Abstract

Shaping of the phase, amplitude, and polarization state of an ultrashort pulse is demonstrated using a novel arrangement of a single, linear, high-resolution liquid crystal array. Orthogonal polarization components, separated by a Wollaston prism, are manipulated independently and re-combined in a near-common path, common-optic geometry.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. O. E. Martinez, J. P. Gordon, and R. L. Fork "Negative group-velocity disperstion using refraction," J. Opt. Soc. A 1, 1003-1006 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, and R. N. Thurston, "Picosecond pulse shaping by spectral phase and amplitude modulation," Opt. Lett. 10, 609-611 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. B. Treacy, "Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-5, 454 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. L. Fork, O. E. Martinez, and J. P. Gordon, "Negative dispersion using pairs of prisms," Opt. Lett. 9, 150-152 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Dietel, J. J. Fontaine, and J. C. Diels, "Intracavity pulse compression with galss: a new method of generating pulses shorter than 60 fsec," Opt. Lett. 8, 4-6 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, J. S. Patel, and J. R. Wullet, "Programmable femtosecond pulse shaping by use of a multielement liquid-crystal phase modulator," Opt. Lett. 15, 326-328 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. M. Wefers and K. A. Nelson, "Generation of high-fidelity programmable ultrafast optical wave-forms," Opt. Lett. 20, 1047-1049 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. C. W. Hillegas, J. X. Tull, D. Goswami, D. Strickland, and W. S. Warren, "Femtosecond laser-pulse shaping by use of microsecond radiofrequency pulses," Opt. Lett. 19, 737-739 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Feedback-controlled optimization of amplified femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 68, 281-284 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Efimov and D. H. Reitze, "Programmable dispersion compensation and pulse shaping in a 26-fs chirped-pulse amplifier," Opt. Lett. 23, 1612-1614 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, "Adaptive pulse compression for transform-limited 15-fs high-energy pulse generation," Opt. Lett. 25, 587-589 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays," Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases," Chem. Phys. Lett. 344, 333-338 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Brixner and G. Gerber, "Femtosecond polarization pulse shaping," Opt. Lett. 26, 557-559 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Polachek, D. Oron, and Y. Silberberg "Full control of the spectral polarization of ultrashort pulses," Opt. Lett. 31, 631-633 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. Plewicki, F. Weise, S. M. Weber, and A. Lindinger "Phase, amplitude, and polarization with a pulse shaper in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Appl. Opt. 45, 8354-8359 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. J. Wilson, P. Schlup, and R. Bartels, "Ultrafast phase and amplitude pulse shaping with a single, one-dimensional, high-resolution phase mask," Opt. Express 15, 8979-8987 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. Schlup, O. Masihzadeh, L. Xu, R. Trebino, and R. A. Bartels, "Tomographic retrieval of the polarization state of an ultrafast laser pulse," accepted for publication in Opt. Lett. (2007).
  27. M. Takeda, H. Ina, and S. Kobayashi, "Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 156-160 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, "Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: frequency-resolved optical gating," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101-1111 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. Kane, "Real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses using principal component generalized projections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 278-284 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  30. SNLO Nonlinear optics code, available from A. V. Smith, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1423.
  31. W. J. Walecki, D. N. Fittinghoff, A. L. Smirl, and R. Trebino, "Characterization of the polarization state of weak ultrashort coherent signals by dual-channel spectral interferometry," Opt. Lett. 22, 81-83 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2001 (2)

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases," Chem. Phys. Lett. 344, 333-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner and G. Gerber, "Femtosecond polarization pulse shaping," Opt. Lett. 26, 557-559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, "Adaptive pulse compression for transform-limited 15-fs high-energy pulse generation," Opt. Lett. 25, 587-589 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays," Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

E. Zeek, K. Maginnis, S. Backus, U. Russek, M. Murnane, G. Mourou, H. Kapteyn, and G. Vdovin, "Pulse compression by use of deformable mirrors," Opt. Lett. 24, 493-495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Feedback-controlled optimization of amplified femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 68, 281-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

A. Efimov and D. H. Reitze, "Programmable dispersion compensation and pulse shaping in a 26-fs chirped-pulse amplifier," Opt. Lett. 23, 1612-1614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner and A. M. Kan’an"Femtosecond pulse shaping for synthesis, processing, and time-to-space conversion of ultrafast optical waveforms," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 317 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Kane, "Real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses using principal component generalized projections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 278-284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

1993 (2)

1990 (1)

1985 (1)

1984 (2)

R. L. Fork, O. E. Martinez, and J. P. Gordon, "Negative dispersion using pairs of prisms," Opt. Lett. 9, 150-152 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. E. Martinez, J. P. Gordon, and R. L. Fork "Negative group-velocity disperstion using refraction," J. Opt. Soc. A 1, 1003-1006 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (2)

F. J. Duarte and J. A. Piper, "Dispersion theory of multiple-prism beam expanders for pulsed dye lasers," Opt Commun 43, 303-307 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Takeda, H. Ina, and S. Kobayashi, "Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 156-160 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

E. B. Treacy, "Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-5, 454 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Assion, A.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases," Chem. Phys. Lett. 344, 333-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays," Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, "Adaptive pulse compression for transform-limited 15-fs high-energy pulse generation," Opt. Lett. 25, 587-589 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Zeek, K. Maginnis, S. Backus, U. Russek, M. Murnane, G. Mourou, H. Kapteyn, and G. Vdovin, "Pulse compression by use of deformable mirrors," Opt. Lett. 24, 493-495 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, R.

J. Wilson, P. Schlup, and R. Bartels, "Ultrafast phase and amplitude pulse shaping with a single, one-dimensional, high-resolution phase mask," Opt. Express 15, 8979-8987 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases," Chem. Phys. Lett. 344, 333-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays," Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, "Adaptive pulse compression for transform-limited 15-fs high-energy pulse generation," Opt. Lett. 25, 587-589 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baumert, T.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergt, M.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brixner, T.

T. Brixner and G. Gerber, "Femtosecond polarization pulse shaping," Opt. Lett. 26, 557-559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Feedback-controlled optimization of amplified femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 68, 281-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases," Chem. Phys. Lett. 344, 333-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays," Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dahleh, M.

W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz, and M. Dahleh "Coherent control of quantum dynamics: The dream is alive," Science 259, 1581 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diels, J. C.

Dietel, W.

Duarte, F. J.

F. J. Duarte and J. A. Piper, "Dispersion theory of multiple-prism beam expanders for pulsed dye lasers," Opt Commun 43, 303-307 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, A.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

Fontaine, J. J.

Fork, R. L.

O. E. Martinez, J. P. Gordon, and R. L. Fork "Negative group-velocity disperstion using refraction," J. Opt. Soc. A 1, 1003-1006 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, O. E. Martinez, and J. P. Gordon, "Negative dispersion using pairs of prisms," Opt. Lett. 9, 150-152 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerber, G.

T. Brixner and G. Gerber, "Femtosecond polarization pulse shaping," Opt. Lett. 26, 557-559 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Feedback-controlled optimization of amplified femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 68, 281-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geremia, J. M.

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases," Chem. Phys. Lett. 344, 333-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

O. E. Martinez, J. P. Gordon, and R. L. Fork "Negative group-velocity disperstion using refraction," J. Opt. Soc. A 1, 1003-1006 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, O. E. Martinez, and J. P. Gordon, "Negative dispersion using pairs of prisms," Opt. Lett. 9, 150-152 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goswami, D.

Heritage, J. P.

Hillegas, C. W.

Ina, H.

Kan’an, A. M.

A. M. Weiner and A. M. Kan’an"Femtosecond pulse shaping for synthesis, processing, and time-to-space conversion of ultrafast optical waveforms," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 317 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D.

D. Kane, "Real-time measurement of ultrashort laser pulses using principal component generalized projections," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 278-284 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

Kapteyn, H.

Kapteyn, H. C.

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases," Chem. Phys. Lett. 344, 333-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, "Adaptive pulse compression for transform-limited 15-fs high-energy pulse generation," Opt. Lett. 25, 587-589 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays," Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kiefer, B.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, S.

Leaird, D. E.

Lindinger, A.

Maginnis, K.

Martinez, O. E.

O. E. Martinez, J. P. Gordon, and R. L. Fork "Negative group-velocity disperstion using refraction," J. Opt. Soc. A 1, 1003-1006 (1984).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Fork, O. E. Martinez, and J. P. Gordon, "Negative dispersion using pairs of prisms," Opt. Lett. 9, 150-152 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meshulach, D.

Misoguti, L.

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays," Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Murnane, M.

Murnane, M. M.

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases," Chem. Phys. Lett. 344, 333-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays," Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Zeek, R. Bartels, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Backus, and G. Vdovin, "Adaptive pulse compression for transform-limited 15-fs high-energy pulse generation," Opt. Lett. 25, 587-589 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K. A.

Oron, D.

Patel, J. S.

Pearson, B.

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases," Chem. Phys. Lett. 344, 333-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Piper, J. A.

F. J. Duarte and J. A. Piper, "Dispersion theory of multiple-prism beam expanders for pulsed dye lasers," Opt Commun 43, 303-307 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Plewicki, M.

Polachek, L.

Rabitz, H.

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases," Chem. Phys. Lett. 344, 333-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Warren, H. Rabitz, and M. Dahleh "Coherent control of quantum dynamics: The dream is alive," Science 259, 1581 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reitze, D. H.

Russek, U.

Schlup, P.

Seyfried, V.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

Smirl, A. L.

Strehle, M.

T. Brixner, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Feedback-controlled optimization of amplified femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 68, 281-284 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickland, D.

Takeda, M.

Thurston, R. N.

Tournois, P.

P. Tournois, "Acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter for adaptive compensation of group delay time dispersion in laser systems," Opt Commun 140, 245-249 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Treacy, E. B.

E. B. Treacy, "Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-5, 454 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

Tull, J. X.

Vdovin, G.

Walecki, W. J.

Warren, W. S.

Weber, S. M.

Wefers, M. M.

Weinacht, T. C.

T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases," Chem. Phys. Lett. 344, 333-338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner and A. M. Kan’an"Femtosecond pulse shaping for synthesis, processing, and time-to-space conversion of ultrafast optical waveforms," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 317 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, J. S. Patel, and J. R. Wullet, "Programmable femtosecond pulse shaping by use of a multielement liquid-crystal phase modulator," Opt. Lett. 15, 326-328 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Wilson, J.

Wullet, J. R.

Yelin, D.

Zeek, E.

Appl. Opt. (1)

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T. C. Weinacht, R. Bartels, S. Backus, P. H. Bucksbaum, B. Pearson, J. M. Geremia, H. Rabitz, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Coherent learning control of vibrational motion in room temperature molecular gases," Chem. Phys. Lett. 344, 333-338 (2001).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

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R. Bartels, S. Backus, E. Zeek, L. Misoguti, G. Vdovin, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays," Nature (London) 406, 164-166 (2000).
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Other (2)

P. Schlup, O. Masihzadeh, L. Xu, R. Trebino, and R. A. Bartels, "Tomographic retrieval of the polarization state of an ultrafast laser pulse," accepted for publication in Opt. Lett. (2007).

SNLO Nonlinear optics code, available from A. V. Smith, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1423.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Unfolded shaper schematic: The angular separation between the polarizations due to the Wollaston prism is imaged onto the prism by a 4- f imaging system with a curved mirror (M1) and a fold mirror (M2). The remaining focusing optics form a standard foldedMartinez stretcher with the reflective spatial light modulator at the Fourier plane. (b) Mapping of wavelength to pixels for incident s- and p-polarization components.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Phase shaping: Target (red) and measured (blue) sinusoidal phase applied to the p-polarization. (b) Amplitude shaping: Shaped spectral amplitude of the s-polarization, while maintaining a flat spectral phase.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Type-II SFG for XFROG calibration measurement. (a) Experimental arrangement; OA, optic axis, θ is angle with respect to the optic axis. (b)Measured XFROG signal as the relative delay between the s- and p-polarized pulses is adjusted with the SLM. The residual delay τ d is due to imperfect delay compensation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Self-referenced TURTLE characterization of phase, amplitude, and polarization-shaped pulse. (a), (b) FROG reconstructions of p and s polarizations, respectively, including the reconstructed pulse shape (horizontal), spectrum (vertical), and spectral phase (dashed). (c), (d) Retrieved FROG traces for ±45° polarization projections. In each case, the “phantom” trace shows the measured data in the left half-plane and the reconstructed or retrieved trace in the right half-plane. (e) The retrieved field evolution, compared to (f) simulation for a Gaussian transform limited initial pulse.

Equations (1)

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E ˜ ( Ω ) = E ˜ p ( Ω ) x ̂ + r E ˜ s ( Ω ) e i ( Ω τ + θ ) y ̂

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