Abstract

A plasmon wave is perfectly split to 4 identical waves when encountering nano intersection. This is substantially different from the dielectric waveguides case where power coupling to vertical segments is negligible. When larger multimode plasmonic junction is realized — beating and retardation come into effect. The analysis of the plasmonic coupling in this device is helpful also in understanding plasmonic assisted enhanced transmission.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. N. Economou, “Surface Plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182, 539 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  2. B. Prade, J.Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  3. E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Optical 3D cavity modes below the diffraction-limit using slow-wave surface-plasmon-polaritons,” Opt. Express 15, 2607 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H.T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing Visible LightWaves into a 3-nm-Thick and 55-nm-Long Plasmon Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401 (2006)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H.J. Lezec, J.A. Dionne, and H.A. Atwater, “Negative Refraction at Visible Frequencies,” Science 316, 430 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158 (2003)
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Takahara, S. Yamagishi, H. Taki, A. Morimoto, and T. Kobayashi, “Guiding of a one-dimensional optical beam with nanometer diameter,” Opt. Lett. 22, 475 (1997)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. B. Wang and G.P. Wang, “Metal heterowaveguides for nanometric focusing of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3599 (2004)
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Ginzburg, D. Arbel, and M. Orenstein, “Gap plasmon polariton structure for very efficient microscale-to-nanoscale interfacing,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3288 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Theoretical investigation of compact couplers between dielectric slab waveguides and two-dimensional metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 1211 (2007)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. P. Ginzburg and M. Orenstein, “Plasmonic transmission lines: From micro to nano scale lambda/4 impedance matching”, the 2007 1st European Topical Meeting on Nanophotonics and Metamaterials, Austria. Paper WED4f.60.
  12. R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. A 21, 2442 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. B. Wang and G.P. Wang, “Surface plasmon polariton propagation in nanoscale metal gap waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1992 (2004)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131102, (2005).
    [Crossref]
  15. E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Modeling of Complementary (Void) Plasmon Waveguiding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2547 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  16. T.W. Ebbesen, H.J. Lezec, H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P.A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  17. C. Manolatou, S.G. Johnson, S. Fan, P.R. Villeneuve, H.A. Haus, and J.D. Joannopoulos, “High-Density Integrated Optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17 (9), 1682 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  18. E. D. Palik, Handbook of optical constants of solids, 2’nd Ed., (San-Diego: Academic, 1998).
  19. C. Genet and T.W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445, 39 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H.J. Lezec, “ The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nature Physics 2, 262 (2006).
    [Crossref]

2007 (5)

2006 (4)

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H.J. Lezec, “ The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nature Physics 2, 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. Ginzburg, D. Arbel, and M. Orenstein, “Gap plasmon polariton structure for very efficient microscale-to-nanoscale interfacing,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3288 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing Visible LightWaves into a 3-nm-Thick and 55-nm-Long Plasmon Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401 (2006)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. A 21, 2442 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131102, (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

B. Wang and G.P. Wang, “Metal heterowaveguides for nanometric focusing of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3599 (2004)
[Crossref]

B. Wang and G.P. Wang, “Surface plasmon polariton propagation in nanoscale metal gap waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1992 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158 (2003)
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

C. Manolatou, S.G. Johnson, S. Fan, P.R. Villeneuve, H.A. Haus, and J.D. Joannopoulos, “High-Density Integrated Optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17 (9), 1682 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

T.W. Ebbesen, H.J. Lezec, H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P.A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

B. Prade, J.Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556 (1991).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

E. N. Economou, “Surface Plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182, 539 (1969).
[Crossref]

Alloschery, O.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H.J. Lezec, “ The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nature Physics 2, 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

Arbel, D.

Atwater, H.A.

H.J. Lezec, J.A. Dionne, and H.A. Atwater, “Negative Refraction at Visible Frequencies,” Science 316, 430 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. A 21, 2442 (2006).
[Crossref]

Catrysse, P. B.

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. A 21, 2442 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dionne, J.A.

H.J. Lezec, J.A. Dionne, and H.A. Atwater, “Negative Refraction at Visible Frequencies,” Science 316, 430 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T.W.

C. Genet and T.W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.W. Ebbesen, H.J. Lezec, H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P.A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[Crossref]

Economou, E. N.

E. N. Economou, “Surface Plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182, 539 (1969).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Theoretical investigation of compact couplers between dielectric slab waveguides and two-dimensional metal-dielectric-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 15, 1211 (2007)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131102, (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Manolatou, S.G. Johnson, S. Fan, P.R. Villeneuve, H.A. Haus, and J.D. Joannopoulos, “High-Density Integrated Optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17 (9), 1682 (1999).
[Crossref]

Feigenbaum, E.

Gay, G.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H.J. Lezec, “ The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nature Physics 2, 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T.W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H.F.

T.W. Ebbesen, H.J. Lezec, H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P.A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ginzburg, P.

P. Ginzburg, D. Arbel, and M. Orenstein, “Gap plasmon polariton structure for very efficient microscale-to-nanoscale interfacing,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3288 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ginzburg and M. Orenstein, “Plasmonic transmission lines: From micro to nano scale lambda/4 impedance matching”, the 2007 1st European Topical Meeting on Nanophotonics and Metamaterials, Austria. Paper WED4f.60.

Haus, H.A.

C. Manolatou, S.G. Johnson, S. Fan, P.R. Villeneuve, H.A. Haus, and J.D. Joannopoulos, “High-Density Integrated Optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17 (9), 1682 (1999).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J.D.

C. Manolatou, S.G. Johnson, S. Fan, P.R. Villeneuve, H.A. Haus, and J.D. Joannopoulos, “High-Density Integrated Optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17 (9), 1682 (1999).
[Crossref]

Johnson, S.G.

C. Manolatou, S.G. Johnson, S. Fan, P.R. Villeneuve, H.A. Haus, and J.D. Joannopoulos, “High-Density Integrated Optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17 (9), 1682 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, T.

Kurokawa, Y.

H.T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing Visible LightWaves into a 3-nm-Thick and 55-nm-Long Plasmon Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401 (2006)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lezec, H.J.

H.J. Lezec, J.A. Dionne, and H.A. Atwater, “Negative Refraction at Visible Frequencies,” Science 316, 430 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H.J. Lezec, “ The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nature Physics 2, 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

T.W. Ebbesen, H.J. Lezec, H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P.A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[Crossref]

Manolatou, C.

C. Manolatou, S.G. Johnson, S. Fan, P.R. Villeneuve, H.A. Haus, and J.D. Joannopoulos, “High-Density Integrated Optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17 (9), 1682 (1999).
[Crossref]

Miyazaki, H.T.

H.T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing Visible LightWaves into a 3-nm-Thick and 55-nm-Long Plasmon Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401 (2006)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morimoto, A.

Mysyrowicz, A.

B. Prade, J.Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556 (1991).
[Crossref]

O’Dwyer, C.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H.J. Lezec, “ The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nature Physics 2, 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

Orenstein, M.

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of optical constants of solids, 2’nd Ed., (San-Diego: Academic, 1998).

Prade, B.

B. Prade, J.Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556 (1991).
[Crossref]

Selker, M. D.

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. A 21, 2442 (2006).
[Crossref]

Takahara, J.

Taki, H.

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158 (2003)
[Crossref]

Tanaka, M.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158 (2003)
[Crossref]

Thio, T.

T.W. Ebbesen, H.J. Lezec, H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P.A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[Crossref]

Veronis, G.

Viaris de Lesegno, B.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H.J. Lezec, “ The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nature Physics 2, 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

Villeneuve, P.R.

C. Manolatou, S.G. Johnson, S. Fan, P.R. Villeneuve, H.A. Haus, and J.D. Joannopoulos, “High-Density Integrated Optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17 (9), 1682 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vinet, J.Y.

B. Prade, J.Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556 (1991).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

B. Wang and G.P. Wang, “Metal heterowaveguides for nanometric focusing of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3599 (2004)
[Crossref]

B. Wang and G.P. Wang, “Surface plasmon polariton propagation in nanoscale metal gap waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1992 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G.P.

B. Wang and G.P. Wang, “Surface plasmon polariton propagation in nanoscale metal gap waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1992 (2004)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Wang and G.P. Wang, “Metal heterowaveguides for nanometric focusing of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3599 (2004)
[Crossref]

Weiner, J.

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H.J. Lezec, “ The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nature Physics 2, 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wolff, P.A.

T.W. Ebbesen, H.J. Lezec, H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P.A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yamagishi, S.

Zia, R.

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. A 21, 2442 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1158 (2003)
[Crossref]

B. Wang and G.P. Wang, “Metal heterowaveguides for nanometric focusing of light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3599 (2004)
[Crossref]

G. Veronis and S. Fan, “Bends and splitters in metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 131102, (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Modeling of Complementary (Void) Plasmon Waveguiding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2547 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Manolatou, S.G. Johnson, S. Fan, P.R. Villeneuve, H.A. Haus, and J.D. Joannopoulos, “High-Density Integrated Optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17 (9), 1682 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. A (1)

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. A 21, 2442 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

T.W. Ebbesen, H.J. Lezec, H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P.A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. Genet and T.W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Physics (1)

G. Gay, O. Alloschery, B. Viaris de Lesegno, C. O’Dwyer, J. Weiner, and H.J. Lezec, “ The optical response of nanostructured surfaces and the composite diffracted evanescent wave model,” Nature Physics 2, 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. N. Economou, “Surface Plasmons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 182, 539 (1969).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

B. Prade, J.Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556 (1991).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H.T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing Visible LightWaves into a 3-nm-Thick and 55-nm-Long Plasmon Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401 (2006)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

H.J. Lezec, J.A. Dionne, and H.A. Atwater, “Negative Refraction at Visible Frequencies,” Science 316, 430 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

P. Ginzburg and M. Orenstein, “Plasmonic transmission lines: From micro to nano scale lambda/4 impedance matching”, the 2007 1st European Topical Meeting on Nanophotonics and Metamaterials, Austria. Paper WED4f.60.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of optical constants of solids, 2’nd Ed., (San-Diego: Academic, 1998).

Supplementary Material (9)

» Media 1: MOV (255 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (423 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (362 KB)     
» Media 4: MOV (284 KB)     
» Media 5: MOV (362 KB)     
» Media 6: MOV (229 KB)     
» Media 7: MOV (217 KB)     
» Media 8: MOV (379 KB)     
» Media 9: MOV (356 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Plasmonic gap; “Modal dispersion” over gap size: (a) real and (b) imaginary parts of effective index. Inset: structure schematics. ngap=1, λ0=1.55µm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Plasmonic gap X-junction.; 2D-FDTD calculated power transmission of pulses in different arms vs. gap size: (a) Pulse energy ratio of reflection to forward transmission (red) and sideways to forward transmission (green), (b) The imaginary part of the effective index is extracted from the energy ratio of all outgoing pulses to the incoming one (dots). (Calculated values for gap TM modes are given as reference in red). The inset shows the structure schematics. ngap=1, λ0=1.55µm, εM=-96+11i, spatial resolution is 30nm (only for 100nm gap the resolution was 15nm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Plasmonic gap X- junction (a) “perfect” split for gap width smaller than λ/2 (0.3µm), (255kb) [Media 1], (b) multimode effects for gap width >λ/2 (0.9µm), (423kb) [Media 2]. λ at pulse center=1.5µm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Step by step assembly of the X-junction: two lower metal quadrants (a) H-field (363kb) [Media 3] and (b) E-field, and (c) three metal quadrant, for gap size smaller than λ/2 (GAP=0.3µm), (284kb) [Media 4]. X-junction for gap size ~λ/2: (d) GAP=0.6µm (363kb) [Media 5].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

E-field components in X-junction with gap size smaller than λ/2 (GAP=0.3µm): (a) Ex (229kb) [Media 6], (b) Ez (217kb) [Media 7].

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

E-field components in X junction with gap size between λ/2 and λ (GAP=0.9µm): (a) Ex (379kb) [Media 8], (b) Ez (356kb) [Media 9].

Metrics