Abstract

Polarization feedback control of single-photon pulses has been achieved in long-distance fibers for more than 10 hours, which facilitated “one-way” polarization-encoded quantum key distribution with long-term stabilities. Experimental test of polarization encoding in 75 km fibers demonstrated that the single-photon polarization transformation in long-distance fibers could be controlled to provide a typical QBER of (3.9±1.5)% within a long-term operation of 620 minutes.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  4. Z. L. Yuan and A. J. Shields, "Continuous operation of a one-way quantum key distribution system over installed telecom fibre," Opt. Express 13, 660-665 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. F. Mo, B. Zhu, Z. F. Han, Y. Z. Gui and G. C. Guo, "Faraday-Michelson system for quantum cryptography," Opt. Lett. 30, 2632-2634 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe and A. J. Shields, "Practical quantum key distribution over 60 hours at an optical fiber distance of 20 km using weak and vacuum decoy pulses for enhanced security," Opt. Lett. 15, 8465-8471 (2007).
  7. J. C. Bienfang, A. J. Gross, A. Mink, B. J. Hershman, A. Nakassis, X. Tang, R. Lu, D. H. Su, C.W. Clark and C. J. Williams, "Quantum key distribution with 1.25 Gbps clock synchronization," Opt. Express 12, 2011-2016 (2004).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. B. Wang, "Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. F. Ma, H. K. Lo and L. Qian, "Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. Ulrich, "Polarization stabilization on single-mode fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 840-842 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Noe, H. Heidrich and D. Hoffmann, "Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1199-1208 (1988).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. Wu, C. Y. Zhou, X. L. Chen and H. P. Zeng,"High performance of gated-mode single-photon detector at 1.55 um," Opt. Commun. 265, 126-131 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor and B. C. Sanders, "Limitations on practical quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. N. Lütkenhaus and M. Jahma, "Quantum key distribution with realistic states: photon-number statistics in the photon-number splitting attack," New J. Phys. 4, 44 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner and H. J. Schulte, "Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147-km undersea lightwave cable," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185-1190 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Muller, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Quantum cryptography over 23 km in installed under-lake telecom fibre," Europhys. Lett. 33, 335-339 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Jennewein, C. Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter and A. Zeilinger, "Quantum cryptography with entangled photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729-4732 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang and J. W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe and A. J. Shields, "Practical quantum key distribution over 60 hours at an optical fiber distance of 20 km using weak and vacuum decoy pulses for enhanced security," Opt. Lett. 15, 8465-8471 (2007).

2006 (2)

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. F. Ma, H. K. Lo and L. Qian, "Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wu, C. Y. Zhou, X. L. Chen and H. P. Zeng,"High performance of gated-mode single-photon detector at 1.55 um," Opt. Commun. 265, 126-131 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

W. Y. Hwang, "Quantum key distribution with high loss: towards global secure communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

N. Lütkenhaus and M. Jahma, "Quantum key distribution with realistic states: photon-number statistics in the photon-number splitting attack," New J. Phys. 4, 44 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Bethune and W. P. Risk, "Autocompensating quantum cryptography," New J. Phys. 4, 42.1-42.15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

T. Jennewein, C. Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter and A. Zeilinger, "Quantum cryptography with entangled photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729-4732 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor and B. C. Sanders, "Limitations on practical quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. Muller, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Quantum cryptography over 23 km in installed under-lake telecom fibre," Europhys. Lett. 33, 335-339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, "Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121-3124 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

R. Noe, H. Heidrich and D. Hoffmann, "Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1199-1208 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner and H. J. Schulte, "Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147-km undersea lightwave cable," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185-1190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. Ulrich, "Polarization stabilization on single-mode fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 840-842 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, "Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3121-3124 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergano, N. S.

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner and H. J. Schulte, "Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147-km undersea lightwave cable," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185-1190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bethune, D. S.

D. S. Bethune and W. P. Risk, "Autocompensating quantum cryptography," New J. Phys. 4, 42.1-42.15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bienfang, J. C.

Brassard, G.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor and B. C. Sanders, "Limitations on practical quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulle, G. S.

Chen, K.

H. K. Lo, X. F. Ma and K. Chen, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X. L.

G. Wu, C. Y. Zhou, X. L. Chen and H. P. Zeng,"High performance of gated-mode single-photon detector at 1.55 um," Opt. Commun. 265, 126-131 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clark, C.W.

Dynes, J. F.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe and A. J. Shields, "Practical quantum key distribution over 60 hours at an optical fiber distance of 20 km using weak and vacuum decoy pulses for enhanced security," Opt. Lett. 15, 8465-8471 (2007).

Fernandez, V.

Gao, W. B.

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang and J. W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gisin, N.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Muller, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Quantum cryptography over 23 km in installed under-lake telecom fibre," Europhys. Lett. 33, 335-339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, K. J.

Gross, A. J.

Gui, Y. Z.

Guo, G. C.

Han, Z. F.

Heidrich, H.

R. Noe, H. Heidrich and D. Hoffmann, "Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1199-1208 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hershman, B. J.

Hoffmann, D.

R. Noe, H. Heidrich and D. Hoffmann, "Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1199-1208 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, W. Y.

W. Y. Hwang, "Quantum key distribution with high loss: towards global secure communication," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jahma, M.

N. Lütkenhaus and M. Jahma, "Quantum key distribution with realistic states: photon-number statistics in the photon-number splitting attack," New J. Phys. 4, 44 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jennewein, T.

T. Jennewein, C. Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter and A. Zeilinger, "Quantum cryptography with entangled photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729-4732 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, H. K.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. F. Ma, H. K. Lo and L. Qian, "Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Lo, X. F. Ma and K. Chen, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, R.

Lütkenhaus, N.

N. Lütkenhaus and M. Jahma, "Quantum key distribution with realistic states: photon-number statistics in the photon-number splitting attack," New J. Phys. 4, 44 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor and B. C. Sanders, "Limitations on practical quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, H. X.

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang and J. W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, X. F.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. F. Ma, H. K. Lo and L. Qian, "Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Lo, X. F. Ma and K. Chen, "Decoy state quantum key distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230504 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mink, A.

Mo, X. F.

Mor, T.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor and B. C. Sanders, "Limitations on practical quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, A.

A. Muller, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Quantum cryptography over 23 km in installed under-lake telecom fibre," Europhys. Lett. 33, 335-339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakassis, A.

Noe, R.

R. Noe, H. Heidrich and D. Hoffmann, "Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1199-1208 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pan, J. W.

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang and J. W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, C. Z.

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang and J. W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poole, C. D.

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner and H. J. Schulte, "Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147-km undersea lightwave cable," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185-1190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Qi, B.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. F. Ma, H. K. Lo and L. Qian, "Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, L.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. F. Ma, H. K. Lo and L. Qian, "Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ribordy, G.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Risk, W. P.

D. S. Bethune and W. P. Risk, "Autocompensating quantum cryptography," New J. Phys. 4, 42.1-42.15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, B. C.

G. Brassard, N. Lütkenhaus, T. Mor and B. C. Sanders, "Limitations on practical quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1330 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulte, H. J.

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner and H. J. Schulte, "Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147-km undersea lightwave cable," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185-1190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, A. W.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe and A. J. Shields, "Practical quantum key distribution over 60 hours at an optical fiber distance of 20 km using weak and vacuum decoy pulses for enhanced security," Opt. Lett. 15, 8465-8471 (2007).

Shields, A. J.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe and A. J. Shields, "Practical quantum key distribution over 60 hours at an optical fiber distance of 20 km using weak and vacuum decoy pulses for enhanced security," Opt. Lett. 15, 8465-8471 (2007).

Z. L. Yuan and A. J. Shields, "Continuous operation of a one-way quantum key distribution system over installed telecom fibre," Opt. Express 13, 660-665 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, C.

T. Jennewein, C. Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter and A. Zeilinger, "Quantum cryptography with entangled photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729-4732 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, D. H.

Tang, X.

Tittel, W.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich, "Polarization stabilization on single-mode fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 840-842 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R. E.

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner and H. J. Schulte, "Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147-km undersea lightwave cable," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185-1190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. B.

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang and J. W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. B. Wang, "Beating the photon-number-splitting attack in practical quantum cryptography," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 230503 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weihs, G.

T. Jennewein, C. Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter and A. Zeilinger, "Quantum cryptography with entangled photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729-4732 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinfurter, H.

T. Jennewein, C. Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter and A. Zeilinger, "Quantum cryptography with entangled photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729-4732 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, C. J.

Wu, G.

G. Wu, C. Y. Zhou, X. L. Chen and H. P. Zeng,"High performance of gated-mode single-photon detector at 1.55 um," Opt. Commun. 265, 126-131 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang and J. W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, T.

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang and J. W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, H.

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang and J. W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z. L.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe and A. J. Shields, "Practical quantum key distribution over 60 hours at an optical fiber distance of 20 km using weak and vacuum decoy pulses for enhanced security," Opt. Lett. 15, 8465-8471 (2007).

Z. L. Yuan and A. J. Shields, "Continuous operation of a one-way quantum key distribution system over installed telecom fibre," Opt. Express 13, 660-665 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zbinden, H.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel and H. Zbinden, "Quantum cryptography," Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145-195 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Muller, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Quantum cryptography over 23 km in installed under-lake telecom fibre," Europhys. Lett. 33, 335-339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

T. Jennewein, C. Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter and A. Zeilinger, "Quantum cryptography with entangled photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729-4732 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, H. P.

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang and J. W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wu, C. Y. Zhou, X. L. Chen and H. P. Zeng,"High performance of gated-mode single-photon detector at 1.55 um," Opt. Commun. 265, 126-131 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

C. Z. Peng, J. Zhang, D. Yang, W. B. Gao, H. X. Ma, H. Yin, H. P. Zeng, T. Yang, X. B. Wang and J. W. Pan, "Experimental long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution based on polarization encoding," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 010505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, B. Qi, X. F. Ma, H. K. Lo and L. Qian, "Experimental quantum key distribution with decoy states," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, C. Y.

G. Wu, C. Y. Zhou, X. L. Chen and H. P. Zeng,"High performance of gated-mode single-photon detector at 1.55 um," Opt. Commun. 265, 126-131 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Ulrich, "Polarization stabilization on single-mode fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 840-842 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

A. Muller, H. Zbinden and N. Gisin, "Quantum cryptography over 23 km in installed under-lake telecom fibre," Europhys. Lett. 33, 335-339 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner and H. J. Schulte, "Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147-km undersea lightwave cable," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185-1190 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Noe, H. Heidrich and D. Hoffmann, "Endless polarization control systems for coherent optics," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1199-1208 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (1)

D. S. Bethune and W. P. Risk, "Autocompensating quantum cryptography," New J. Phys. 4, 42.1-42.15 (2002).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

N. Lütkenhaus and M. Jahma, "Quantum key distribution with realistic states: photon-number statistics in the photon-number splitting attack," New J. Phys. 4, 44 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

G. Wu, C. Y. Zhou, X. L. Chen and H. P. Zeng,"High performance of gated-mode single-photon detector at 1.55 um," Opt. Commun. 265, 126-131 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

X. F. Mo, B. Zhu, Z. F. Han, Y. Z. Gui and G. C. Guo, "Faraday-Michelson system for quantum cryptography," Opt. Lett. 30, 2632-2634 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe and A. J. Shields, "Practical quantum key distribution over 60 hours at an optical fiber distance of 20 km using weak and vacuum decoy pulses for enhanced security," Opt. Lett. 15, 8465-8471 (2007).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

T. Jennewein, C. Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter and A. Zeilinger, "Quantum cryptography with entangled photons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729-4732 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) The schematic single-photon polarization stabilization based on the BB84 protocol. Single-photon detectors DH, DV, DQ, DR are used to detect H, V, Q and R polarized photons, respectively. EPC0>~1 is the electronic polarization controllers corresponding to the control of the polarization HV and QR bases; WP: quarter-waveplates; PBS: polarization beam splitters. Inset: the polarization direction of the single-photon pulses at Alice with+45°, -45°, 0° or 90° along the optical axis of the system represented respectively by the point Q, R, H or V in the equator of the Poincare sphere. Polarization direction of the photons arriving at Bob represented by the point P on the Poincare sphere. (b) The schematic setup of stable polarization-encode quantum key distribution; LD0~4: 1550 nm DFB laser diodes with the pulse width about 2 ns; Attn0~6: variable optical attenuators; PC0~6: fiber polarization controllers; OSW1~2: optical switcher; D0~3: single-photon detectors; PCI6251: data acquisition card (National Instruments); AMP: voltage amplifier.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Feedback signals S1 and their corresponding controlling voltages V1 and V2 for the 50 km (a, b) and 100 km (c,d) fiber systems.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The comparison of the single-photon polarization variation with (dark lines) and without active feedback controls (grey lines) for S1 monitored in long-term operations of 50 km (a), 75 km (b), and 100 km (c) fiber systems.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

QBERs of polarization-encoded QKD in 75 km fiber system.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Duration of polarization adjustment in the test

Equations (2)

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S 1 = I ( H ) I ( V ) I ( H ) + I ( V ) = cos 2 ε cos 2 θ
S 2 = I ( Q ) I ( R ) I ( Q ) + I ( R ) = cos 2 ε sin 2 θ

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