Abstract

We developed a new spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (SD PS-OCT) system that requires only a single spectrometer CCD camera. The spectra of the horizontal and vertical polarization channels are imaged adjacent to each other on a 2048 pixel line scan camera, using 1024 pixels for each channel. Advantages of the system are reduced costs and complexity, lower demands on timing and triggering circuitry, and higher robustness against camera misalignments. We discuss the additional postprocessing required to accommodate for spectral distortions, show calibration measurements in a test sample, and finally demonstrate the system for measuring human ocular tissue in vivo.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2006

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V. Dimitrova Madjarova, T. Yatagai, Y. Yasuno, "Fiber-based polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using B-scan-oriented polarization modulation method," Opt. Express 14, 6502-6515 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

2003

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal to noise ratio in spectral domain compared with time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303, 2003.
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, O. Findl, C. Skorpik, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea," Proc. SPIE 5140, 120-124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, "Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350-358 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1610-1612 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, Y. Sutoh, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Birefringence imaging of human skin by polarization-sensitive spectral interferometric optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1803-1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr: "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer, N. Belabas, J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, "Spectral resolution and sampling issues in Fourier-transform spectral interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1795-1802 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

1995

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El- Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pufialito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akkin, T.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, M. Mujat, C. Joo, T. Akkin, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, A. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography at 850 nm," Proc. SPIE 5690, 159-162 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumgartner, A.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr: "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Belabas, N.

Bouma, B. E.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pufialito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, M. Mujat, C. Joo, T. Akkin, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, A. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography at 850 nm," Proc. SPIE 5690, 159-162 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1610-1612 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Choma, M. A.

de Boer, J. F.

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm," Opt. Express 13, 3931-3944 (2005),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, M. Mujat, C. Joo, T. Akkin, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, A. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography at 850 nm," Proc. SPIE 5690, 159-162 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components," Opt. Lett. 29, 2512-2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal to noise ratio in spectral domain compared with time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1610-1612 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of the depth resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 300-302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. Van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, "Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 934-936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dejaco-Ruhswurm, I.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, O. Findl, C. Skorpik, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea," Proc. SPIE 5140, 120-124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dichtl, S.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr: "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrova Madjarova, V.

Dorrer, C.

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303, 2003.
[CrossRef]

El- Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El- Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fercher, A. F.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, O. Findl, C. Skorpik, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea," Proc. SPIE 5140, 120-124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303, 2003.
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr: "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El- Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Findl, O.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, O. Findl, C. Skorpik, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea," Proc. SPIE 5140, 120-124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pufialito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pufialito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geitzenauer, W.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goetzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, "High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Opt. Express 13, 10217-10229 (2005),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, O. Findl, C. Skorpik, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea," Proc. SPIE 5140, 120-124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pufialito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pufialito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, "High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Opt. Express 13, 10217-10229 (2005),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, O. Findl, C. Skorpik, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea," Proc. SPIE 5140, 120-124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303, 2003.
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr: "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El- Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pufialito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

Izatt, J. A.

Jiao, S.

Joffre, M.

Joo, C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, M. Mujat, C. Joo, T. Akkin, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, A. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography at 850 nm," Proc. SPIE 5690, 159-162 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, S.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, O. Findl, C. Skorpik, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea," Proc. SPIE 5140, 120-124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El- Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, N. J.

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasser, T.

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, and T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography - principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303, 2003.
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leydolt, C.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Likforman, J.-P.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pufialito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Michels, S.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

Moritz, A.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr: "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mujat, M.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, M. Mujat, C. Joo, T. Akkin, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, A. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography at 850 nm," Proc. SPIE 5690, 159-162 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm," Opt. Express 13, 3931-3944 (2005),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of the depth resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 300-302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. Van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, "Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 934-936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, M. Mujat, C. Joo, T. Akkin, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, A. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography at 850 nm," Proc. SPIE 5690, 159-162 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm," Opt. Express 13, 3931-3944 (2005),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components," Opt. Lett. 29, 2512-2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal to noise ratio in spectral domain compared with time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1610-1612 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, "High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Opt. Express 13, 10217-10229 (2005),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, O. Findl, C. Skorpik, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea," Proc. SPIE 5140, 120-124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pufialito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pufialito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robl, B.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr: "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rylander, H. G.

Sarunic, M. V.

Sattmann, H.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr: "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Saxer, C.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pufialito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skorpik, C.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, O. Findl, C. Skorpik, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea," Proc. SPIE 5140, 120-124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sperr, W.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr: "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Srinivas, S. M.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sticker, M.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, O. Findl, C. Skorpik, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea," Proc. SPIE 5140, 120-124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pufialito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

Sutoh, Y.

Swanson, E. A.

M. R. Hee, D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Polarization sensitive low coherence reflectometer for birefringence characterization and ranging," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 903-908 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Pufialito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Todorovic, M.

Van Gemert, M. J. C.

Wang, L. V.

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C.

Yao, G.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yun, A.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, M. Mujat, C. Joo, T. Akkin, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, A. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography at 850 nm," Proc. SPIE 5690, 159-162 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

Zaatari, H. N.

Caries Res.

A. Baumgartner, S. Dichtl, C. K. Hitzenberger, H. Sattmann, B. Robl, A. Moritz, A. F. Fercher, and W. Sperr: "Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of dental structures," Caries Res. 34, 59-69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jiao and L. V. Wang, "Jones-matrix imaging of biological tissues with quadruple-channel optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 350-358 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, C. Saxer, S. M. Srinivas, J. S. Nelson, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo burn depth determination by high-speed fiber-based polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 474-479 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El- Zaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

C. K. Hitzenberger, E. Götzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. F. Fercher, "Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 9, 780-790 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 μm," Opt. Express 13, 3931-3944 (2005),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. J. Kemp, H. N. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. RylanderIII, and T. E. Milner, "Form-biattenuance in fibrous tissues measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)," Opt. Express 13, 4611-4628 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, C. K. Hitzenberger, "High speed spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," Opt. Express 13, 10217-10229 (2005),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V. Dimitrova Madjarova, T. Yatagai, Y. Yasuno, "Fiber-based polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using B-scan-oriented polarization modulation method," Opt. Express 14, 6502-6515 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

M. Todorovic, S. Jiao, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, "Determination of local polarization properties of biological samples in the presence of diattenuation by use of Mueller optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 2402-2404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components," Opt. Lett. 29, 2512-2514 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal to noise ratio in spectral domain compared with time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1610-1612 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, Y. Sutoh, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Birefringence imaging of human skin by polarization-sensitive spectral interferometric optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1803-1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. Van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, "Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 934-936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, "Determination of the depth resolved Stokes parameters of light backscattered from turbid media using polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 300-302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Yao and L. V. Wang, "Two-dimensional depth-resolved Mueller matrix characterization of biological tissue by optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 24, 537-539 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Transversal phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1257-1263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, I. Dejaco-Ruhswurm, S. Kaminski, O. Findl, C. Skorpik, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Three dimensional polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of normal and pathologic human cornea," Proc. SPIE 5140, 120-124 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, M. Mujat, C. Joo, T. Akkin, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, A. Yun, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography at 850 nm," Proc. SPIE 5690, 159-162 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

B. E. Bouma and G. J. Tearney, Handbook of optical coherence tomography (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002).

American national standard for safe use of lasers. ANSI Z 136.1 (Laser Institute of America, Orlando, 2000).

InternationaI Electrotechnical Comission, Safety of laser products - Part 1: Equipment classification and requirements, IEC 60825-1 Ed. 2 (IEC, 2001).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sketch of the SD PS-OCT system. SLD: super luminescent diode, FC: Fiber coupler, POL: polarizer, NPBS: non-polarizing beam splitter, QWP: quarter wave plate, ND: neutral density filter, M: mirror, SC: galvo scanner, L: lens, S: sample, PBS: polarizing beam splitter, SMF: single mode fiber, DG: diffraction grating, LSC: line scan camera. See text for denotation of angles.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Diagrams demonstrating the rescaling process: Channel 1 and 2 are represented in blue and red color, respectively. (a) Unscaled spectra as they are read out. (b) Spectra of the polarization channels after rescaling into k (wavenumber) space. (c) Coherence functions obtained from a mirror in the sample position (linear intensity scale).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Results of accuracy measurements using a retarder and a mirror as a sample. (a) Measured vs. set axis orientation of the wave plate. (b) Measured retardation as a function of set axis orientation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Retardation and axis orientation measured as a function of depth. A retarder set to a fixed axis orientation was placed in front of a mirror in the sample position. Different path length differences with respect to the reference mirror were obtained by shifting the sample mirror in beam direction. Retardation values are depicted in blue, values of axis orientation are shown in red.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

B-scans of external ocular tissue. (a) Intensity (log scale). (b) Retardation. Color scale: blue δ = 0, red δ = 90°. (c) Fast axis orientation. Color scale: blue ¸ = -90°, red ¸ = +90°. C: cornea, I: iris, CJ: conjunctiva, S: sclera, T: ocular tendon.

Equations (4)

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Δ α = arcsin ( G ( λ max λ min ) 2 cos α L ) ,
R ( z ) A H ( z ) 2 + A V ( z ) 2 ,
δ ( z ) = arctan [ A V ( z ) A H ( z ) ] ,
θ ( z ) = 180 ° ΔΦ ( z ) 2 ,

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