Abstract

The performance of lasers based on channel waveguides produced by proton implantation in Nd:YAG crystals through an electroformed mask is reported. The fabrication method used can produce several waveguide lasers in the crystal by a single implantation process with very good optical performance. The analysis and comparison of the main laser emission features, as well as the propagation losses of these waveguides, by using different output couplers in the laser cavity is also presented.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P.D. Townsend, P.J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical effects of ion implantation (Cambridge University Press, 1994).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. Flores-Romero, G.V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Optical channel waveguides by proton and carbon implantation in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 8513–8520 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, “Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, and A.C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  5. G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, and M. Domenech, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation,” Opt. Commun. 218, 141–146 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech, and E. Cantelar, “Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” Opt. Express 11, 1291–1296 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  8. S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Domenech, G.V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “CW laser action at λ=1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110–4112 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  10. E. Flores-Romero, G.V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Planar waveguide lasers by proton implantation in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Express 12, 2264–2269 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315–319 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  12. S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375–2376 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  13. J.F. Bourhis , “Fibre to waveguide connection,” in Glass Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Devices, S.I. Najafi, ed., SPIE Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology CR53, 335–366 (1994).
  14. R. Paschotta, “Lasers,” Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology (RP Photonics Consulting GmbH, 2007). http://www.rp-photonics.com/lasers.html
  15. Z. Huang, Y. Huang, Y. Chen, and Z. Luo, “Theoretical study on the laser performances of Nd3+:YAG and Nd3+:YVO4 under indirect and direct pumping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 2564–2569 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2007 (2)

E. Flores-Romero, G.V. Vázquez, H. Márquez, R. Rangel-Rojo, J. Rickards, and R. Trejo-Luna, “Optical channel waveguides by proton and carbon implantation in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 8513–8520 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, “Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (4)

P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315–319 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Domenech, G.V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “CW laser action at λ=1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110–4112 (2003).
[Crossref]

G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, and M. Domenech, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation,” Opt. Commun. 218, 141–146 (2003).
[Crossref]

G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech, and E. Cantelar, “Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” Opt. Express 11, 1291–1296 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (3)

L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, and A.C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
[Crossref]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
[Crossref]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375–2376 (1991).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
[Crossref]

Bourhis, J.F.

J.F. Bourhis , “Fibre to waveguide connection,” in Glass Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Devices, S.I. Najafi, ed., SPIE Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology CR53, 335–366 (1994).

Cantelar, E.

G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech, and E. Cantelar, “Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” Opt. Express 11, 1291–1296 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, and M. Domenech, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation,” Opt. Commun. 218, 141–146 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Domenech, G.V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “CW laser action at λ=1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110–4112 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chandler, P.J.

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, and A.C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
[Crossref]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375–2376 (1991).
[Crossref]

P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
[Crossref]

P.D. Townsend, P.J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical effects of ion implantation (Cambridge University Press, 1994).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Couchaud, M.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, “Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Domenech, M.

G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, and M. Domenech, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation,” Opt. Commun. 218, 141–146 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Domenech, G.V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “CW laser action at λ=1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110–4112 (2003).
[Crossref]

G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech, and E. Cantelar, “Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” Opt. Express 11, 1291–1296 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrand, B.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, “Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Field, S.J.

L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, and A.C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
[Crossref]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
[Crossref]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375–2376 (1991).
[Crossref]

P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
[Crossref]

Flores-Romero, E.

Hanna, D.C.

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375–2376 (1991).
[Crossref]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, and A.C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
[Crossref]

P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Huang, Z.

Jacquier, B.

P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315–319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Joubert, M.F.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, “Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315–319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kaczkan, M.

P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315–319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Large, A.C.

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375–2376 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lifante, G.

G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, G. Lifante, M. Domenech, and E. Cantelar, “Low dose carbon implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” Opt. Express 11, 1291–1296 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Domenech, G.V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “CW laser action at λ=1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110–4112 (2003).
[Crossref]

G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, and M. Domenech, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation,” Opt. Commun. 218, 141–146 (2003).
[Crossref]

Luo, Z.

Malinowskii, M.

P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315–319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Márquez, H.

Moretti, P.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, “Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315–319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, “Lasers,” Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology (RP Photonics Consulting GmbH, 2007). http://www.rp-photonics.com/lasers.html

Rangel-Rojo, R.

Rickards, J.

Samecki, J.

P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315–319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shepherd, D.P.

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375–2376 (1991).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, and A.C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
[Crossref]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
[Crossref]

P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
[Crossref]

Szachowicz, M.

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, “Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tascu, S.

P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315–319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Townsend, P.D.

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, and A.C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
[Crossref]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375–2376 (1991).
[Crossref]

P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
[Crossref]

P.D. Townsend, P.J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical effects of ion implantation (Cambridge University Press, 1994).
[Crossref]

Trejo-Luna, R.

Tropper, A.C.

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375–2376 (1991).
[Crossref]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, and A.C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
[Crossref]

P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
[Crossref]

Vázquez, G.V.

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, and A.C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
[Crossref]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
[Crossref]

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375–2376 (1991).
[Crossref]

P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
[Crossref]

P.D. Townsend, P.J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical effects of ion implantation (Cambridge University Press, 1994).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Szachowicz, P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, M. Couchaud, and B. Ferrand, “Fabrication of H+ implanted channel waveguides in Y3Al5O12:Nd,Tm single crystal buried epitaxial layers for infrared to blue upconversion laser systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 0131113 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Domenech, G.V. Vázquez, E. Cantelar, and G. Lifante, “CW laser action at λ=1064.3 nm in proton and carbon implanted Nd:YAG waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4110–4112 (2003).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, A.C. Large, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Low threshold ion-implanted Nd:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 27, 2375–2376 (1991).
[Crossref]

P.J. Chandler, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, P.D. Townsend, A.C. Tropper, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG planar waveguide laser,” Electron. Lett. 25, 985–986 (1989).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, A.C. Tropper, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, and L. Zhang, “Ion-implanted Nd:YAG waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 428–433 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Zhang, P.J. Chandler, P.D. Townsend, S.J. Field, D.C. Hanna, D.P. Shepherd, and A.C. Tropper, “Characterization of ion implanted waveguides in Nd:YAG,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 3440–3446 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

G.V. Vázquez, J. Rickards, H. Márquez, G. Lifante, E. Cantelar, and M. Domenech, “Optical waveguides in Nd:YAG by proton implantation,” Opt. Commun. 218, 141–146 (2003).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

P. Moretti, M.F. Joubert, S. Tascu, B. Jacquier, M. Kaczkan, M. Malinowskii, and J. Samecki, “Luminescence of Nd3+ in proton or helium-implanted channel waveguides in Nd:YAG crystals,” Opt. Mater. 24, 315–319 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

J.F. Bourhis , “Fibre to waveguide connection,” in Glass Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Devices, S.I. Najafi, ed., SPIE Critical Reviews of Optical Science and Technology CR53, 335–366 (1994).

R. Paschotta, “Lasers,” Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology (RP Photonics Consulting GmbH, 2007). http://www.rp-photonics.com/lasers.html

P.D. Townsend, P.J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical effects of ion implantation (Cambridge University Press, 1994).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup used to obtain laser oscillation. PS, pumping source; B, beam splitter; O, microscope objective; M, input mirror; W, channel waveguides; OC, output coupler; L, aspheric lens; CF, color filter; SF, spatial filter; D1 and D2, detectors; PM, power meter; PC, personal computer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Typical behavior of channel waveguide lasers of 15 µm in width with the OC-20 output coupler; (a) Slope efficiency curve, the inset shows a photograph of the crystal during the laser performance; (b)–(c) Laser emission spectra.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Characteristics of channel waveguide lasers with the OC-20 output coupler. (a) Slope efficiency, (b) Threshold pump power.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Characteristics of channel waveguide lasers as function of the waveguide width for several output couplers. (a) Average slope efficiency; (b) Average threshold pump power.

Equations (2)

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ϕ = η 1 R 2 δ λ P λ S ,
P th = hc λ p 1 η σ e τ δ 2 A eff ,

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