Abstract

We numerically investigate XPM effect and XPM-induced nonlinear phase noise in both RZ-DPSK and multi-format (RZ-DPSK and RZ-OOK) WDM systems operating at 40 Gbit/s with different dispersion maps. The relative strength of XPM effect and XPM-induced nonlinear phase noise is discussed for both RZ-DPSK and multi-format WDM transmission. With optimum dispersion mapping, XPM and XPM-induced nonlinear phase noise from neighboring channels carrying either OOK or DPSK signals can both be effectively suppressed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. T.-K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 249–259 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Betti and M. Giaconi, “Analysis of the cross-phase modulation in dispersion compensated WDM optical fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1304–1306 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Bigo, G. Bellotti, and M. W. Chbat, “Investigation of cross-phase modulation limitation on over various types of fiber infrastructures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 605–607 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Bellotti and S. Bigo, “Cross-phase modulation suppressor for multispan dispersion-managed WDM transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 726–728 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Bellotti, S. Bigo, P.-Y. Cortes, S. Gauchard, and S. LaRochelle, “10×10 Gb/s cross-phase modulation suppressor for multispan transmission using WDM narrow-band fiber bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1403–1405 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, D. van den Borne, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, and P. M. Krummrich, “Experimental study of XPM in 10-Gb/s NRZ pre-compensated transmission systems,” OFC2007, paper OThS6.
  7. C. Furst, C. Scheerer, G. Mohs, J.-P. Elbers, and C. Glingener, “Influence of the dispersion map on limitations due to cross-phase modulation in WDM multispan transmission systems,” OFC2001, paper MF4-1.
  8. M. Malach, C.-A. Bunge, K. Petermann, L. Molle, R. Freund, and H. J. Thiele, “Cross-phase modulation suppression method in multispan dispersion-managed WDM transmission systems,” ICTON2005, paper We.C1.2, 68–71 (2005).
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  14. K.-P. Ho and H.-C. Wang, “Comparison of nonlinear phase noise and intrachannel four-wave mixing for RZ-DPSK signals in dispersive transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1426–1428 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Kumar, “Effect of dispersion on nonlinear phase noise in optical transmission systems,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3278–3280 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Kim, “Cross-phase-modulation-induced nonlinear phase noise in WDM direct-detection DPSK systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1770–1774 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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  21. K.-P. Ho, “Error probability of DPSK signals with cross-phase modulation induced nonlinear phase noise,” IEEE J. Select. Top. in Quant. Electron. 10, 421–427 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E.-J. Bachus, and N. Hanik, “Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fibre WDM systems,” IEE Electron. Lett. 36, 1483–1484 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. Spinnler, N. Hecker-Denschlag, S. Calabro, M. Herz, C.-J. Weiske, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, R. Griffin, and S. Wadsworth, “Nonlinear tolerance of differential phase shift keying modulated signals reduced by XPM,” OFC2004, paper TuF3.
  24. A. S. Lenihan, G. E. Tudury, W. Aster, and G. M. Carter, “XPM-induced impairments in RZ-DPSK transmission in a multi-modulation format WDM system,” CLEO2005, paper CWO5, 1500–1502 (2005).
  25. W. Astar, A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, “Performance of DBPSK in a 5×10 Gb/s mixed modulation format Raman/EDFA WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2766–2768 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Griesser and J.-P. Elbers, “Influence of cross-phase modulation induced nonlinear phase noise on DQPSK signals from neighboring OOK channels,” ECOC 2005, paper Tu 1.2.2, 123–124 (2005).
  27. S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, “Impact of channel plan and dispersion map on hybrid DWDM transmission of 42.7-Gb/s DQPSK and 10.7-Gb/s OOK on 50-GHz grid,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1801–1803 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Richter, I. Koltchanov, K. Kuzmin, E. Myslivets, and R. Freund, “Issues on bit-error rate estimation for fiber-optic communication systems,” OFC2005, paper NTuH3, 6–11 (2005).
  31. M.-K. Liu, A. C. Vrahas, and M.-J. B. Moretti, “Saddle point bit error rate computations for optical communication systems incorporating equalizers,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 989–1000 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, “Impact of channel plan and dispersion map on hybrid DWDM transmission of 42.7-Gb/s DQPSK and 10.7-Gb/s OOK on 50-GHz grid,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1801–1803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

W. Astar, A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, “Performance of DBPSK in a 5×10 Gb/s mixed modulation format Raman/EDFA WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2766–2768 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, “Effect of dispersion on nonlinear phase noise in optical transmission systems,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3278–3280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K.-P. Ho and H.-C. Wang, “Comparison of nonlinear phase noise and intrachannel four-wave mixing for RZ-DPSK signals in dispersive transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1426–1428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

Y. Yadin, M. Shtaif, and M. Orenstein, “Nonlinear phase noise in phase-modulated WDM fiber-optic communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1307–1309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.-P. Ho, “Error probability of DPSK signals with cross-phase modulation induced nonlinear phase noise,” IEEE J. Select. Top. in Quant. Electron. 10, 421–427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591–1593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

H. Kim, “Cross-phase-modulation-induced nonlinear phase noise in WDM direct-detection DPSK systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1770–1774 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim and A. H. Gnauck, “Experimental investigation of the performance limitation of DPSK systems due to nonlinear phase noise,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 320–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K.-P. Ho, “Performance degradation of phase-modulated systems due to nonlinear phase noise,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1213–1215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Betti and M. Giaconi, “Analysis of the cross-phase modulation in dispersion compensated WDM optical fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1304–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

G. Bellotti and S. Bigo, “Cross-phase modulation suppressor for multispan dispersion-managed WDM transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 726–728 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Bellotti, S. Bigo, P.-Y. Cortes, S. Gauchard, and S. LaRochelle, “10×10 Gb/s cross-phase modulation suppressor for multispan transmission using WDM narrow-band fiber bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1403–1405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E.-J. Bachus, and N. Hanik, “Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fibre WDM systems,” IEE Electron. Lett. 36, 1483–1484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Bigo, G. Bellotti, and M. W. Chbat, “Investigation of cross-phase modulation limitation on over various types of fiber infrastructures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 605–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T.-K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 249–259 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M.-K. Liu, A. C. Vrahas, and M.-J. B. Moretti, “Saddle point bit error rate computations for optical communication systems incorporating equalizers,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 989–1000 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Astar, W.

W. Astar, A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, “Performance of DBPSK in a 5×10 Gb/s mixed modulation format Raman/EDFA WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2766–2768 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aster, W.

A. S. Lenihan, G. E. Tudury, W. Aster, and G. M. Carter, “XPM-induced impairments in RZ-DPSK transmission in a multi-modulation format WDM system,” CLEO2005, paper CWO5, 1500–1502 (2005).

Atia, W. A.

W. A. Atia and R. S. Bondurant, “Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver,” IEEE LEOS 1999 Annu. Meeting, Paper TuM3, 226–227 (1999).

Bachus, E.-J.

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E.-J. Bachus, and N. Hanik, “Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fibre WDM systems,” IEE Electron. Lett. 36, 1483–1484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bellotti, G.

G. Bellotti and S. Bigo, “Cross-phase modulation suppressor for multispan dispersion-managed WDM transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 726–728 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Bellotti, S. Bigo, P.-Y. Cortes, S. Gauchard, and S. LaRochelle, “10×10 Gb/s cross-phase modulation suppressor for multispan transmission using WDM narrow-band fiber bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1403–1405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Bigo, G. Bellotti, and M. W. Chbat, “Investigation of cross-phase modulation limitation on over various types of fiber infrastructures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 605–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Betti, S.

S. Betti and M. Giaconi, “Analysis of the cross-phase modulation in dispersion compensated WDM optical fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1304–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bigo, S.

G. Bellotti, S. Bigo, P.-Y. Cortes, S. Gauchard, and S. LaRochelle, “10×10 Gb/s cross-phase modulation suppressor for multispan transmission using WDM narrow-band fiber bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1403–1405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Bellotti and S. Bigo, “Cross-phase modulation suppressor for multispan dispersion-managed WDM transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 726–728 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Bigo, G. Bellotti, and M. W. Chbat, “Investigation of cross-phase modulation limitation on over various types of fiber infrastructures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 605–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bondurant, R. S.

W. A. Atia and R. S. Bondurant, “Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver,” IEEE LEOS 1999 Annu. Meeting, Paper TuM3, 226–227 (1999).

Bunge, C.-A.

M. Malach, C.-A. Bunge, K. Petermann, L. Molle, R. Freund, and H. J. Thiele, “Cross-phase modulation suppression method in multispan dispersion-managed WDM transmission systems,” ICTON2005, paper We.C1.2, 68–71 (2005).

M. Malach, C.-A. Bunge, and K. Petermann, “Design rule for XPM-suppression in 10-Gb/s NRZ-modulated WDM transmission systems,” IEEE LEOS2005, Ann. Meeting, paper WE2, 481–482 (2005).

Bunge, C-A.

Calabro, S.

B. Spinnler, N. Hecker-Denschlag, S. Calabro, M. Herz, C.-J. Weiske, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, R. Griffin, and S. Wadsworth, “Nonlinear tolerance of differential phase shift keying modulated signals reduced by XPM,” OFC2004, paper TuF3.

Carter, G. M.

W. Astar, A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, “Performance of DBPSK in a 5×10 Gb/s mixed modulation format Raman/EDFA WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2766–2768 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Lenihan, G. E. Tudury, W. Aster, and G. M. Carter, “XPM-induced impairments in RZ-DPSK transmission in a multi-modulation format WDM system,” CLEO2005, paper CWO5, 1500–1502 (2005).

Caspar, C.

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E.-J. Bachus, and N. Hanik, “Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fibre WDM systems,” IEE Electron. Lett. 36, 1483–1484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, “Impact of channel plan and dispersion map on hybrid DWDM transmission of 42.7-Gb/s DQPSK and 10.7-Gb/s OOK on 50-GHz grid,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1801–1803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chbat, M. W.

S. Bigo, G. Bellotti, and M. W. Chbat, “Investigation of cross-phase modulation limitation on over various types of fiber infrastructures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 605–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, T.-K.

T.-K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 249–259 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A. R.

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591–1593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cortes, P.-Y.

G. Bellotti, S. Bigo, P.-Y. Cortes, S. Gauchard, and S. LaRochelle, “10×10 Gb/s cross-phase modulation suppressor for multispan transmission using WDM narrow-band fiber bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1403–1405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

B. Spinnler, N. Hecker-Denschlag, S. Calabro, M. Herz, C.-J. Weiske, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, R. Griffin, and S. Wadsworth, “Nonlinear tolerance of differential phase shift keying modulated signals reduced by XPM,” OFC2004, paper TuF3.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, D. van den Borne, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, and P. M. Krummrich, “Experimental study of XPM in 10-Gb/s NRZ pre-compensated transmission systems,” OFC2007, paper OThS6.

Elbers, J.-P.

C. Furst, C. Scheerer, G. Mohs, J.-P. Elbers, and C. Glingener, “Influence of the dispersion map on limitations due to cross-phase modulation in WDM multispan transmission systems,” OFC2001, paper MF4-1.

H. Griesser and J.-P. Elbers, “Influence of cross-phase modulation induced nonlinear phase noise on DQPSK signals from neighboring OOK channels,” ECOC 2005, paper Tu 1.2.2, 123–124 (2005).

Essiambre, R.-J.

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591–1593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Freund, R.

M. Malach, C.-A. Bunge, K. Petermann, L. Molle, R. Freund, and H. J. Thiele, “Cross-phase modulation suppression method in multispan dispersion-managed WDM transmission systems,” ICTON2005, paper We.C1.2, 68–71 (2005).

A. Richter, I. Koltchanov, K. Kuzmin, E. Myslivets, and R. Freund, “Issues on bit-error rate estimation for fiber-optic communication systems,” OFC2005, paper NTuH3, 6–11 (2005).

Furst, C.

C. Furst, C. Scheerer, G. Mohs, J.-P. Elbers, and C. Glingener, “Influence of the dispersion map on limitations due to cross-phase modulation in WDM multispan transmission systems,” OFC2001, paper MF4-1.

Gauchard, S.

G. Bellotti, S. Bigo, P.-Y. Cortes, S. Gauchard, and S. LaRochelle, “10×10 Gb/s cross-phase modulation suppressor for multispan transmission using WDM narrow-band fiber bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1403–1405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giaconi, M.

S. Betti and M. Giaconi, “Analysis of the cross-phase modulation in dispersion compensated WDM optical fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1304–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Glingener, C.

C. Furst, C. Scheerer, G. Mohs, J.-P. Elbers, and C. Glingener, “Influence of the dispersion map on limitations due to cross-phase modulation in WDM multispan transmission systems,” OFC2001, paper MF4-1.

Gnauck, A. H.

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591–1593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim and A. H. Gnauck, “Experimental investigation of the performance limitation of DPSK systems due to nonlinear phase noise,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 320–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

Griesser, H.

H. Griesser and J.-P. Elbers, “Influence of cross-phase modulation induced nonlinear phase noise on DQPSK signals from neighboring OOK channels,” ECOC 2005, paper Tu 1.2.2, 123–124 (2005).

Griffin, R.

B. Spinnler, N. Hecker-Denschlag, S. Calabro, M. Herz, C.-J. Weiske, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, R. Griffin, and S. Wadsworth, “Nonlinear tolerance of differential phase shift keying modulated signals reduced by XPM,” OFC2004, paper TuF3.

Hanik, N.

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E.-J. Bachus, and N. Hanik, “Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fibre WDM systems,” IEE Electron. Lett. 36, 1483–1484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hecker-Denschlag, N.

B. Spinnler, N. Hecker-Denschlag, S. Calabro, M. Herz, C.-J. Weiske, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, R. Griffin, and S. Wadsworth, “Nonlinear tolerance of differential phase shift keying modulated signals reduced by XPM,” OFC2004, paper TuF3.

Heimes, N.

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E.-J. Bachus, and N. Hanik, “Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fibre WDM systems,” IEE Electron. Lett. 36, 1483–1484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herz, M.

B. Spinnler, N. Hecker-Denschlag, S. Calabro, M. Herz, C.-J. Weiske, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, R. Griffin, and S. Wadsworth, “Nonlinear tolerance of differential phase shift keying modulated signals reduced by XPM,” OFC2004, paper TuF3.

Ho, K.-P.

K.-P. Ho and H.-C. Wang, “Comparison of nonlinear phase noise and intrachannel four-wave mixing for RZ-DPSK signals in dispersive transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1426–1428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K.-P. Ho, “Error probability of DPSK signals with cross-phase modulation induced nonlinear phase noise,” IEEE J. Select. Top. in Quant. Electron. 10, 421–427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.-P. Ho, “Performance degradation of phase-modulated systems due to nonlinear phase noise,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1213–1215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, S. L.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, D. van den Borne, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, and P. M. Krummrich, “Experimental study of XPM in 10-Gb/s NRZ pre-compensated transmission systems,” OFC2007, paper OThS6.

Kagi, N.

T.-K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 249–259 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kazovsky, L. G.

T.-K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 249–259 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G. D.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, D. van den Borne, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, and P. M. Krummrich, “Experimental study of XPM in 10-Gb/s NRZ pre-compensated transmission systems,” OFC2007, paper OThS6.

Khoe, G.-D.

B. Spinnler, N. Hecker-Denschlag, S. Calabro, M. Herz, C.-J. Weiske, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, R. Griffin, and S. Wadsworth, “Nonlinear tolerance of differential phase shift keying modulated signals reduced by XPM,” OFC2004, paper TuF3.

Kim, H.

H. Kim, “Cross-phase-modulation-induced nonlinear phase noise in WDM direct-detection DPSK systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1770–1774 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim and A. H. Gnauck, “Experimental investigation of the performance limitation of DPSK systems due to nonlinear phase noise,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 320–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koltchanov, I.

A. Richter, I. Koltchanov, K. Kuzmin, E. Myslivets, and R. Freund, “Issues on bit-error rate estimation for fiber-optic communication systems,” OFC2005, paper NTuH3, 6–11 (2005).

Konitzer, M.

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E.-J. Bachus, and N. Hanik, “Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fibre WDM systems,” IEE Electron. Lett. 36, 1483–1484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krummrich, P. M.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, D. van den Borne, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, and P. M. Krummrich, “Experimental study of XPM in 10-Gb/s NRZ pre-compensated transmission systems,” OFC2007, paper OThS6.

Kumar, S.

X. Zhu, S. Kumar, and X. Li, “Analysis and comparison of impairments in differential phase-shift keying and on-off keying transmission systems based on the error probability,” Applied Opt. 45, 6812–6822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, “Effect of dispersion on nonlinear phase noise in optical transmission systems,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3278–3280 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmin, K.

A. Richter, I. Koltchanov, K. Kuzmin, E. Myslivets, and R. Freund, “Issues on bit-error rate estimation for fiber-optic communication systems,” OFC2005, paper NTuH3, 6–11 (2005).

LaRochelle, S.

G. Bellotti, S. Bigo, P.-Y. Cortes, S. Gauchard, and S. LaRochelle, “10×10 Gb/s cross-phase modulation suppressor for multispan transmission using WDM narrow-band fiber bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1403–1405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lenihan, A. S.

W. Astar, A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, “Performance of DBPSK in a 5×10 Gb/s mixed modulation format Raman/EDFA WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2766–2768 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Lenihan, G. E. Tudury, W. Aster, and G. M. Carter, “XPM-induced impairments in RZ-DPSK transmission in a multi-modulation format WDM system,” CLEO2005, paper CWO5, 1500–1502 (2005).

Li, X.

X. Zhu, S. Kumar, and X. Li, “Analysis and comparison of impairments in differential phase-shift keying and on-off keying transmission systems based on the error probability,” Applied Opt. 45, 6812–6822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.-K.

M.-K. Liu, A. C. Vrahas, and M.-J. B. Moretti, “Saddle point bit error rate computations for optical communication systems incorporating equalizers,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 989–1000 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, “Impact of channel plan and dispersion map on hybrid DWDM transmission of 42.7-Gb/s DQPSK and 10.7-Gb/s OOK on 50-GHz grid,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1801–1803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malach, M.

M. Malach, C.-A. Bunge, K. Petermann, L. Molle, R. Freund, and H. J. Thiele, “Cross-phase modulation suppression method in multispan dispersion-managed WDM transmission systems,” ICTON2005, paper We.C1.2, 68–71 (2005).

M. Malach, C.-A. Bunge, and K. Petermann, “Design rule for XPM-suppression in 10-Gb/s NRZ-modulated WDM transmission systems,” IEEE LEOS2005, Ann. Meeting, paper WE2, 481–482 (2005).

Marhic, M. E.

T.-K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 249–259 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mohs, G.

C. Furst, C. Scheerer, G. Mohs, J.-P. Elbers, and C. Glingener, “Influence of the dispersion map on limitations due to cross-phase modulation in WDM multispan transmission systems,” OFC2001, paper MF4-1.

Molle, L.

M. Malach, C.-A. Bunge, K. Petermann, L. Molle, R. Freund, and H. J. Thiele, “Cross-phase modulation suppression method in multispan dispersion-managed WDM transmission systems,” ICTON2005, paper We.C1.2, 68–71 (2005).

Mollenauer, L. F.

Moretti, M.-J. B.

M.-K. Liu, A. C. Vrahas, and M.-J. B. Moretti, “Saddle point bit error rate computations for optical communication systems incorporating equalizers,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 989–1000 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Morita, I.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, D. van den Borne, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, and P. M. Krummrich, “Experimental study of XPM in 10-Gb/s NRZ pre-compensated transmission systems,” OFC2007, paper OThS6.

Myslivets, E.

A. Richter, I. Koltchanov, K. Kuzmin, E. Myslivets, and R. Freund, “Issues on bit-error rate estimation for fiber-optic communication systems,” OFC2005, paper NTuH3, 6–11 (2005).

Orenstein, M.

Y. Yadin, M. Shtaif, and M. Orenstein, “Nonlinear phase noise in phase-modulated WDM fiber-optic communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1307–1309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

F. Zhang, C-A. Bunge, and K. Petermann, “Analysis of nonlinear phase noise in single-channel return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying transmission systems,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1038–1040 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, C-A. Bunge, K. Petermann, and A. Richter, “Optimum dispersion mapping of single-channel 40 Gbit/s return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying transmission systems,” Opt. Express 14, 6613–6618 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-15-6613
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Malach, C.-A. Bunge, and K. Petermann, “Design rule for XPM-suppression in 10-Gb/s NRZ-modulated WDM transmission systems,” IEEE LEOS2005, Ann. Meeting, paper WE2, 481–482 (2005).

M. Malach, C.-A. Bunge, K. Petermann, L. Molle, R. Freund, and H. J. Thiele, “Cross-phase modulation suppression method in multispan dispersion-managed WDM transmission systems,” ICTON2005, paper We.C1.2, 68–71 (2005).

Proakis, J. G.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000), Chapter 5.

Richter, A.

Rohde, M.

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E.-J. Bachus, and N. Hanik, “Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fibre WDM systems,” IEE Electron. Lett. 36, 1483–1484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scheerer, C.

C. Furst, C. Scheerer, G. Mohs, J.-P. Elbers, and C. Glingener, “Influence of the dispersion map on limitations due to cross-phase modulation in WDM multispan transmission systems,” OFC2001, paper MF4-1.

Schmidt, E.-D.

B. Spinnler, N. Hecker-Denschlag, S. Calabro, M. Herz, C.-J. Weiske, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, R. Griffin, and S. Wadsworth, “Nonlinear tolerance of differential phase shift keying modulated signals reduced by XPM,” OFC2004, paper TuF3.

Shtaif, M.

Y. Yadin, M. Shtaif, and M. Orenstein, “Nonlinear phase noise in phase-modulated WDM fiber-optic communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1307–1309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spinnler, B.

B. Spinnler, N. Hecker-Denschlag, S. Calabro, M. Herz, C.-J. Weiske, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, R. Griffin, and S. Wadsworth, “Nonlinear tolerance of differential phase shift keying modulated signals reduced by XPM,” OFC2004, paper TuF3.

Thiele, H. J.

M. Malach, C.-A. Bunge, K. Petermann, L. Molle, R. Freund, and H. J. Thiele, “Cross-phase modulation suppression method in multispan dispersion-managed WDM transmission systems,” ICTON2005, paper We.C1.2, 68–71 (2005).

Tudury, G. E.

A. S. Lenihan, G. E. Tudury, W. Aster, and G. M. Carter, “XPM-induced impairments in RZ-DPSK transmission in a multi-modulation format WDM system,” CLEO2005, paper CWO5, 1500–1502 (2005).

van den Borne, D.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, D. van den Borne, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, and P. M. Krummrich, “Experimental study of XPM in 10-Gb/s NRZ pre-compensated transmission systems,” OFC2007, paper OThS6.

B. Spinnler, N. Hecker-Denschlag, S. Calabro, M. Herz, C.-J. Weiske, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, R. Griffin, and S. Wadsworth, “Nonlinear tolerance of differential phase shift keying modulated signals reduced by XPM,” OFC2004, paper TuF3.

Vrahas, A. C.

M.-K. Liu, A. C. Vrahas, and M.-J. B. Moretti, “Saddle point bit error rate computations for optical communication systems incorporating equalizers,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 989–1000 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, S.

B. Spinnler, N. Hecker-Denschlag, S. Calabro, M. Herz, C.-J. Weiske, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, R. Griffin, and S. Wadsworth, “Nonlinear tolerance of differential phase shift keying modulated signals reduced by XPM,” OFC2004, paper TuF3.

Wang, H.-C.

K.-P. Ho and H.-C. Wang, “Comparison of nonlinear phase noise and intrachannel four-wave mixing for RZ-DPSK signals in dispersive transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1426–1428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weiske, C.-J.

B. Spinnler, N. Hecker-Denschlag, S. Calabro, M. Herz, C.-J. Weiske, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, R. Griffin, and S. Wadsworth, “Nonlinear tolerance of differential phase shift keying modulated signals reduced by XPM,” OFC2004, paper TuF3.

Wickham, L. K.

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591–1593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591–1593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yadin, Y.

Y. Yadin, M. Shtaif, and M. Orenstein, “Nonlinear phase noise in phase-modulated WDM fiber-optic communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1307–1309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu, S. Kumar, and X. Li, “Analysis and comparison of impairments in differential phase-shift keying and on-off keying transmission systems based on the error probability,” Applied Opt. 45, 6812–6822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Applied Opt. (1)

X. Zhu, S. Kumar, and X. Li, “Analysis and comparison of impairments in differential phase-shift keying and on-off keying transmission systems based on the error probability,” Applied Opt. 45, 6812–6822 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEE Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Rohde, C. Caspar, N. Heimes, M. Konitzer, E.-J. Bachus, and N. Hanik, “Robustness of DPSK direct detection transmission format in standard fibre WDM systems,” IEE Electron. Lett. 36, 1483–1484 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Top. in Quant. Electron. (1)

K.-P. Ho, “Error probability of DPSK signals with cross-phase modulation induced nonlinear phase noise,” IEEE J. Select. Top. in Quant. Electron. 10, 421–427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (9)

L. K. Wickham, R.-J. Essiambre, A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, and A. R. Chraplyvy, “Bit pattern length dependence of intrachannel nonlinearities in pseudolinear transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1591–1593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.-P. Ho, “Performance degradation of phase-modulated systems due to nonlinear phase noise,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1213–1215 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K.-P. Ho and H.-C. Wang, “Comparison of nonlinear phase noise and intrachannel four-wave mixing for RZ-DPSK signals in dispersive transmission systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1426–1428 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Astar, A. S. Lenihan, and G. M. Carter, “Performance of DBPSK in a 5×10 Gb/s mixed modulation format Raman/EDFA WDM system,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2766–2768 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yadin, M. Shtaif, and M. Orenstein, “Nonlinear phase noise in phase-modulated WDM fiber-optic communications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1307–1309 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Betti and M. Giaconi, “Analysis of the cross-phase modulation in dispersion compensated WDM optical fiber systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1304–1306 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Bigo, G. Bellotti, and M. W. Chbat, “Investigation of cross-phase modulation limitation on over various types of fiber infrastructures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 605–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Bellotti and S. Bigo, “Cross-phase modulation suppressor for multispan dispersion-managed WDM transmissions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 726–728 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Bellotti, S. Bigo, P.-Y. Cortes, S. Gauchard, and S. LaRochelle, “10×10 Gb/s cross-phase modulation suppressor for multispan transmission using WDM narrow-band fiber bragg gratings,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1403–1405 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

M.-K. Liu, A. C. Vrahas, and M.-J. B. Moretti, “Saddle point bit error rate computations for optical communication systems incorporating equalizers,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 43, 989–1000 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

T.-K. Chiang, N. Kagi, M. E. Marhic, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Cross-phase modulation in fiber links with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 249–259 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, “Cross-phase-modulation-induced nonlinear phase noise in WDM direct-detection DPSK systems,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1770–1774 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Chandrasekhar and X. Liu, “Impact of channel plan and dispersion map on hybrid DWDM transmission of 42.7-Gb/s DQPSK and 10.7-Gb/s OOK on 50-GHz grid,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1801–1803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim and A. H. Gnauck, “Experimental investigation of the performance limitation of DPSK systems due to nonlinear phase noise,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 320–322 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000), Chapter 5.

A. Richter, I. Koltchanov, K. Kuzmin, E. Myslivets, and R. Freund, “Issues on bit-error rate estimation for fiber-optic communication systems,” OFC2005, paper NTuH3, 6–11 (2005).

H. Griesser and J.-P. Elbers, “Influence of cross-phase modulation induced nonlinear phase noise on DQPSK signals from neighboring OOK channels,” ECOC 2005, paper Tu 1.2.2, 123–124 (2005).

B. Spinnler, N. Hecker-Denschlag, S. Calabro, M. Herz, C.-J. Weiske, E.-D. Schmidt, D. van den Borne, G.-D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, R. Griffin, and S. Wadsworth, “Nonlinear tolerance of differential phase shift keying modulated signals reduced by XPM,” OFC2004, paper TuF3.

A. S. Lenihan, G. E. Tudury, W. Aster, and G. M. Carter, “XPM-induced impairments in RZ-DPSK transmission in a multi-modulation format WDM system,” CLEO2005, paper CWO5, 1500–1502 (2005).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, D. van den Borne, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, and P. M. Krummrich, “Experimental study of XPM in 10-Gb/s NRZ pre-compensated transmission systems,” OFC2007, paper OThS6.

C. Furst, C. Scheerer, G. Mohs, J.-P. Elbers, and C. Glingener, “Influence of the dispersion map on limitations due to cross-phase modulation in WDM multispan transmission systems,” OFC2001, paper MF4-1.

M. Malach, C.-A. Bunge, K. Petermann, L. Molle, R. Freund, and H. J. Thiele, “Cross-phase modulation suppression method in multispan dispersion-managed WDM transmission systems,” ICTON2005, paper We.C1.2, 68–71 (2005).

M. Malach, C.-A. Bunge, and K. Petermann, “Design rule for XPM-suppression in 10-Gb/s NRZ-modulated WDM transmission systems,” IEEE LEOS2005, Ann. Meeting, paper WE2, 481–482 (2005).

W. A. Atia and R. S. Bondurant, “Demonstration of return-to-zero signaling in both OOK and DPSK formats to improve receiver sensitivity in an optically preamplified receiver,” IEEE LEOS 1999 Annu. Meeting, Paper TuM3, 226–227 (1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

System configuration in our simulation. For RZ-DPSK WDM system, the three channels all carry RZ-DPSK signals with 33% duty cycle. For multi-format WDM system, the center channel still transmits RZ-DPSK signals, while its two neighbors use 33% RZ-OOK format.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

BER as a function of pre-compensation for 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK systems. (a) with both XPM effect and XPM-induced nonlinear phase noise; (b) comparing XPM effect with XPM-induced nonlinear phase noise.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

BER as a function of pre-compensation for a 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK channel in multi-format WDM systems. (a) with both XPM effect and XPM-induced nonlinear phase noise; (b) comparing XPM effect with XPM-induced nonlinear phase noise. The single-channel RZ-DPSK transmission is shown for comparison.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

BER as a function of pre-compensation for a 40 Gbit/s RZ-DPSK channel in DPSK and multi-format WDM systems using SSMF.

Equations (1)

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MGF ( s ) = 1 ( 1 + s · N ) M exp ( s · E 1 + s · N ) × 1 ( 1 s · N ) M

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