Abstract

We have conducted a feasibility study of a frequency splitter operating at THz frequencies, based on a bidirectional subwavelength slit simulated using two-dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) techniques. The near-field wave emanating from the narrow slit serves as a subwavelength-scaled excitation source. By placing two optimized grating structures on the opposite sides of the slit, the THz waves at different frequencies are guided in the two desired directions. Confinement of the optical field is illustrated for different surface structures.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Skorobogatiy and A. V. Kabashin, "Photon crystal waveguide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143518 (2006).
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  4. D. Qu, D. Grischkowsky, and W. Zhang, "Terahertz transmission properties of thin, subwavelength metallic hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 29, 896 (2004).
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  5. J. F. O’Hara, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, "Terahertz surface plasmon polariton coupling on metallic gratings," Opt. Express 12, 6397 (2004).
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  7. J. Saxler, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
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2007 (6)

A. Agrawal and A. Nahata, "Coupling terahertz radiation onto a metal wire using a subwavelength coaxial aperture," Opt. Express 15, 9022 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lee and M. C. Wanke, "Searching for a Solid-State Terahertz Technology," Science 316, 64 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maier, "Clear for launch," Nat. Phys. 3, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, B. Guo, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, "Plasmonic surface-wave splitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and E. Devaux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature (London) 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

S. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, "Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ginzburg, D. Arbel, and M. Orenstein, "Gap plasmon polariton structure for very efficient microscale-to-nanoscale interfacing," Opt. Lett. 31, 3288 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides," Nano Lett. 6, 1928 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, "Dispersion of surface plasmon polaritons on metal wires in the terahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 157401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging Photonics and Electronics at Nanoscale Dimensions," Science 311, 189 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Skorobogatiy and A. V. Kabashin, "Photon crystal waveguide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

T.-I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, "THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao and A. Nahata, "Coupling of terahertz pulses onto a single metal wire waveguide using milled grooves," Opt. Express 13, 7028 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, "Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons," Science 308, 670 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (9)

M. I. Stockman, "Nanofocusing of Optical Energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec and T. Thio, "Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 12, 3629 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Qu, D. Grischkowsky, and W. Zhang, "Terahertz transmission properties of thin, subwavelength metallic hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 29, 896 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. O’Hara, R. D. Averitt, and A. J. Taylor, "Terahertz surface plasmon polariton coupling on metallic gratings," Opt. Express 12, 6397 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao and A. Nahata, "Resonantly enhanced transmission of terahertz radiation through a periodic array of subwavelength apertures," Opt. Express 12, 1004 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Saxler, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, A. Barkan, and D. M. Mittleman, "Propagation effects in apertureless near-field optical antennas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, "Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding," Nature (London) 432, 376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon sub-wavelength optics," Nature (London) 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A.

Arbel, D.

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides," Nano Lett. 6, 1928 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

Barkan, A.

K. Wang, A. Barkan, and D. M. Mittleman, "Propagation effects in apertureless near-field optical antennas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon sub-wavelength optics," Nature (London) 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bartoli, F. J.

Q. Gan, B. Guo, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, "Plasmonic surface-wave splitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

Chen, L.

Q. Gan, B. Guo, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, "Plasmonic surface-wave splitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon sub-wavelength optics," Nature (London) 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and E. Devaux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. J.

Q. Gan, B. Guo, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, "Plasmonic surface-wave splitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides," Nano Lett. 6, 1928 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature (London) 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon sub-wavelength optics," Nature (London) 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Evans, B. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, "Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons," Science 308, 670 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, Z.

Q. Gan, B. Guo, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, "Plasmonic surface-wave splitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gan, Q.

Q. Gan, B. Guo, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, "Plasmonic surface-wave splitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and E. Devaux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature (London) 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ginzburg, P.

Gómez Rivas, J.

J. Saxler, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

T.-I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, "THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Qu, D. Grischkowsky, and W. Zhang, "Terahertz transmission properties of thin, subwavelength metallic hole arrays," Opt. Lett. 29, 896 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, B.

Q. Gan, B. Guo, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, "Plasmonic surface-wave splitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haring Bolivar, P.

J. Saxler, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hibbins, A. P.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, "Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons," Science 308, 670 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janke, C.

J. Saxler, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, T.-I.

T.-I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, "THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kabashin, A. V.

M. Skorobogatiy and A. V. Kabashin, "Photon crystal waveguide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

J. Saxler, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Lee and M. C. Wanke, "Searching for a Solid-State Terahertz Technology," Science 316, 64 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides," Nano Lett. 6, 1928 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec and T. Thio, "Diffracted evanescent wave model for enhanced and suppressed optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 12, 3629 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

López-Tejeira, F.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and E. Devaux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S.

S. Maier, "Clear for launch," Nat. Phys. 3, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Maier, S. R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, "Terahertz surface plasmon-polariton propagation and focusing on periodically corrugated metal wires," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and E. Devaux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mittleman, D. M.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, "Dispersion of surface plasmon polaritons on metal wires in the terahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 157401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang, A. Barkan, and D. M. Mittleman, "Propagation effects in apertureless near-field optical antennas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, "Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding," Nature (London) 432, 376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

O’Hara, J. F.

Orenstein, M.

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging Photonics and Electronics at Nanoscale Dimensions," Science 311, 189 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pellemans, H. P. M.

J. Saxler, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, D.

Rodrigo, S. G.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and E. Devaux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, "Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons," Science 308, 670 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saxler, J.

J. Saxler, J. Gómez Rivas, C. Janke, H. P. M. Pellemans, P. Haring Bolivar, and H. Kurz, "Time-domain measurements of surface plasmon polaritons in the terahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. B 69, 155427 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Skorobogatiy, M.

M. Skorobogatiy and A. V. Kabashin, "Photon crystal waveguide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, G.

Q. Gan, B. Guo, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, "Plasmonic surface-wave splitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, "Nanofocusing of Optical Energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

Thio, T.

Wang, K.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, "Dispersion of surface plasmon polaritons on metal wires in the terahertz frequency range," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 157401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, "Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding," Nature (London) 432, 376 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, A. Barkan, and D. M. Mittleman, "Propagation effects in apertureless near-field optical antennas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wanke, M. C.

M. Lee and M. C. Wanke, "Searching for a Solid-State Terahertz Technology," Science 316, 64 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

T.-I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, "THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Skorobogatiy and A. V. Kabashin, "Photon crystal waveguide-based surface plasmon resonance biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 143518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, A. Barkan, and D. M. Mittleman, "Propagation effects in apertureless near-field optical antennas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 305 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T.-I. Jeon, J. Zhang, and D. Grischkowsky, "THz Sommerfeld wave propagation on a single metal wire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, B. Guo, G. Song, L. Chen, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, and F. J. Bartoli, "Plasmonic surface-wave splitter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 161130 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S94 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides," Nano Lett. 6, 1928 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (2)

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and E. Devaux, "Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons," Nat. Phys. 3, 324 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Maier, "Clear for launch," Nat. Phys. 3, 301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (3)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, "Light in tiny holes," Nature (London) 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Dispersion curves calculated for d=20µm and p=50µm with different groove depths. Inset: Schematic illustration of the envisioned structure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Results Obtained by using two dimensional FDTD simulations: (a) corresponds to the two-dimensional field distribution and one-dimensional optical intensity (|E|2) distribution 2µm above the perfect metal surface, respectively. In this simulation, the frequency of the incident light is 1THz. The simulation result is similar when the incident light wavelength is 600µm and frequency is 0.5THz. (b) and (c) represents the two-dimensional field distribution and one-dimensional optical intensity (|E|2) distribution 2µm above the structured metal surface, respectively. The frequencies of the incident light are 0.5THz in (b) and 1THz in (c), respectively. In these simulations, the thickness of the metal is 400µm, the width (d) and period (p) of the gratings are 20 µm and 50 µm, respectively. The depths (h) of the left-hand side and right-hand side gratings are 50 and 110µm, the top and the bottom width of the slit are 20µm and 300µm. The simulation time T=6500µm/c, here c is the light velocity in vacuum.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Field concentration above the two surface structures with different depths (50µm in the left-hand side and 110µm in the right-hand side). Distribution of the E field, evaluated at f=0.5 THz and 1THz, along the vertical direction to the surface structures were calculated from the FDTD results shown in Fig. 2(b) and (c).

Equations (5)

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E z 1 = n = τ n 2 A n e τ n x e j β n z
H y 1 = n = j ω ε 0 τ n A n e τ n x e j β n z
E z 2 = B sin k ( x + h ) sin kh e j β 0 mp , ( mp d 2 < z < mp + d 2 )
H y 2 = j ε 0 μ 0 B cos k ( x + h ) sin kh e j β 0 mp , ( mp d 2 < z < mp + d 2 )
d p n = 1 τ n h ( sin c β n d 2 ) 2 = cot kh kh

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