRaia, and H. L. Kantor, "Interrelationship of oxidative metabolism and local perfusion demonstrated by NMR in human skeletal muscle," J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 2221-2228 (1996).
[PubMed]

J. F. Toussaint, K. K. Kwong, F. O. Mkparu, R. M. Weisskoff, P. J. LaRaia, H. L. Kantor, and F. M'Kparu, "Perfusion changes in human skeletal muscle during reactive hyperemia measured by echo-planar imaging," Magn. Reson. Med. 35, 62-69 (1996).
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Lebon, V.

V. Lebon, P. G. Carlier, C. Brillault-Salvat, and A. Leroy-Willig, "Simultaneous measurement of perfusion and oxygenation changes using a multiple gradient-echo sequence: application to human muscle study," Magn. Reson. Imaging 16, 721-729 (1998).
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Lech, G.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent Blood Flow and Oxygenation in Human Skeletal Muscles Measured with Noninvasive Near-infrared Diffuse Optical Spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leigh, J. S.

J. A. Detre, J. S. Leigh, D. S. Williams, and A. P. Koretsky, "Perfusion imaging," Magn. Reson. Med. 23, 37-45 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Williams, J. A. Detre, J. S. Leigh, and A. P. Koretsky, "Magnetic resonance imaging of perfusion using spin inversion of arterial water," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89, 212-216 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leppo, J.

E. G. Walsh, K. Minematsu, J. Leppo, and S. C. Moore, "Radioactive microsphere validation of a volume localized continuous saturation perfusion measurement," Magn. Reson. Med. 31, 147-153 (1994).
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J. S. Raynaud, S. Duteil, J. T. Vaughan, F. Hennel, C. Wary, A. Leroy-Willig, and P. G. Carlier, "Determination of skeletal muscle perfusion using arterial spin labeling NMRI: validation by comparison with venous occlusion plethysmography," Magn. Reson. Med. 46, 305-311 (2001).
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V. Lebon, P. G. Carlier, C. Brillault-Salvat, and A. Leroy-Willig, "Simultaneous measurement of perfusion and oxygenation changes using a multiple gradient-echo sequence: application to human muscle study," Magn. Reson. Imaging 16, 721-729 (1998).
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T. Binzoni, T. S. Leung, D. Rufenacht, and D. T. Delpy, "Absorption and scattering coefficient dependence of laser-Doppler flowmetry models for large tissue volumes," Phys. Med. Biol. 51, 311-333 (2006).
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T. Binzoni, T. S. Leung, D. Boggett, and D. Delpy, "Non-invasive laser Doppler perfusion measurements of large tissue volumes and human skeletal muscle blood RMS velocity," Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 2527-2549 (2003).
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Levi, M.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

J. Wang, G. K. Aguirre, D. Y. Kimberg, A. C. Roc, L. Li, and J. A. Detre, "Arterial spin labeling perfusion fMRI with very low task frequency," Magn. Reson. Med. 49, 796-802 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Libonati, J. R.

J. R. Libonati, A. K. Howell, N. M. Incanno, K. K. Pettee, and H. L. Glassberg, "Brief muscle hypoperfusion/hyperemia: an ergogenic aid?" J. Strength. Cond. Res. 15, 362-366 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. R. Libonati, M. Cox, N. Incanno, S. K. Melville, F. C. Musante, H. L. Glassberg, and M. Guazzi, "Brief periods of occlusion and reperfusion increase skeletal muscle force output in humans," Cardiologia 43, 1355-1360 (1998).

Lichy, M. P.

M. A. Weber, M. Gunther, M. P. Lichy, S. Delorme, A. Bongers, C. Thilmann, M. Essig, I. Zuna, L. R. Schad, J. Debus, and H. P. Schlemmer, "Comparison of arterial spin-labeling techniques and dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in perfusion imaging of normal brain tissue," Invest. Radiol. 38, 712-718 (2003).
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Linder, L.

R. Joannides, W. E. Haefeli, L. Linder, V. Richard, E. H. Bakkali, C. Thuillez, and T. F. Luscher, "Nitric oxide is responsible for flow-dependent dilatation of human peripheral conduit arteries in vivo," Circulation 91, 1314-1319 (1995).
[PubMed]

Loevner, L.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and Y. A. G., "Non-invasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
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H. Lu, M. J. Donahue, and P. C. van Zijl, "Detrimental effects of BOLD signal in arterial spin labeling fMRI at high field strength," Magn. Reson. Med. 56, 546-552 (2006).
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C. Binggeli, L. E. Spieker, R. Corti, I. Sudano, V. Stojanovic, D. Hayoz, T. F. Luscher, and G. Noll, "Statins enhance postischemic hyperemia in the skin circulation of hypercholesterolemic patients: a monitoring test of endothelial dysfunction for clinical practice," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 42, 71-77 (2003).
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R. Joannides, W. E. Haefeli, L. Linder, V. Richard, E. H. Bakkali, C. Thuillez, and T. F. Luscher, "Nitric oxide is responsible for flow-dependent dilatation of human peripheral conduit arteries in vivo," Circulation 91, 1314-1319 (1995).
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Lustig, R.

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and Y. A. G., "Non-invasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064021 (2006).
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G. S. Pell, M. D. King, E. Proctor, D. L. Thomas, M. F. Lythgoe, D. G. Gadian, and R. J. Ordidge, "Comparative study of the FAIR technique of perfusion quantification with the hydrogen clearance method," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 689-699 (2003).
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Mack, C. A.

C. A. Mack, C. J. Magovern, K. T. Budenbender, S. R. Patel, E. A. Schwarz, P. Zanzonico, B. Ferris, T. Sanborn, P. Isom, O. W. Isom, R. G. Crystal, and T. K. Rosengart, "Salvage angiogenesis induced by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor protects against ischemic vascular occlusion," J. Vasc. Surg. 27, 699-709 (1998).
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C. A. Mack, C. J. Magovern, K. T. Budenbender, S. R. Patel, E. A. Schwarz, P. Zanzonico, B. Ferris, T. Sanborn, P. Isom, O. W. Isom, R. G. Crystal, and T. K. Rosengart, "Salvage angiogenesis induced by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor protects against ischemic vascular occlusion," J. Vasc. Surg. 27, 699-709 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maldjian, J. A.

R. L. Wolf, D. C. Alsop, M. L. McGarvey, J. A. Maldjian, J. Wang, and J. A. Detre, "Susceptibility contrast and arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI in cerebrovascular disease," J. Neuroimaging 13, 17-27 (2003).
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Malkowicz, S. B.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Real-time In Situ Monitoring of Human Prostate Photodynamic Therapy with Diffuse Light," Photochem. Photobiol. 82, 1279-1284 (2006).
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Mantulin, W. W.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maret, G.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044002 (2005).
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G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media. The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Phys. B 65, 409-413 (1987).
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Martin, E. M.

Y. F. Yen, A. S. Field, E. M. Martin, N. Ari, J. H. Burdette, D. M. Moody, and A. M. Takahashi, "Test-retest reproducibility of quantitative CBF measurements using FAIR perfusion MRI and acetazolamide challenge," Magn. Reson. Med. 47, 921-928 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGarvey, M. L.

R. L. Wolf, D. C. Alsop, M. L. McGarvey, J. A. Maldjian, J. Wang, and J. A. Detre, "Susceptibility contrast and arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI in cerebrovascular disease," J. Neuroimaging 13, 17-27 (2003).
[PubMed]

McLaughlin, A. C.

F. Q. Ye, K. F. Berman, T. Ellmore, G. Esposito, J. D. van Horn, Y. Yang, J. Duyn, A. M. Smith, J. A. Frank, D. R. Weinberger, and A. C. McLaughlin, "H(2)(15)O PET validation of steady-state arterial spin tagging cerebral blood flow measurements in humans," Magn. Reson. Med. 44, 450-456 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melville, S. K.

J. R. Libonati, M. Cox, N. Incanno, S. K. Melville, F. C. Musante, H. L. Glassberg, and M. Guazzi, "Brief periods of occlusion and reperfusion increase skeletal muscle force output in humans," Cardiologia 43, 1355-1360 (1998).

Meyer, G. J.

W. Burchert, S. Schellong, J. van den Hoff, G. J. Meyer, K. Alexander, and H. Hundeshagen, "Oxygen-15-water PET assessment of muscular blood flow in peripheral vascular disease," J. Nucl. Med. 38, 93-98 (1997).
[PubMed]

Michalos, A.

U. Wolf, M. Wolf, J. H. Choi, M. Levi, D. Choudhury, S. Hull, D. Coussirat, L. A. Paunescu, L. P. Safonova, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, and E. Gratton, "Localized irregularities in hemoglobin flow and oxygenation in calf muscle in patients with peripheral vascular disease detected with near-infrared spectrophotometry," J. Vasc. Surg. 37, 1017-1026 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minematsu, K.

E. G. Walsh, K. Minematsu, J. Leppo, and S. C. Moore, "Radioactive microsphere validation of a volume localized continuous saturation perfusion measurement," Magn. Reson. Med. 31, 147-153 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mkparu, F. O.

J. F. Toussaint, K. K. Kwong, F. O. Mkparu, R. M. Weisskoff, P. J. LaRaia, H. L. Kantor, and F. M'Kparu, "Perfusion changes in human skeletal muscle during reactive hyperemia measured by echo-planar imaging," Magn. Reson. Med. 35, 62-69 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M'Kparu, F.

J. F. Toussaint, K. K. Kwong, F. O. Mkparu, R. M. Weisskoff, P. J. LaRaia, H. L. Kantor, and F. M'Kparu, "Perfusion changes in human skeletal muscle during reactive hyperemia measured by echo-planar imaging," Magn. Reson. Med. 35, 62-69 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Toussaint, K. K. Kwong, F. M'Kparu, R. M. Weisskoff, P. J. LaRaia, and H. L. Kantor, "Interrelationship of oxidative metabolism and local perfusion demonstrated by NMR in human skeletal muscle," J. Appl. Physiol. 81, 2221-2228 (1996).
[PubMed]

Mohler, E. R.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, "Time-dependent Blood Flow and Oxygenation in Human Skeletal Muscles Measured with Noninvasive Near-infrared Diffuse Optical Spectroscopies," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 024027 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moody, D. M.

Y. F. Yen, A. S. Field, E. M. Martin, N. Ari, J. H. Burdette, D. M. Moody, and A. M. Takahashi, "Test-retest reproducibility of quantitative CBF measurements using FAIR perfusion MRI and acetazolamide challenge," Magn. Reson. Med. 47, 921-928 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, S. C.

E. G. Walsh, K. Minematsu, J. Leppo, and S. C. Moore, "Radioactive microsphere validation of a volume localized continuous saturation perfusion measurement," Magn. Reson. Med. 31, 147-153 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Musante, F. C.

J. R. Libonati, M. Cox, N. Incanno, S. K. Melville, F. C. Musante, H. L. Glassberg, and M. Guazzi, "Brief periods of occlusion and reperfusion increase skeletal muscle force output in humans," Cardiologia 43, 1355-1360 (1998).

Nadler, A.

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, "Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution," Neuroimage 20, 828-839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narayana, S.

C. M. Feng, S. Narayana, J. L. Lancaster, P. A. Jerabek, T. L. Arnow, F. Zhu, L. H. Tan, P. T. Fox, and J. H. Gao, "CBF changes during brain activation: fMRI vs. PET," Neuroimage 22, 443-446 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niederer, P.

E. Keller, A. Nadler, H. Alkadhi, S. S. Kollias, Y. Yonekawa, and P. Niederer, "Noninvasive measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral blood volume by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green dye dilution," Neuroimage 20, 828-839 (2003).
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W. Burchert, S. Schellong, J. van den Hoff, G. J. Meyer, K. Alexander, and H. Hundeshagen, "Oxygen-15-water PET assessment of muscular blood flow in peripheral vascular disease," J. Nucl. Med. 38, 93-98 (1997).
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F. Q. Ye, K. F. Berman, T. Ellmore, G. Esposito, J. D. van Horn, Y. Yang, J. Duyn, A. M. Smith, J. A. Frank, D. R. Weinberger, and A. C. McLaughlin, "H(2)(15)O PET validation of steady-state arterial spin tagging cerebral blood flow measurements in humans," Magn. Reson. Med. 44, 450-456 (2000).
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J. Wang, Y. Zhang, R. L. Wolf, A. C. Roc, D. C. Alsop, and J. A. Detre, "Amplitude-modulated continuous arterial spin-labeling 3.0-T perfusion MR imaging with a single coil: feasibility study," Radiology 235, 218-228 (2005).
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J. S. Raynaud, S. Duteil, J. T. Vaughan, F. Hennel, C. Wary, A. Leroy-Willig, and P. G. Carlier, "Determination of skeletal muscle perfusion using arterial spin labeling NMRI: validation by comparison with venous occlusion plethysmography," Magn. Reson. Med. 46, 305-311 (2001).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the concurrent optical-MRI measurement. A custom-designed nonmagnetic fiber optic probe (see Fig. 2(d)) was placed over the calf. The tips of source and detector fibers were bent 90° and tightly held in place by flexible silicone material. The calf (with the optical probe) was then placed into the MRI knee coil. The optical probe in the MRI room was connected to the DCS instrument in the control room by 12-meter-length fibers through a port in a magnetic-field-shielded wall.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

MRI images (a, b, and c) obtained from one subject’s calf. The optical probe and the MRI marker can be seen from 2-D (a) and 3-D (b) anatomic MRI images of human leg. The ASL-MRI perfusion image is shown in (c). The region of interest (ROI) shown in (a) and (c) was selected for the comparison of tissue responses measured by DCS and ASL-MRI. The optical probe (d) had 2 source (S1 and S2) and 4 detector fibers (D1 to D4). Source-detector separations ranged from 0.5 to 3 cm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time course of the blood flow response from two healthy volunteers (a and b) measured by DCS (dark circles) and ASL-MRI (light crosses) during 5-min cuff occlusion. DCS/MRI measurement error was estimated by the signal variations at rest/during cuff occlusion. Vertical lines indicate beginning and end of the cuff occlusion. Blood flow responses were characterized by peak blood flow, Time-to-Peak (sec), and Time-after-Peak (sec).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Correlations between ASL-MRI flow and DCS relative blood flow (a), and DCS flow-index αDB (b). All datasets (solid dots) are obtained by ASL-MRI and DCS at identical time points from 7 subjects, including seven peak flow values (empty circles). Peak flow is defined as the maximum flow value after release of cuff occlusion (see Fig. 3(a)).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Correlations between ASL-MRI peak flow and DCS peak relative blood flow (a) and DCS peak flow-index αDB (b).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Subject information and measurement summary. The thickness of the near-surface layer was measured from the MRI anatomic image. Concurrent optical-MRI measurements were repeated twice on three subjects (#1 to #3) to assess repeatability. In order to investigate the probe pressure influence on muscle blood flow, four subjects (#4 to #7) were measured with and without optical probe, respectively.

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