Abstract

The performance of lasers based on channel waveguides produced by proton implantation in Nd:YAG crystals through an electroformed mask is reported. The fabrication method used can produce several waveguide lasers in the crystal by a single implantation process with very good optical performance. The analysis and comparison of the main laser emission features, as well as the propagation losses of these waveguides, by using different output couplers in the laser cavity is also presented.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. P.D. Townsend, P.J. Chandler and L. Zhang, Optical effects of ion implantation (Cambridge University Press, 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Flores-Romero, G.V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards and R. Trejo-Luna, "Optical channel waveguides by proton and carbon implantation in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Express 15, 8513-8520 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, M. Couchaud and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd and A.C. Tropper, "Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440-3446 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar and M. Domenech, "Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation," Opt. Commun. 218, 141-146 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech and E. Cantelar, "Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," Opt. Express 11, 1291-1296 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428-433 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Domenech, G.V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar and G. Lifante, "CW laser action at ? = 1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110-4112 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. Flores-Romero, G.V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards and R. Trejo-Luna, "Planar waveguide lasers by proton implantation in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Express 12, 2264-2269 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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  15. Z. Huang, Y. Huang, Y. Chen and Z. Luo, "Theoretical study on the laser performances of Nd3+:YAG and Nd3+:YVO4 under indirect and direct pumping," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2564-2569 (2005).
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2007 (2)

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, M. Couchaud and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Flores-Romero, G.V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards and R. Trejo-Luna, "Optical channel waveguides by proton and carbon implantation in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Express 15, 8513-8520 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (4)

G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar and M. Domenech, "Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation," Opt. Commun. 218, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Domenech, G.V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar and G. Lifante, "CW laser action at ? = 1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110-4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech and E. Cantelar, "Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," Opt. Express 11, 1291-1296 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (3)

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428-433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd and A.C. Tropper, "Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440-3446 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cantelar, E.

G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech and E. Cantelar, "Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," Opt. Express 11, 1291-1296 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Domenech, G.V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar and G. Lifante, "CW laser action at ? = 1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110-4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar and M. Domenech, "Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation," Opt. Commun. 218, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, P.J.

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428-433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd and A.C. Tropper, "Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440-3446 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Couchaud, M.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, M. Couchaud and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Domenech, M.

G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech and E. Cantelar, "Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," Opt. Express 11, 1291-1296 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Domenech, G.V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar and G. Lifante, "CW laser action at ? = 1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110-4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar and M. Domenech, "Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation," Opt. Commun. 218, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferrand, B.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, M. Couchaud and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Field, S.J.

L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd and A.C. Tropper, "Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440-3446 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428-433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Flores-Romero, E.

Hanna, D.C.

L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd and A.C. Tropper, "Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440-3446 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428-433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

Huang, Z.

Jacquier, B.

P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joubert, M.F.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, M. Couchaud and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kaczkan, M.

P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Large, A.C.

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lifante, G.

G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar and M. Domenech, "Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation," Opt. Commun. 218, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Domenech, G.V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar and G. Lifante, "CW laser action at ? = 1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110-4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech and E. Cantelar, "Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," Opt. Express 11, 1291-1296 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Z.

Malinowskii, M.

P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Márquez, H.

Moretti, P.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, M. Couchaud and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rangel-Rojo, R.

Rickards, J.

Samecki, J.

P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D.P.

L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd and A.C. Tropper, "Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440-3446 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428-433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Szachowicz, M.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, M. Couchaud and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tascu, S.

P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P.D.

L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd and A.C. Tropper, "Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440-3446 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428-433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Trejo-Luna, R.

Tropper, A.C.

L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd and A.C. Tropper, "Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440-3446 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428-433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vázquez, G.V.

Zhang, L.

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428-433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd and A.C. Tropper, "Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440-3446 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, M. Couchaud and B. Ferrand, "Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Domenech, G.V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar and G. Lifante, "CW laser action at ? = 1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110-4112 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 25, 985-986 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser," Electron. Lett. 27, 2375-2376 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend and L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428-433 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd and A.C. Tropper, "Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG," J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440-3446 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar and M. Domenech, "Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation," Opt. Commun. 218, 141-146 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii and J. Samecki, "Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals," Opt. Mater. 24, 315-319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J.F. Bourhis, "Fibre to waveguide connection," in Glass Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Devices, S.I. Najafi, ed., SPIE Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology CR53, 335-366 (1994).

R. Paschotta, "Lasers," Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology (RP Photonics Consulting GmbH, 2007). http://www.rp-photonics.com/lasers.html

P.D. Townsend, P.J. Chandler and L. Zhang, Optical effects of ion implantation (Cambridge University Press, 1994).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup used to obtain laser oscillation. PS, pumping source; B, beam splitter; O, microscope objective; M, input mirror; W, channel waveguides; OC, output coupler; L, aspheric lens; CF, color filter; SF, spatial filter; D1 and D2, detectors; PM, power meter; PC, personal computer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical behavior of channel waveguide lasers of 15 µm in width with the OC-20 output coupler; (a) Slope efficiency curve, the inset shows a photograph of the crystal during the laser performance; (b)–(c) Laser emission spectra.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Characteristics of channel waveguide lasers with the OC-20 output coupler. (a) Slope efficiency, (b) Threshold pump power.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Characteristics of channel waveguide lasers as function of the waveguide width for several output couplers. (a) Average slope efficiency; (b) Average threshold pump power.

Equations (2)

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ϕ = η 1 R 2 δ λ P λ S ,
P th = hc λ p 1 η σ e τ δ 2 A eff ,

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