Abstract

A fiber-optic pump-probe setup is used to demonstrate all-optical switching based on intersubband cross-absorption modulation in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides, with record low values of the required control pulse energy. In particular, a signal modulation depth of 10 dB is obtained with control pulse energies as small as 38 pJ. Such low power requirements for this class of materials are mainly ascribed to an optimized design of the waveguide structure. At the same time, the intersubband absorption fully recovers from the control-pulse-induced saturation on a picosecond time scale, so that these nonlinear waveguide devices are suitable for all-optical switching at bit rates of several hundred Gb/s.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, K. Akita, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, "Low-saturation-energy-driven ultrafast all-optical switching operation in (CdS/ZnSe)/BeTe intersubband transition," Opt. Express 15, 12123-12130 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, "Intersubband absorption at ? ~ 1.55 ?m in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722-3724 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "Near-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1803-1805 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. G. Chu, "Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263-265 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 ?m in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Friel, K. Driscoll, E. Kulenica, M. Dutta, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, "Investigation of the design parameters of AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband absorption," J. Cryst. Growth. 278, 387-392 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125347 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Electron confinement in strongly coupled GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153113 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Driscoll, A. Bhattacharyya, T. D. Moustakas, R. Paiella, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, "Intersubband absorption in AlN/GaN/AlGaN coupled quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W.J. Schaff, and L.F. Eastman, "GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572-574 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Baumann, F.R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, "Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101121 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Nevou, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, "Room-temperature intersubband emission of GaN/AlN quantum wells at ?=2.3 ?m," Electron. Lett. 42, 1308-1309 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "All-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition in GaN quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 765-771 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, "Nonlinear optical waveguides based on near-infrared intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Opt. Express 15, 5860-5865 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. http://www.rsoftdesign.com/products/component_design/BeamPROP/
  17. R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1326-1328 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 2007), Chap. 14.
  19. Y. Li and R. Paiella, "Intersubband all-optical switching based on Coulomb-induced optical nonlinearities in GaN/AlGaN coupled quantum wells," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 1105-1110 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, "Nonlinear all-optical GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-well devices for 100 Gb/s applications at ? = 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (6)

Y. Li and R. Paiella, "Intersubband all-optical switching based on Coulomb-induced optical nonlinearities in GaN/AlGaN coupled quantum wells," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 1105-1110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Baumann, F.R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, "Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, "Room-temperature intersubband emission of GaN/AlN quantum wells at ?=2.3 ?m," Electron. Lett. 42, 1308-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "All-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition in GaN quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 765-771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Electron confinement in strongly coupled GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, "Nonlinear all-optical GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-well devices for 100 Gb/s applications at ? = 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Friel, K. Driscoll, E. Kulenica, M. Dutta, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, "Investigation of the design parameters of AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband absorption," J. Cryst. Growth. 278, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 ?m in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. G. Chu, "Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1326-1328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W.J. Schaff, and L.F. Eastman, "GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "Near-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1803-1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, "Intersubband absorption at ? ~ 1.55 ?m in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722-3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Akimoto, R.

Akita, K.

Albrecht, M.

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Electron confinement in strongly coupled GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, E.

E. Baumann, F.R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, "Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bellet-Amalric, E.

E. Baumann, F.R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, "Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharyya, A.

K. Driscoll, A. Bhattacharyya, T. D. Moustakas, R. Paiella, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, "Intersubband absorption in AlN/GaN/AlGaN coupled quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, "Nonlinear optical waveguides based on near-infrared intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Opt. Express 15, 5860-5865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. G. Chu, "Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, "Intersubband absorption at ? ~ 1.55 ?m in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722-3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. N. G.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. G. Chu, "Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.-N. G.

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, "Intersubband absorption at ? ~ 1.55 ?m in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722-3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

L. Nevou, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, "Room-temperature intersubband emission of GaN/AlN quantum wells at ?=2.3 ?m," Electron. Lett. 42, 1308-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cong, G. W.

Doyennette, L.

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Electron confinement in strongly coupled GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, K.

K. Driscoll, A. Bhattacharyya, T. D. Moustakas, R. Paiella, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, "Intersubband absorption in AlN/GaN/AlGaN coupled quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Friel, K. Driscoll, E. Kulenica, M. Dutta, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, "Investigation of the design parameters of AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband absorption," J. Cryst. Growth. 278, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, M.

I. Friel, K. Driscoll, E. Kulenica, M. Dutta, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, "Investigation of the design parameters of AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband absorption," J. Cryst. Growth. 278, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eastman, L.F.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W.J. Schaff, and L.F. Eastman, "GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ema, K.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 ?m in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Friel, I.

I. Friel, K. Driscoll, E. Kulenica, M. Dutta, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, "Investigation of the design parameters of AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband absorption," J. Cryst. Growth. 278, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Georgiev, N.

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Giorgetta, F.R.

E. Baumann, F.R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, "Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. G. Chu, "Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, "Intersubband absorption at ? ~ 1.55 ?m in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722-3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gopal, A. V.

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guillot, F.

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Electron confinement in strongly coupled GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Baumann, F.R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, "Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, "Room-temperature intersubband emission of GaN/AlN quantum wells at ?=2.3 ?m," Electron. Lett. 42, 1308-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hamazaki, J.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 ?m in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hasama, T.

Hofstetter, D.

E. Baumann, F.R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, "Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W.J. Schaff, and L.F. Eastman, "GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hui, R.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1326-1328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iizuka, N.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "All-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition in GaN quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 765-771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "Near-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1803-1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

G. W. Cong, R. Akimoto, K. Akita, T. Hasama, and H. Ishikawa, "Low-saturation-energy-driven ultrafast all-optical switching operation in (CdS/ZnSe)/BeTe intersubband transition," Opt. Express 15, 12123-12130 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1326-1328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S. X.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1326-1328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Julien, F. H.

L. Nevou, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, "Room-temperature intersubband emission of GaN/AlN quantum wells at ?=2.3 ?m," Electron. Lett. 42, 1308-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Electron confinement in strongly coupled GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kanazawa, H.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 ?m in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, K.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "All-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition in GaN quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 765-771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "Near-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1803-1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, "Nonlinear all-optical GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-well devices for 100 Gb/s applications at ? = 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, A.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 ?m in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, K.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 ?m in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kulenica, E.

I. Friel, K. Driscoll, E. Kulenica, M. Dutta, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, "Investigation of the design parameters of AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband absorption," J. Cryst. Growth. 278, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kunugita, H.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 ?m in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leconte, S.

E. Baumann, F.R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, "Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1326-1328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, "Nonlinear optical waveguides based on near-infrared intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Opt. Express 15, 5860-5865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li and R. Paiella, "Intersubband all-optical switching based on Coulomb-induced optical nonlinearities in GaN/AlGaN coupled quantum wells," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 1105-1110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1326-1328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, S.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 ?m in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mitrofanov, O.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. G. Chu, "Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Monroy, E.

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Electron confinement in strongly coupled GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Baumann, F.R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, "Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, "Room-temperature intersubband emission of GaN/AlN quantum wells at ?=2.3 ?m," Electron. Lett. 42, 1308-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moustakas, T. D.

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, "Nonlinear optical waveguides based on near-infrared intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Opt. Express 15, 5860-5865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Driscoll, A. Bhattacharyya, T. D. Moustakas, R. Paiella, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, "Intersubband absorption in AlN/GaN/AlGaN coupled quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Friel, K. Driscoll, E. Kulenica, M. Dutta, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, "Investigation of the design parameters of AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband absorption," J. Cryst. Growth. 278, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mozume, T.

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neogi, A.

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nevou, L.

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Electron confinement in strongly coupled GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, "Room-temperature intersubband emission of GaN/AlN quantum wells at ?=2.3 ?m," Electron. Lett. 42, 1308-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ng, H. M.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. G. Chu, "Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, "Intersubband absorption at ? ~ 1.55 ?m in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722-3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

K. Driscoll, A. Bhattacharyya, T. D. Moustakas, R. Paiella, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, "Intersubband absorption in AlN/GaN/AlGaN coupled quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, "Nonlinear optical waveguides based on near-infrared intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Opt. Express 15, 5860-5865 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li and R. Paiella, "Intersubband all-optical switching based on Coulomb-induced optical nonlinearities in GaN/AlGaN coupled quantum wells," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 1105-1110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Friel, K. Driscoll, E. Kulenica, M. Dutta, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, "Investigation of the design parameters of AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband absorption," J. Cryst. Growth. 278, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rapaport, R.

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. G. Chu, "Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Remmele, T.

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Electron confinement in strongly coupled GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schad, S.-S.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W.J. Schaff, and L.F. Eastman, "GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W.J.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W.J. Schaff, and L.F. Eastman, "GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simoyama, T.

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. J.

K. Driscoll, A. Bhattacharyya, T. D. Moustakas, R. Paiella, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, "Intersubband absorption in AlN/GaN/AlGaN coupled quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, "Nonlinear all-optical GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-well devices for 100 Gb/s applications at ? = 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, G.

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, "Nonlinear all-optical GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-well devices for 100 Gb/s applications at ? = 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, N.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "All-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition in GaN quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 765-771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "Near-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1803-1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tachibana, T.

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 ?m in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taherion, S.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1326-1328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tchernycheva, M.

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Electron confinement in strongly coupled GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thomidis, C.

Wada, O.

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wan, Y.

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1326-1328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Warde, E.

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W.J. Schaff, and L.F. Eastman, "GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

K. Driscoll, A. Bhattacharyya, T. D. Moustakas, R. Paiella, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, "Intersubband absorption in AlN/GaN/AlGaN coupled quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Electron confinement in strongly coupled GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 153113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Driscoll, A. Bhattacharyya, T. D. Moustakas, R. Paiella, L. Zhou, and D. J. Smith, "Intersubband absorption in AlN/GaN/AlGaN coupled quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 141104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Hofstetter, S.-S. Schad, H. Wu, W.J. Schaff, and L.F. Eastman, "GaN/AlN-based quantum-well infrared photodetector for 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 572-574 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Baumann, F.R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, "Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, "Intersubband absorption at ? ~ 1.55 ?m in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3722-3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "Near-infrared intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1803-1805 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Rapaport, G. Chen, O. Mitrofanov, C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, and S. N. G. Chu, "Resonant optical nonlinearities from intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 263-265 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Hamazaki, S. Matsui, H. Kunugita, K. Ema, H. Kanazawa, T. Tachibana, A. Kikuchi, and K. Kishino, "Ultrafast intersubband relaxation and nonlinear susceptibility at 1.55 ?m in GaN/AlN multiple-quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1102-1104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Hui, S. Taherion, Y. Wan, J. Li, S. X. Jin, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, "GaN-based waveguide devices for long-wavelength optical communications," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1326-1328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Sun, J. B. Khurgin, and R. A. Soref, "Nonlinear all-optical GaN/AlGaN multi-quantum-well devices for 100 Gb/s applications at ? = 1.55 ?m," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 201108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Nevou, F. H. Julien, R. Colombelli, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, "Room-temperature intersubband emission of GaN/AlN quantum wells at ?=2.3 ?m," Electron. Lett. 42, 1308-1309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, "All-optical switch utilizing intersubband transition in GaN quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 765-771 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Gopal, H. Yoshida, A. Neogi, N. Georgiev, T. Mozume, T. Simoyama, O. Wada, and H. Ishikawa, "Intersubband absorption saturation in InGaAs-AlAsSb quantum wells," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1515-1520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth. (1)

I. Friel, K. Driscoll, E. Kulenica, M. Dutta, R. Paiella, and T. D. Moustakas, "Investigation of the design parameters of AlN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by molecular beam epitaxy for intersubband absorption," J. Cryst. Growth. 278, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, "Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 73, 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

Y. Li and R. Paiella, "Intersubband all-optical switching based on Coulomb-induced optical nonlinearities in GaN/AlGaN coupled quantum wells," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 1105-1110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 2007), Chap. 14.

http://www.rsoftdesign.com/products/component_design/BeamPROP/

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Schematic cross-section of the GaN/AlN waveguide structure used in this work, and color map of the intensity profile of its fundamental TM mode at 1.55 µm (computed using commercial software based on the beam propagation method [16]). The refractive index values used in this simulation are 1.746 for sapphire, 2.335 for GaN, and 2.031 for AlN [17]. (b) Measured ISB absorption spectrum of the QW active material.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Pump-probe measurement setup used in this work.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Transmittance of the signal pulses through a 3-µm-wide, 1-mm-long waveguide versus signal-control delay time, for different values of the control pulse energy. (b) Signal modulation depth (i.e. maximum control-pulse-induced increase in the signal transmittance relative to the fully non-saturated case) versus control pulse energy, as determined from the traces of (a).

Metrics