Abstract

We report on first proof-of-principles results on non-sequential double ionization of argon and neon achieved by using a newly developed long-cavity Ti:sapphire femtosecond oscillator with a pulse duration of 45 fs and a repetition of 6.2 MHz combined with a dedicated reaction microscope. Under optimized experimental conditions, peak intensities larger than 2.3·1014 W/cm2 have been achieved. Ion momentum distributions were recorded for both rare gases and show significantly different features for single as well as for double ionization. For single ionization of neon a spike of zero-momentum electrons is found when decreasing the laser intensity towards the lowest ionization rate we can measure which is attributed to a non-resonant ionization channel. As to double ionization, the longitudinal momentum distribution for Ne2+displays a clear double-hump structure whereas this feature is found to be smoothened out with a maximum at zero momentum for Ar2+.

©2007 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  26. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in non-sequential strong field double ionization of Ar: The role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4(2001).
    [Crossref]

2006 (2)

A. S. Alnaser, C. M. Maharjan, P. Wang, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Multi-photon resonant effects in strong-field ionization: origin of the dip in experimental longitudinal momentum distributions, ”J. Phys. B 39, L323–L328 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Dewald, T. Lang, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Ionization of noble gases with pulses directly from a laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2072–2074 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

A. Killi, U. Morgner, M. J. Lederer, and D. Kopf, “Diode-pumped femtosecond laser oscillator with cavity dumping,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1288–1290 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Fernandez, T. Fuji, A. Poppe, A. Fürbach, F. Krausz, and A. Apolonski, “Chirped-pulse oscillators: a route to high-power femtosecond pulses without external amplification,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1366–1368 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. C D Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of non-sequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37, L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime, ” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: Comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 063405-1–063405-7 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization,” J. Phys. B 36, 3869–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1463–1545(2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

2000 (2)

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: A ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192(2000)
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

1993 (3)

P.B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multi-photon ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.J. Schafer, B. Yang, L.F. DiMauro, and K.C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1603(1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier and Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

D.N. Fittinghoff, P.R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K.C. Kulander, “Observation of non-sequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

G Mainfray and G. Manus, “Multi-photon ionization of atoms,” Rep. Prog. Phys.  541333(1991).

1979 (1)

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. “Raman free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

Afanch, F.

V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. C D Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of non-sequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37, L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. “Raman free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[Crossref]

Alnaser, A. S.

A. S. Alnaser, C. M. Maharjan, P. Wang, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Multi-photon resonant effects in strong-field ionization: origin of the dip in experimental longitudinal momentum distributions, ”J. Phys. B 39, L323–L328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Apolonski, A.

Balcou, Ph.

A. L’Huillier and Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolton, P.R.

D.N. Fittinghoff, P.R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K.C. Kulander, “Observation of non-sequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C D Schröter, C.D.

V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. C D Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of non-sequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37, L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chang, B.

D.N. Fittinghoff, P.R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K.C. Kulander, “Observation of non-sequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, S. H.

Corkum, P.B.

P.B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multi-photon ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cormier, E.

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: Comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 063405-1–063405-7 (2003).
[Crossref]

Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in non-sequential strong field double ionization of Ar: The role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4(2001).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J. E.

de Jesus, V. L. B.

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime, ” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413 (2004).
[Crossref]

de Jesus, V.L.B.

V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. C D Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of non-sequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37, L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Deboeij, W. P.

Deipenwisch, J.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Nonsequential double ionization of Ne in intense laser pulses: a coincidence experiment,” Opt. Express 8, 358–367 (2001).http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-8-7-358
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in non-sequential strong field double ionization of Ar: The role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4(2001).
[Crossref]

Dewald, S.

DiMauro, L.F.

K.J. Schafer, B. Yang, L.F. DiMauro, and K.C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1603(1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorn, A.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1463–1545(2003).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Nonsequential double ionization of Ne in intense laser pulses: a coincidence experiment,” Opt. Express 8, 358–367 (2001).http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-8-7-358
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in non-sequential strong field double ionization of Ar: The role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4(2001).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dörner, R.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1463–1545(2003).
[Crossref]

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: A ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192(2000)
[Crossref]

Dreischuh, A.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization,” J. Phys. B 36, 3869–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dyer, M. J.

H. Helm and M. J. Dyer, “Resonant and non-resonant multi-photon ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2726–2733(1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Helm and M. J. DyerI. Alvarez, C. Cisneros, and T. J. Morgan, “Electron imaging Study of multi-photon ionization of neon,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Atomic and Molecular Physics, edited by(World Scientific Singapore, 1995)

Eremina, E.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization,” J. Phys. B 36, 3869–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fabre, F.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. “Raman free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[Crossref]

Fernandez, A.

Feuerstein, B.

V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. C D Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of non-sequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37, L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime, ” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization,” J. Phys. B 36, 3869–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in non-sequential strong field double ionization of Ar: The role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4(2001).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Nonsequential double ionization of Ne in intense laser pulses: a coincidence experiment,” Opt. Express 8, 358–367 (2001).http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-8-7-358
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, D.

V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. C D Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of non-sequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37, L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
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R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Nonsequential double ionization of Ne in intense laser pulses: a coincidence experiment,” Opt. Express 8, 358–367 (2001).http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-8-7-358
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B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in non-sequential strong field double ionization of Ar: The role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4(2001).
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Hoffmann, K.

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
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R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
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Hohr, C.

Höhr, C.

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
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B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in non-sequential strong field double ionization of Ar: The role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4(2001).
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Ippen, E. P.

Jagutzki, O.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: A ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192(2000)
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Killi, A.

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Kogelnik, H.

Kompfner, R.

Kopf, D.

Korn, G.

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
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B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in non-sequential strong field double ionization of Ar: The role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4(2001).
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R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Nonsequential double ionization of Ne in intense laser pulses: a coincidence experiment,” Opt. Express 8, 358–367 (2001).http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-8-7-358
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R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
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Krausz, F.

Kulander, K.C.

K.J. Schafer, B. Yang, L.F. DiMauro, and K.C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1603(1993).
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D.N. Fittinghoff, P.R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K.C. Kulander, “Observation of non-sequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
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E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization,” J. Phys. B 36, 3869–3280 (2003).
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E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization,” J. Phys. B 36, 3869–3280 (2003).
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Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. C.

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
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Maharjan, C. M.

A. S. Alnaser, C. M. Maharjan, P. Wang, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Multi-photon resonant effects in strong-field ionization: origin of the dip in experimental longitudinal momentum distributions, ”J. Phys. B 39, L323–L328 (2006).
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Mainfray, G.

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Manus, G.

G Mainfray and G. Manus, “Multi-photon ionization of atoms,” Rep. Prog. Phys.  541333(1991).

Mergel, V.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: A ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192(2000)
[Crossref]

Morgner, U.

Moshammer, R.

S. Dewald, T. Lang, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Ionization of noble gases with pulses directly from a laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2072–2074 (2006).
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V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. C D Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of non-sequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37, L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime, ” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1463–1545(2003).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization,” J. Phys. B 36, 3869–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in non-sequential strong field double ionization of Ar: The role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4(2001).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Nonsequential double ionization of Ne in intense laser pulses: a coincidence experiment,” Opt. Express 8, 358–367 (2001).http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-8-7-358
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: A ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192(2000)
[Crossref]

N. K.,

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. “Raman free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[Crossref]

Neumayer, P.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Nonsequential double ionization of Ne in intense laser pulses: a coincidence experiment,” Opt. Express 8, 358–367 (2001).http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-8-7-358
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in non-sequential strong field double ionization of Ar: The role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4(2001).
[Crossref]

Paulus, G. G.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization,” J. Phys. B 36, 3869–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

Petite, G.

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. “Raman free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[Crossref]

Poppe, A.

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

Rottke, H.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization,” J. Phys. B 36, 3869–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Nonsequential double ionization of Ne in intense laser pulses: a coincidence experiment,” Opt. Express 8, 358–367 (2001).http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-8-7-358
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in non-sequential strong field double ionization of Ar: The role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4(2001).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudenko, A.

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime, ” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413 (2004).
[Crossref]

V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. C D Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of non-sequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37, L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sandner, W.

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization,” J. Phys. B 36, 3869–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Nonsequential double ionization of Ne in intense laser pulses: a coincidence experiment,” Opt. Express 8, 358–367 (2001).http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-8-7-358
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in non-sequential strong field double ionization of Ar: The role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4(2001).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schafer, K.J.

K.J. Schafer, B. Yang, L.F. DiMauro, and K.C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1603(1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, L. P. H.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1463–1545(2003).
[Crossref]

Schmidt-Böcking, H.

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1463–1545(2003).
[Crossref]

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: A ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192(2000)
[Crossref]

Schmitt, W.

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schroter, C.

Schröter, C. D.

S. Dewald, T. Lang, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Ionization of noble gases with pulses directly from a laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2072–2074 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime, ” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in non-sequential strong field double ionization of Ar: The role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4(2001).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siegel, M.

Spielberger, L.

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: A ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192(2000)
[Crossref]

Trump, C.

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Nonsequential double ionization of Ne in intense laser pulses: a coincidence experiment,” Opt. Express 8, 358–367 (2001).http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-8-7-358
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in non-sequential strong field double ionization of Ar: The role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4(2001).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

S. Dewald, T. Lang, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Ionization of noble gases with pulses directly from a laser oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2072–2074 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime, ” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413 (2004).
[Crossref]

V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. C D Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of non-sequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37, L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization,” J. Phys. B 36, 3869–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1463–1545(2003).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Nonsequential double ionization of Ne in intense laser pulses: a coincidence experiment,” Opt. Express 8, 358–367 (2001).http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-8-7-358
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in non-sequential strong field double ionization of Ar: The role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4(2001).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: A ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192(2000)
[Crossref]

Walther, H.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization,” J. Phys. B 36, 3869–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

A. S. Alnaser, C. M. Maharjan, P. Wang, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Multi-photon resonant effects in strong-field ionization: origin of the dip in experimental longitudinal momentum distributions, ”J. Phys. B 39, L323–L328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wiehle, R.

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: Comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 063405-1–063405-7 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wiersma, D. A.

Wittmann, M.

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. Schroter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Hohr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Nonsequential double ionization of Ne in intense laser pulses: a coincidence experiment,” Opt. Express 8, 358–367 (2001).http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-8-7-358
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in non-sequential strong field double ionization of Ar: The role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4(2001).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Witzel, B.

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: Comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 063405-1–063405-7 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

K.J. Schafer, B. Yang, L.F. DiMauro, and K.C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1603(1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zrost, K.

V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. C D Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of non-sequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37, L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime, ” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Phys. B (5)

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization,” J. Phys. B 36, 3869–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

V.L.B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, K. Zrost, D. Fischer, A. Rudenko, F. Afanch, C.D. C D Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Atomic structure dependence of non-sequential double ionization of He, Ne, and Ar in strong laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 37, L161–L167 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, C. D. Schröter, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Resonant structures in the low-energy electron continuum for single ionization of atoms in the tunnelling regime, ” J. Phys. B 37, L407–L413 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. S. Alnaser, C. M. Maharjan, P. Wang, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Multi-photon resonant effects in strong-field ionization: origin of the dip in experimental longitudinal momentum distributions, ”J. Phys. B 39, L323–L328 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. C. Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rep. (1)

R. Dörner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Spielberger, J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Cold target recoil ion momentum spectroscopy: A ‘momentum microscope’ to view atomic collision dynamics,” Phys. Rep. 330, 95–192(2000)
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

R. Wiehle, B. Witzel, H. Helm, and E. Cormier, “Dynamics of strong-field above-threshold ionization of argon: Comparison between experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. A 67, 063405-1–063405-7 (2003).
[Crossref]

H. Helm and M. J. Dyer, “Resonant and non-resonant multi-photon ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2726–2733(1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

P. Agostini, F. Fabre, G. Mainfray, G. Petite, and N. K. “Raman free-free transitions following six-photon ionization of xenon atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 42, 1127–1130 (1979).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier and Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1-ps 1053-nm laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D.N. Fittinghoff, P.R. Bolton, B. Chang, and K.C. Kulander, “Observation of non-sequential double ionization of helium with optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2642–2645 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P.B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multi-photon ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K.J. Schafer, B. Yang, L.F. DiMauro, and K.C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1603(1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Momentum distributions of Nen+ions created by an intense ultrashort laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in non-sequential strong field double ionization of Ar: The role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4(2001).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

J. Ullrich, R. Moshammer, A. Dorn, R. Dörner, L. P. H. Schmidt, and H. Schmidt-Böcking, “Recoil-ion and electron momentum spectroscopy: reaction-microscopes,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 1463–1545(2003).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

Sebastian Dewald, PhD Thesis, Heidelberg University.

H. Helm and M. J. DyerI. Alvarez, C. Cisneros, and T. J. Morgan, “Electron imaging Study of multi-photon ionization of neon,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Atomic and Molecular Physics, edited by(World Scientific Singapore, 1995)

G Mainfray and G. Manus, “Multi-photon ionization of atoms,” Rep. Prog. Phys.  541333(1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The experimental setup.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Time-of-flight (TOF) spectrum for Ar recoil ions at about 2.3×1014 W/cm2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Momentum distributions for singly and doubly charged argon (a,b) and neon (c,d) along the laser polarization direction at an intensity of 2.3·1014W/cm2.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a): Electron momentum distribution for single ionization of neon along the laser polarization direction at an intensity of 0.9·1014 W/cm2. (b): Electron momentum distribution for single ionization of argon along the laser polarization direction at an intensity of 0.3·1014W/cm2.

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