Abstract

Control of two basic ionization processes in dielectrics i.e. photo ionization and electron–electron impact ionization on intrinsic time and intensity scales is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Temporally asymmetric femtosecond pulses of identical fluence, spectrum and pulse duration result in different final free electron densities. We found that an asymmetric pulse and its time reversed counterpart address two ionization processes in a different fashion. This results in the observation of different thresholds for surface material modification in sapphire and fused silica. We conclude that control of ionization processes with tailored femtosecond pulses is suitable for robust manipulation of breakdown and thus control of the initial steps of laser processing of high band gap materials.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Q4. R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Dynamic temporal pulse shaping in advanced ultrafast laser material processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 265-269 (2003).
  12. P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-Time Observation of an Electron-Gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
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2007

L. L. Tatarinova, M. E. Garcia, "Analytical theory for the propagation of laser beams in nonlinear media," Phys. Rev. A 76, 042824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

G. Heck, J. Sloss, and R. J. Levis, "Adaptive control of the spatial position of white light filaments in an aqueous solution," Opt. Comm. 259216-222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. W¨oste, P. B’ejot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, "Optimal control of filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Shverdin, S. N. Goda, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Coherent control of laser-induced breakdown," Opt. Lett. 31, 1331-1333 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Multiphoton Ionization in Dielectrics: Comparison of Circular and Linear Polarization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, "Plasma dynamics of water breakdown at a water surface induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Rethfeld, "Free-electron generation in laser-irradiated dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 73, 035101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

E. Louzon, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Ehrlich, D. Fisher, M. Fraenkel, and A. Ziegler, "Reduction of damage threshold in dielectric materials induced by negatively chirped laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Chowdhury, X. Xu, and A. M. Weiner, "Ultrafast double-pulse ablation of fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Deng, X. H. Xie, H. Xiong, Y. X. Leng, C. F. Cheng, H. H. Lu, R. X. Li, and Z. Z. Xu, "Optical breakdown for silica and silicon with double femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 13, 3096-3103 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. N. Gaier, M. Lein, M. I. Stockman, G. L. Yudin, P. B. Corkum, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. L. Knight, "Hole-assisted energy deposition in dielectrics and clusters in the multiphoton regime," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 1019-1030 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

B. Rethfeld, "Unified model for the free-electron avalanche in laser-irradiated dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 187401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q1. S. S. Mao, F. Qu’er’e, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, "Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1695-1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, "Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues," Chem. Rev. 103, 577-644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q4. R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Dynamic temporal pulse shaping in advanced ultrafast laser material processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 265-269 (2003).

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Pr¨akelt, M. Wollenhaupt, A. Assion, C. Horn, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, "Compact, robust and flexible setup for femtosecond pulse shaping," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4950-4953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage and Filamentary Propagation in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

A. Kaiser, B. Rethfeld, M. Vicanek, and G. Simon, "Microscopic processes in dielectrics under irradiation by subpicosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 61, 11437-11450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, "Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Femtosecond Optical Breakdown of Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2394-2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q2Q3. G. Petite, S. Guizard, P. Martin, and F. Qu’er’e, "Comment on Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Femtosecond Optical Breakdown of Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5182-5182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-Pulse Laser Damage in Transparent Materials as a Function of Pulse Duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Lenzner, J. Kr¨uger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou,W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Laser-Induced Damage in Dielectrics with Nanosecond to Subpicosecond Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248-2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-Time Observation of an Electron-Gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

1965

L. V. Keldysh, "Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave," Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307-1314 (1965).

Ackermann, R.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. W¨oste, P. B’ejot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, "Optimal control of filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-Time Observation of an Electron-Gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assion, A.

C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, "Plasma dynamics of water breakdown at a water surface induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Pr¨akelt, M. Wollenhaupt, A. Assion, C. Horn, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, "Compact, robust and flexible setup for femtosecond pulse shaping," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4950-4953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Audebert, P.

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-Time Observation of an Electron-Gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-Pulse Laser Damage in Transparent Materials as a Function of Pulse Duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baumert, T.

C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, "Plasma dynamics of water breakdown at a water surface induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Pr¨akelt, M. Wollenhaupt, A. Assion, C. Horn, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, "Compact, robust and flexible setup for femtosecond pulse shaping," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4950-4953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boyle, M.

Q4. R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Dynamic temporal pulse shaping in advanced ultrafast laser material processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 265-269 (2003).

Cheng, C. F.

Cheng, Z.

M. Lenzner, J. Kr¨uger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou,W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, I. H.

I. H. Chowdhury, X. Xu, and A. M. Weiner, "Ultrafast double-pulse ablation of fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

L. N. Gaier, M. Lein, M. I. Stockman, G. L. Yudin, P. B. Corkum, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. L. Knight, "Hole-assisted energy deposition in dielectrics and clusters in the multiphoton regime," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 1019-1030 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage and Filamentary Propagation in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daguzan, Ph.

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-Time Observation of an Electron-Gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, Y. P.

Dos Santos, A.

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-Time Observation of an Electron-Gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehrlich, Y.

E. Louzon, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Ehrlich, D. Fisher, M. Fraenkel, and A. Ziegler, "Reduction of damage threshold in dielectric materials induced by negatively chirped laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

El-Khamhawy, A.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Multiphoton Ionization in Dielectrics: Comparison of Circular and Linear Polarization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Laser-Induced Damage in Dielectrics with Nanosecond to Subpicosecond Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248-2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, D.

E. Louzon, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Ehrlich, D. Fisher, M. Fraenkel, and A. Ziegler, "Reduction of damage threshold in dielectric materials induced by negatively chirped laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fraenkel, M.

E. Louzon, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Ehrlich, D. Fisher, M. Fraenkel, and A. Ziegler, "Reduction of damage threshold in dielectric materials induced by negatively chirped laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage and Filamentary Propagation in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaier, L. N.

L. N. Gaier, M. Lein, M. I. Stockman, G. L. Yudin, P. B. Corkum, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. L. Knight, "Hole-assisted energy deposition in dielectrics and clusters in the multiphoton regime," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 1019-1030 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, M. E.

L. L. Tatarinova, M. E. Garcia, "Analytical theory for the propagation of laser beams in nonlinear media," Phys. Rev. A 76, 042824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J. C.

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-Time Observation of an Electron-Gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geindre, J. P.

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-Time Observation of an Electron-Gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, G. N.

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, "Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Femtosecond Optical Breakdown of Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2394-2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goda, S. N.

Guizard, S.

Q2Q3. G. Petite, S. Guizard, P. Martin, and F. Qu’er’e, "Comment on Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Femtosecond Optical Breakdown of Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5182-5182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-Time Observation of an Electron-Gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haag, L.

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hamoniaux, G.

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-Time Observation of an Electron-Gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

Heck, G.

G. Heck, J. Sloss, and R. J. Levis, "Adaptive control of the spatial position of white light filaments in an aqueous solution," Opt. Comm. 259216-222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Henis, Z.

E. Louzon, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Ehrlich, D. Fisher, M. Fraenkel, and A. Ziegler, "Reduction of damage threshold in dielectric materials induced by negatively chirped laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, I. V.

Q4. R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Dynamic temporal pulse shaping in advanced ultrafast laser material processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 265-269 (2003).

Horn, C.

A. Pr¨akelt, M. Wollenhaupt, A. Assion, C. Horn, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, "Compact, robust and flexible setup for femtosecond pulse shaping," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4950-4953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M. Y.

L. N. Gaier, M. Lein, M. I. Stockman, G. L. Yudin, P. B. Corkum, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. L. Knight, "Hole-assisted energy deposition in dielectrics and clusters in the multiphoton regime," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 1019-1030 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, A.

A. Kaiser, B. Rethfeld, M. Vicanek, and G. Simon, "Microscopic processes in dielectrics under irradiation by subpicosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 61, 11437-11450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-Pulse Laser Damage in Transparent Materials as a Function of Pulse Duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. W¨oste, P. B’ejot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, "Optimal control of filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kautek, W.

M. Lenzner, J. Kr¨uger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou,W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, "Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave," Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307-1314 (1965).

Knight, P. L.

L. N. Gaier, M. Lein, M. I. Stockman, G. L. Yudin, P. B. Corkum, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. L. Knight, "Hole-assisted energy deposition in dielectrics and clusters in the multiphoton regime," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 1019-1030 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Korn, G.

Q4. R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Dynamic temporal pulse shaping in advanced ultrafast laser material processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 265-269 (2003).

Kr¨uger, J.

M. Lenzner, J. Kr¨uger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou,W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krastev, K.

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-Time Observation of an Electron-Gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

M. Lenzner, J. Kr¨uger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou,W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kutschera, U.

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lamouroux, B.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage and Filamentary Propagation in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lascoux, N.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. W¨oste, P. B’ejot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, "Optimal control of filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lein, M.

L. N. Gaier, M. Lein, M. I. Stockman, G. L. Yudin, P. B. Corkum, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. L. Knight, "Hole-assisted energy deposition in dielectrics and clusters in the multiphoton regime," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 1019-1030 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leng, Y. X.

Lenzner, M.

M. Lenzner, J. Kr¨uger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou,W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Levis, R. J.

G. Heck, J. Sloss, and R. J. Levis, "Adaptive control of the spatial position of white light filaments in an aqueous solution," Opt. Comm. 259216-222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, "Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Femtosecond Optical Breakdown of Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2394-2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. X.

Li, S.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. W¨oste, P. B’ejot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, "Optimal control of filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lindinger, A.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. W¨oste, P. B’ejot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, "Optimal control of filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Louzon, E.

E. Louzon, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Ehrlich, D. Fisher, M. Fraenkel, and A. Ziegler, "Reduction of damage threshold in dielectric materials induced by negatively chirped laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. H.

Mao, S. S.

Q1. S. S. Mao, F. Qu’er’e, S. Guizard, X. Mao, R. E. Russo, G. Petite, and P. Martin, "Dynamics of femtosecond laser interactions with dielectrics," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1695-1709 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P.

Q2Q3. G. Petite, S. Guizard, P. Martin, and F. Qu’er’e, "Comment on Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Femtosecond Optical Breakdown of Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5182-5182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-Time Observation of an Electron-Gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayorov, F.

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McMullen, J. D.

Menon, S.

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, "Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Femtosecond Optical Breakdown of Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2394-2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-Pulse Laser Damage in Transparent Materials as a Function of Pulse Duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Lenzner, J. Kr¨uger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou,W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-Pulse Laser Damage in Transparent Materials as a Function of Pulse Duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage and Filamentary Propagation in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nibarger, J. P.

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, "Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Femtosecond Optical Breakdown of Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2394-2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pecker, S.

E. Louzon, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Ehrlich, D. Fisher, M. Fraenkel, and A. Ziegler, "Reduction of damage threshold in dielectric materials induced by negatively chirped laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Laser-Induced Damage in Dielectrics with Nanosecond to Subpicosecond Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248-2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petite, G.

Q2Q3. G. Petite, S. Guizard, P. Martin, and F. Qu’er’e, "Comment on Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Femtosecond Optical Breakdown of Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5182-5182 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Audebert, Ph. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. C. Gauthier, J. P. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, "Space-Time Observation of an Electron-Gas in SiO2," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1990-1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pr¨akelt, A.

A. Pr¨akelt, M. Wollenhaupt, A. Assion, C. Horn, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, "Compact, robust and flexible setup for femtosecond pulse shaping," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4950-4953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage and Filamentary Propagation in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rethfeld, B.

B. Rethfeld, "Free-electron generation in laser-irradiated dielectrics," Phys. Rev. B 73, 035101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Rethfeld, "Unified model for the free-electron avalanche in laser-irradiated dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 187401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kaiser, B. Rethfeld, M. Vicanek, and G. Simon, "Microscopic processes in dielectrics under irradiation by subpicosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 61, 11437-11450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rohwetter, P.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. W¨oste, P. B’ejot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, "Optimal control of filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

Q4. R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Dynamic temporal pulse shaping in advanced ultrafast laser material processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 265-269 (2003).

Rubenchik, A. M.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Laser-Induced Damage in Dielectrics with Nanosecond to Subpicosecond Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248-2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salmon, E.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. W¨oste, P. B’ejot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, "Optimal control of filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sarpe-Tudoran, C.

C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, "Plasma dynamics of water breakdown at a water surface induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Pr¨akelt, M. Wollenhaupt, A. Assion, C. Horn, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, "Compact, robust and flexible setup for femtosecond pulse shaping," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4950-4953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sartania, S.

M. Lenzner, J. Kr¨uger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou,W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Laser-Induced Damage in Dielectrics with Nanosecond to Subpicosecond Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248-2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shverdin, M. Y.

Simon, G.

A. Kaiser, B. Rethfeld, M. Vicanek, and G. Simon, "Microscopic processes in dielectrics under irradiation by subpicosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 61, 11437-11450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sloss, J.

G. Heck, J. Sloss, and R. J. Levis, "Adaptive control of the spatial position of white light filaments in an aqueous solution," Opt. Comm. 259216-222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Multiphoton Ionization in Dielectrics: Comparison of Circular and Linear Polarization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

M. Lenzner, J. Kr¨uger, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, C. Spielmann, G. Mourou,W. Kautek, and F. Krausz, "Femtosecond Optical Breakdown in Dielectrics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4076-4079 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stelmaszczyk, K.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. W¨oste, P. B’ejot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, "Optimal control of filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

L. N. Gaier, M. Lein, M. I. Stockman, G. L. Yudin, P. B. Corkum, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. L. Knight, "Hole-assisted energy deposition in dielectrics and clusters in the multiphoton regime," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 1019-1030 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stoian, R.

Q4. R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Dynamic temporal pulse shaping in advanced ultrafast laser material processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 265-269 (2003).

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, "Laser-Induced Damage in Dielectrics with Nanosecond to Subpicosecond Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2248-2251 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sudrie, L.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage and Filamentary Propagation in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tatarinova, L. L.

L. L. Tatarinova, M. E. Garcia, "Analytical theory for the propagation of laser beams in nonlinear media," Phys. Rev. A 76, 042824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Temnov, V. V.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Multiphoton Ionization in Dielectrics: Comparison of Circular and Linear Polarization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thoss, A.

Q4. R. Stoian, M. Boyle, A. Thoss, A. Rosenfeld, G. Korn, and I. V. Hertel, "Dynamic temporal pulse shaping in advanced ultrafast laser material processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 265-269 (2003).

Tien, A. C.

A. C. Tien, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. Mourou, "Short-Pulse Laser Damage in Transparent Materials as a Function of Pulse Duration," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3883-3886 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

L. Sudrie, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Lamouroux, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond Laser-Induced Damage and Filamentary Propagation in Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 186601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venugopalan, V.

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, "Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues," Chem. Rev. 103, 577-644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vicanek, M.

A. Kaiser, B. Rethfeld, M. Vicanek, and G. Simon, "Microscopic processes in dielectrics under irradiation by subpicosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 61, 11437-11450 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel and V. Venugopalan, "Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues," Chem. Rev. 103, 577-644 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von der Linde, D.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Multiphoton Ionization in Dielectrics: Comparison of Circular and Linear Polarization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W¨oste, L.

R. Ackermann, E. Salmon, N. Lascoux, J. Kasparian, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, S. Li, A. Lindinger, L. W¨oste, P. B’ejot, L. Bonacina, and J.-P. Wolf, "Optimal control of filamentation in air," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

I. H. Chowdhury, X. Xu, and A. M. Weiner, "Ultrafast double-pulse ablation of fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Winter, M.

C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, "Plasma dynamics of water breakdown at a water surface induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Pr¨akelt, M. Wollenhaupt, A. Assion, C. Horn, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, "Compact, robust and flexible setup for femtosecond pulse shaping," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4950-4953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wollenhaupt, M.

C. Sarpe-Tudoran, A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, "Plasma dynamics of water breakdown at a water surface induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 261109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Pr¨akelt, M. Wollenhaupt, A. Assion, C. Horn, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, and T. Baumert, "Compact, robust and flexible setup for femtosecond pulse shaping," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 4950-4953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Assion, M. Wollenhaupt, L. Haag, F. Mayorov, C. Sarpe-Tudoran, M. Winter, U. Kutschera, and T. Baumert, "Femtosecond laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for Ca2+ analysis of biological samples with high spatial resolution," Appl. Phys. B 77, 391-397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. H.

Xiong, H.

Xu, X.

I. H. Chowdhury, X. Xu, and A. M. Weiner, "Ultrafast double-pulse ablation of fused silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Z.

Yin, G. Y.

Yudin, G. L.

L. N. Gaier, M. Lein, M. I. Stockman, G. L. Yudin, P. B. Corkum, M. Y. Ivanov, and P. L. Knight, "Hole-assisted energy deposition in dielectrics and clusters in the multiphoton regime," J. Mod. Opt. 52, 1019-1030 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, P.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, "Multiphoton Ionization in Dielectrics: Comparison of Circular and Linear Polarization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, A.

E. Louzon, Z. Henis, S. Pecker, Y. Ehrlich, D. Fisher, M. Fraenkel, and A. Ziegler, "Reduction of damage threshold in dielectric materials induced by negatively chirped laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Color online) (a) Schematic of experimental set up. For material processing we increase the pulse energy in the x direction in steps of 6 nJ and change the focal z position in the y direction by 1 µm. For each setting we apply three laser pulses, all having the same energy: one with negative cubic phase (-), one unshaped (0) and one with positive cubic phase (+) depicted also by the dotted circles in (b), where they indicate diffraction limit. (b) Transient laser intensities and corresponding SEM micrographs of a subset of laser generated structures in fused silica obtained by the procedure described in (a). Top row: surface in focal plane; lower row: surface 1 µm below focal plane. The large structure in all areas is due to the unshaped pulses (0) and their size is close to the diffraction limit. The appearance of the small structure for positive cubic phase (+) in the middle column defines the threshold for ϕ3=+6×105 fs3. For negative cubic phase ϕ3=-6×105 fs3 (-), i.e. the time reversed pulse, the threshold is not yet reached leaving the surface unaffected. (c) Diameters of ablation structures for fused silica with ϕ3=0 fs3 (◦ and • for two independent measurements), for ϕ3=+6×105 fs3 (oe-15-26-17855-i001) and ϕ3=-6×105 fs3 (oe-15-26-17855-i002). Note that the hole diameter obtained with the latter parameters is remarkably robust with respect to variations in laser intensity. (d) Exemplified topology of the large structure (top) due to the unshaped pulse and the small structure (bottom) obtained by the shaped pulse measured via AFM. Note that this small structure is an order of magnitude below the diffraction limit.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(Color online) Comparison of measured and calculated crosscorrelation between bandwidth limited 35 fs pulses and third order dispersion shaped pulses. Envelopes are shown as solid lines for different cubic phase masks. From top to bottom: ϕ3=+5×104 fs3, +2×105 fs3 and +6×105 fs3 (red: measured values). The bottom plot shows a negative mask of -6×105 fs3 (blue: measured values).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Color online) Experimental material processing threshold for sapphire (left) and fused silica (right) for different cubic phase parameters (oe-15-26-17855-i003 for positive ϕ3, oe-15-26-17855-i004 for negative ϕ3 and • for unmodulated pulses). Close-by symbols confirm good reproducibility of the measured threshold energies.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(Color online) Transient free electron density n total (solid lines) as calculated with help of the MRE, together with the density of electrons provided by photo ionization n pi (dashed lines) and the corresponding transient intensities (dashed-dotted lines) of the positive modulated pulse (red curves, index +) and the negative modulated pulse (blue curves, index -), respectively. The fluence (i.e. the integrated intensity) for these pulse parameters is set to 5 J/cm2.

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