Abstract

We report the use of adaptive optics with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy for label-free deep tissue imaging based on molecular vibrational spectroscopy. The setup employs a deformable membrane mirror and a random search optimization algorithm to improve signal intensity and image quality at large sample depths. We demonstrate the ability to correct for both system and sample-induced aberrations in test samples as well as in muscle tissue in order to enhance the CARS signal. The combined system and sample-induced aberration correction increased the signal by an average factor of ~3x for the test samples at a depth of 700 µm and ~6x for muscle tissue at a depth of 260 µm. The enhanced signal and higher penetration depth offered by adaptive optics will augment CARS microscopy as an in vivo and in situ biomedical imaging modality.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2007 (1)

2006 (5)

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, J. P. Pezacki, "Intracellular Imaging of HCV RNA and Cellular Lipids by Using Simultaneous Two-Photon Fluorescence and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopies," ChemBioChem 7, 1895-1897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Ganikhanov, S. Carrasco, X. S. Xie, M. Katz, W. Seitz, D. Kopf, "Broadly tunable dual-wavelength light source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett.,  31, 1292-1294 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, "High sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM-CARS) microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1872-1874 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, "Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing," PNAS 103, 17137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, "Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source," J. Biomed. Opt. 11,020502, (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

J. J. Dirckx, L. C. Kuypers, and W. F. Decraemer, "Refractive index of tissue measured with confocal microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 4044014 (2005).

A. J. Wright, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, J. M. Girkin, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, "Dynamic closed-loop system for focus tracking using a spatial light modulator and a deformable membrane mirror," Opt. Express 14,222-228 (2005)

E. Dalimier and C. Dainty, "Comparative analysis of deformable mirrors for ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express 13, 4275-4285 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," PNAS 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, "Deep tissue two-photon microscopy," Nat. Methods 2,932-940 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the Optimisation Algorithms used in the implementation of Adaptive Optics in Confocal and Multiphoton Microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 67, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

X. Nan, W. Y. Yan, and X. S. Xie, "CARS Microscopy: Lights Up Lipids in Living Cells," Bioph. Int. 11, 44-47 (2004).

M. Schwertner, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, "Characterizing specimen induced aberrations for high NA adaptive optics microscopy," Opt. Express 12,6540-6552 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108,827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (5)

W. R Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotech.  21,1369 - 1377 (2003)
[CrossRef]

M. D. Cahalan, I. Parker, S. H. Wei, and M. J. Miller, "Real-time imaging of lymphocytes in vivo," Curr. Opin. Immunol. 15,372-377 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, S. Pautot, A. D. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of Water Molecules Between Phospholipid Bilayers Visualized by Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," PNAS 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Marsh, D. Burns, and J. Girkin, "Practical implementation of adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy," Opt. Express 11, 1123-1130 (2003).

E. J. Fernández and P. Artal, "Membrane deformation mirror for adaptive optics: performance limits in visual optics," Opt. Express 11, 1056-1069 (2003).

2002 (3)

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, "Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope," PNAS 99, 5788 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, "Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror" J. Microscopy 206, 65-71 (2002).

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, X. S. Xie, "Multiplex Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microspectroscopy and Study of Lipid Vesicles," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 8493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

L. Zhu, P.-C. Sun, D.-U. Bartsch, W. R. Freeman, and Y. Fainman, "Wave-front generation of Zernike polynomial modes with a micromachined membrane deformable mirror," App. Opt. 38, 6019-6026 (1999).

1997 (1)

G. Marques, L. Wang, S. P. Lin, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Thomsen and J. Schwartz, "Measurement of Absorption and Scattering Spectra of Chicken Breast with Oblique Incidence Reflectometry," Proc. SPIE 2976,306-317 (1997)

Albert, O.

L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, "Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror" J. Microscopy 206, 65-71 (2002).

Artal, P.

Bartsch, D.-U.

L. Zhu, P.-C. Sun, D.-U. Bartsch, W. R. Freeman, and Y. Fainman, "Wave-front generation of Zernike polynomial modes with a micromachined membrane deformable mirror," App. Opt. 38, 6019-6026 (1999).

Book, L. D.

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, X. S. Xie, "Multiplex Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microspectroscopy and Study of Lipid Vesicles," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 8493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Booth, M. J.

Burns, D.

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the Optimisation Algorithms used in the implementation of Adaptive Optics in Confocal and Multiphoton Microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 67, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Marsh, D. Burns, and J. Girkin, "Practical implementation of adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy," Opt. Express 11, 1123-1130 (2003).

Cahalan, M. D.

M. D. Cahalan, I. Parker, S. H. Wei, and M. J. Miller, "Real-time imaging of lymphocytes in vivo," Curr. Opin. Immunol. 15,372-377 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Carrasco, S.

Chen, Z.

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, "Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source," J. Biomed. Opt. 11,020502, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J. X.

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108,827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, S. Pautot, A. D. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of Water Molecules Between Phospholipid Bilayers Visualized by Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," PNAS 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, X. S. Xie, "Multiplex Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microspectroscopy and Study of Lipid Vesicles," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 8493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Côté, D.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," PNAS 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, C.

Dalimier, E.

Decraemer, W. F.

J. J. Dirckx, L. C. Kuypers, and W. F. Decraemer, "Refractive index of tissue measured with confocal microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 4044014 (2005).

Denk, W.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, "Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing," PNAS 103, 17137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, "Deep tissue two-photon microscopy," Nat. Methods 2,932-940 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dirckx, J. J.

J. J. Dirckx, L. C. Kuypers, and W. F. Decraemer, "Refractive index of tissue measured with confocal microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 4044014 (2005).

Evans, C. L.

Fainman, Y.

L. Zhu, P.-C. Sun, D.-U. Bartsch, W. R. Freeman, and Y. Fainman, "Wave-front generation of Zernike polynomial modes with a micromachined membrane deformable mirror," App. Opt. 38, 6019-6026 (1999).

Fernández, E. J.

Freeman, W. R.

L. Zhu, P.-C. Sun, D.-U. Bartsch, W. R. Freeman, and Y. Fainman, "Wave-front generation of Zernike polynomial modes with a micromachined membrane deformable mirror," App. Opt. 38, 6019-6026 (1999).

Ganikhanov, F.

Gibson, G. M.

Girkin, J.

Girkin, J. M.

A. J. Wright, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, J. M. Girkin, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, "Dynamic closed-loop system for focus tracking using a spatial light modulator and a deformable membrane mirror," Opt. Express 14,222-228 (2005)

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the Optimisation Algorithms used in the implementation of Adaptive Optics in Confocal and Multiphoton Microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 67, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Helmchen, F.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, "Deep tissue two-photon microscopy," Nat. Methods 2,932-940 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

G. Marques, L. Wang, S. P. Lin, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Thomsen and J. Schwartz, "Measurement of Absorption and Scattering Spectra of Chicken Breast with Oblique Incidence Reflectometry," Proc. SPIE 2976,306-317 (1997)

Juskaitis, R.

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, "Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope," PNAS 99, 5788 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Katz, M.

Kesari, S.

Kopf, D.

Krasieva, T. B.

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, "Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source," J. Biomed. Opt. 11,020502, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuypers, L. C.

J. J. Dirckx, L. C. Kuypers, and W. F. Decraemer, "Refractive index of tissue measured with confocal microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 4044014 (2005).

Lin, C. P.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," PNAS 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. P.

G. Marques, L. Wang, S. P. Lin, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Thomsen and J. Schwartz, "Measurement of Absorption and Scattering Spectra of Chicken Breast with Oblique Incidence Reflectometry," Proc. SPIE 2976,306-317 (1997)

Mack-Bucher, J. A.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, "Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing," PNAS 103, 17137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marques, G.

G. Marques, L. Wang, S. P. Lin, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Thomsen and J. Schwartz, "Measurement of Absorption and Scattering Spectra of Chicken Breast with Oblique Incidence Reflectometry," Proc. SPIE 2976,306-317 (1997)

Marsh, P.

Masters, B. R.

Miller, M. J.

M. D. Cahalan, I. Parker, S. H. Wei, and M. J. Miller, "Real-time imaging of lymphocytes in vivo," Curr. Opin. Immunol. 15,372-377 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Nan, X.

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, J. P. Pezacki, "Intracellular Imaging of HCV RNA and Cellular Lipids by Using Simultaneous Two-Photon Fluorescence and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopies," ChemBioChem 7, 1895-1897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Nan, W. Y. Yan, and X. S. Xie, "CARS Microscopy: Lights Up Lipids in Living Cells," Bioph. Int. 11, 44-47 (2004).

Neil, M. A. A.

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, "Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope," PNAS 99, 5788 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. A. Neil, M. J. Booth, and T. Wilson, "Closed-loop aberration correction by use of a modal Zernike wave-front sensor," Opt. Lett. 25,1083-1085, (2000).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, "Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror" J. Microscopy 206, 65-71 (2002).

Padgett, M. J.

Parker, I.

M. D. Cahalan, I. Parker, S. H. Wei, and M. J. Miller, "Real-time imaging of lymphocytes in vivo," Curr. Opin. Immunol. 15,372-377 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Patterson, B. A.

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the Optimisation Algorithms used in the implementation of Adaptive Optics in Confocal and Multiphoton Microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 67, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Wright, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, J. M. Girkin, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, "Dynamic closed-loop system for focus tracking using a spatial light modulator and a deformable membrane mirror," Opt. Express 14,222-228 (2005)

Pautot, S.

J. X. Cheng, S. Pautot, A. D. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of Water Molecules Between Phospholipid Bilayers Visualized by Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," PNAS 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pezacki, J. P.

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, J. P. Pezacki, "Intracellular Imaging of HCV RNA and Cellular Lipids by Using Simultaneous Two-Photon Fluorescence and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopies," ChemBioChem 7, 1895-1897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poland, S. P.

A. J. Wright, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, J. M. Girkin, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, "Dynamic closed-loop system for focus tracking using a spatial light modulator and a deformable membrane mirror," Opt. Express 14,222-228 (2005)

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the Optimisation Algorithms used in the implementation of Adaptive Optics in Confocal and Multiphoton Microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 67, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Potma, E. O.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," PNAS 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Puoris'haag, M.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," PNAS 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rueckel, M.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, "Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing," PNAS 103, 17137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saar, B. G.

Schwartz, J.

G. Marques, L. Wang, S. P. Lin, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Thomsen and J. Schwartz, "Measurement of Absorption and Scattering Spectra of Chicken Breast with Oblique Incidence Reflectometry," Proc. SPIE 2976,306-317 (1997)

Schwertner, M.

Seitz, W.

Sherman, L.

L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, "Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror" J. Microscopy 206, 65-71 (2002).

So, P. T. C.

Stolow, A.

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, J. P. Pezacki, "Intracellular Imaging of HCV RNA and Cellular Lipids by Using Simultaneous Two-Photon Fluorescence and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopies," ChemBioChem 7, 1895-1897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, P.-C.

L. Zhu, P.-C. Sun, D.-U. Bartsch, W. R. Freeman, and Y. Fainman, "Wave-front generation of Zernike polynomial modes with a micromachined membrane deformable mirror," App. Opt. 38, 6019-6026 (1999).

Tang, S.

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, "Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source," J. Biomed. Opt. 11,020502, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomsen, S. L.

G. Marques, L. Wang, S. P. Lin, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Thomsen and J. Schwartz, "Measurement of Absorption and Scattering Spectra of Chicken Breast with Oblique Incidence Reflectometry," Proc. SPIE 2976,306-317 (1997)

Tittel, F. K.

G. Marques, L. Wang, S. P. Lin, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Thomsen and J. Schwartz, "Measurement of Absorption and Scattering Spectra of Chicken Breast with Oblique Incidence Reflectometry," Proc. SPIE 2976,306-317 (1997)

Tonary, A. M.

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, J. P. Pezacki, "Intracellular Imaging of HCV RNA and Cellular Lipids by Using Simultaneous Two-Photon Fluorescence and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopies," ChemBioChem 7, 1895-1897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, "Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source," J. Biomed. Opt. 11,020502, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Valentine, G. J.

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the Optimisation Algorithms used in the implementation of Adaptive Optics in Confocal and Multiphoton Microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 67, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Volkmer, A.

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, X. S. Xie, "Multiplex Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microspectroscopy and Study of Lipid Vesicles," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 8493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

G. Marques, L. Wang, S. P. Lin, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Thomsen and J. Schwartz, "Measurement of Absorption and Scattering Spectra of Chicken Breast with Oblique Incidence Reflectometry," Proc. SPIE 2976,306-317 (1997)

Webb, W. W.

W. R Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotech.  21,1369 - 1377 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Wei, S. H.

M. D. Cahalan, I. Parker, S. H. Wei, and M. J. Miller, "Real-time imaging of lymphocytes in vivo," Curr. Opin. Immunol. 15,372-377 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Weitz, A. D.

J. X. Cheng, S. Pautot, A. D. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of Water Molecules Between Phospholipid Bilayers Visualized by Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," PNAS 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. M.

W. R Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotech.  21,1369 - 1377 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Wilson, T.

Wong, S. T.C.

Wright, A. J.

A. J. Wright, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, J. M. Girkin, G. M. Gibson, and M. J. Padgett, "Dynamic closed-loop system for focus tracking using a spatial light modulator and a deformable membrane mirror," Opt. Express 14,222-228 (2005)

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the Optimisation Algorithms used in the implementation of Adaptive Optics in Confocal and Multiphoton Microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 67, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

C. L. Evans, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, S. T.C. Wong and G. S. Young, "Chemically-selective imaging of brain structures with CARS microscopy," Opt. Express 15,12076-12087 (2007)
[CrossRef]

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, J. P. Pezacki, "Intracellular Imaging of HCV RNA and Cellular Lipids by Using Simultaneous Two-Photon Fluorescence and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopies," ChemBioChem 7, 1895-1897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, "High sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM-CARS) microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1872-1874 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Ganikhanov, S. Carrasco, X. S. Xie, M. Katz, W. Seitz, D. Kopf, "Broadly tunable dual-wavelength light source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett.,  31, 1292-1294 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," PNAS 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Nan, W. Y. Yan, and X. S. Xie, "CARS Microscopy: Lights Up Lipids in Living Cells," Bioph. Int. 11, 44-47 (2004).

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108,827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, S. Pautot, A. D. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of Water Molecules Between Phospholipid Bilayers Visualized by Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," PNAS 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, X. S. Xie, "Multiplex Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microspectroscopy and Study of Lipid Vesicles," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 8493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

Yan, W. Y.

X. Nan, W. Y. Yan, and X. S. Xie, "CARS Microscopy: Lights Up Lipids in Living Cells," Bioph. Int. 11, 44-47 (2004).

Ye, J. Y.

L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, "Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror" J. Microscopy 206, 65-71 (2002).

Young, G. S.

Zhu, L.

L. Zhu, P.-C. Sun, D.-U. Bartsch, W. R. Freeman, and Y. Fainman, "Wave-front generation of Zernike polynomial modes with a micromachined membrane deformable mirror," App. Opt. 38, 6019-6026 (1999).

Zipfel, W. R

W. R Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotech.  21,1369 - 1377 (2003)
[CrossRef]

App. Opt. (1)

L. Zhu, P.-C. Sun, D.-U. Bartsch, W. R. Freeman, and Y. Fainman, "Wave-front generation of Zernike polynomial modes with a micromachined membrane deformable mirror," App. Opt. 38, 6019-6026 (1999).

Bioph. Int. (1)

X. Nan, W. Y. Yan, and X. S. Xie, "CARS Microscopy: Lights Up Lipids in Living Cells," Bioph. Int. 11, 44-47 (2004).

ChemBioChem (1)

X. Nan, A. M. Tonary, A. Stolow, X. S. Xie, J. P. Pezacki, "Intracellular Imaging of HCV RNA and Cellular Lipids by Using Simultaneous Two-Photon Fluorescence and Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopies," ChemBioChem 7, 1895-1897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Opin. Immunol. (1)

M. D. Cahalan, I. Parker, S. H. Wei, and M. J. Miller, "Real-time imaging of lymphocytes in vivo," Curr. Opin. Immunol. 15,372-377 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

S. Tang, T. B. Krasieva, Z. Chen, and B. J. Tromberg, "Combined multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography using a 12-fs broadband source," J. Biomed. Opt. 11,020502, (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Dirckx, L. C. Kuypers, and W. F. Decraemer, "Refractive index of tissue measured with confocal microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 4044014 (2005).

J. Microscopy (1)

L. Sherman, J. Y. Ye, O. Albert, and T. B. Norris, "Adaptive correction of depth-induced aberrations in multiphoton scanning microscopy using a deformable mirror" J. Microscopy 206, 65-71 (2002).

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

J. X. Cheng, A. Volkmer, L. D. Book, X. S. Xie, "Multiplex Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microspectroscopy and Study of Lipid Vesicles," J. Phys. Chem. B 106, 8493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108,827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

A. J. Wright, D. Burns, B. A. Patterson, S. P. Poland, G. J. Valentine, and J. M. Girkin, "Exploration of the Optimisation Algorithms used in the implementation of Adaptive Optics in Confocal and Multiphoton Microscopy," Microsc. Res. Tech. 67, 36-44 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotech. (1)

W. R Zipfel, R. M. Williams, and W. W. Webb, "Nonlinear magic: multiphoton microscopy in the biosciences," Nat. Biotech.  21,1369 - 1377 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (1)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, "Deep tissue two-photon microscopy," Nat. Methods 2,932-940 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (3)

PNAS (4)

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," PNAS 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, "Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing," PNAS 103, 17137 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, S. Pautot, A. D. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of Water Molecules Between Phospholipid Bilayers Visualized by Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy," PNAS 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, "Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope," PNAS 99, 5788 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

G. Marques, L. Wang, S. P. Lin, S. L. Jacques, F. K. Tittel, S. L. Thomsen and J. Schwartz, "Measurement of Absorption and Scattering Spectra of Chicken Breast with Oblique Incidence Reflectometry," Proc. SPIE 2976,306-317 (1997)

Other (2)

R. K. Tyson, "Principles of adaptive optics," Principles of adaptive optics, Edition: 2nd ed., Publisher: Boston, MA: Academic Press, 1998, ISBN: 0127059024 (1998).

A. J. Wright, S. P. Poland, J. Vijverberg, and J. M. Girkin, "A practical implementation of adaptive optics for aberration compensation in optical microscopy," Proc. 6th International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine, paper [30] (2007)

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