Abstract

We report an optical probe based on a single double-clad fiber (DCF), which is suitable for fluorescence spectroscopy. The excitation light is delivered through the small diameter core of the DCF and the excited fluorescence light is collected by the large diameter inner cladding of the same fiber. To retrieve the signal beam from the inner cladding, we utilize a DCF coupler that couples only the light beams in the inner claddings of two different pieces of DCF. It was found that the separation of the channel for the excited beam from the channel for the excitation beam in the same piece of fiber could diminish the autofluorescence background noise generated by the fiber itself, while maintaining all the benefits of a single-fiber probe system. The usefulness of the DCF probe and the performance of the DCF coupler are then reported by presenting the fluorescence spectrum of a fresh gingko leaf and comparing it with the spectrum taken with conventional methods. The fabrication process of the DCF fiber and the inner cladding mode coupler for it are also presented.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Bachmann, D. M. Zezell, A. D. Ribeiro, L. Gomes, and A. S. Ito, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of biological tissues - A review," Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41, 575-590 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Ramanujam, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues," Neoplasia 2, 89-117 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy," J. of Biomed. Opt. 8, 121-147 (2003).
  5. R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, "Ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue," Opt. Lett. 30, 1159-1161 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2006 (3)

L. Bachmann, D. M. Zezell, A. D. Ribeiro, L. Gomes, and A. S. Ito, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of biological tissues - A review," Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41, 575-590 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Hagen, J. R. Schmidt, and S. T. Sanders, "Spectroscopic sensing via dual-clad optical fiber," IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1227-1231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. O. Konorov, C. J. Addison, H. G. Schulze, R. F. B. Turner, and M. W. Blades, "Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber-optic probes for Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1911-1913 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

2002 (1)

O. S. Wolfbeis, "Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors," Analytical Chemistry 74, 2663-2677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, "Light propagation in tissue during fluorescence spectroscopy with single-fiber probes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1004-1012 (2001).

2000 (2)

C. Buschmann, G. Langsdorf, and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "Imaging of the blue, green, and red fluorescence emission of plants: An overview," Photosynthetica 38, 483-491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Ramanujam, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues," Neoplasia 2, 89-117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. H. Lee, and J. Nishii, "Cladding-surrounding interface insensitive long-period grating," Electron. Lett. 34, 1129-1130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. Zenteno, "High-Power Double-Clad Fiber Lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1435-1446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Addison, C. J.

Arifler, D.

Bachmann, L.

L. Bachmann, D. M. Zezell, A. D. Ribeiro, L. Gomes, and A. S. Ito, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of biological tissues - A review," Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41, 575-590 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baker, J. R.

Blades, M. W.

Bouma, B. E.

Bouwmans, G.

Buschmann, C.

C. Buschmann, G. Langsdorf, and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "Imaging of the blue, green, and red fluorescence emission of plants: An overview," Photosynthetica 38, 483-491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. K.

Ediger, M. N.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, A. M. Ross, and M. N. Ediger, "Selective detection of fluorophore layers in turbid media: the role of fiber-optic probe design," Opt. Lett. 28, 120-122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, "Light propagation in tissue during fluorescence spectroscopy with single-fiber probes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1004-1012 (2001).

Fu, L.

Gan, X. S.

Gillenwater, A. M.

Gomes, L.

L. Bachmann, D. M. Zezell, A. D. Ribeiro, L. Gomes, and A. S. Ito, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of biological tissues - A review," Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41, 575-590 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gu, M.

Hagen, C. L.

C. L. Hagen, J. R. Schmidt, and S. T. Sanders, "Spectroscopic sensing via dual-clad optical fiber," IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1227-1231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hussain, I. A.

Ito, A. S.

L. Bachmann, D. M. Zezell, A. D. Ribeiro, L. Gomes, and A. S. Ito, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of biological tissues - A review," Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41, 575-590 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Kim, J.

Kim, K. T.

Knight, B.

Knight, J. C.

Komachi, Y.

Konorov, S. O.

Langsdorf, G.

C. Buschmann, G. Langsdorf, and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "Imaging of the blue, green, and red fluorescence emission of plants: An overview," Photosynthetica 38, 483-491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

H. Kim, J. Kim, U. C. Paek, B. H. Lee, and K. T. Kim, "Tunable photonic crystal fiber coupler based on a side-polishing technique," Opt. Lett. 29, 1194-1196 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. H. Lee, and J. Nishii, "Cladding-surrounding interface insensitive long-period grating," Electron. Lett. 34, 1129-1130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lichtenthaler, H. K.

C. Buschmann, G. Langsdorf, and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "Imaging of the blue, green, and red fluorescence emission of plants: An overview," Photosynthetica 38, 483-491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mack, V.

Matchette, L. S.

Matsuura, Y.

Miyagi, M.

Myaing, M. T.

Nishii, J.

B. H. Lee, and J. Nishii, "Cladding-surrounding interface insensitive long-period grating," Electron. Lett. 34, 1129-1130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, N. S.

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, "Light propagation in tissue during fluorescence spectroscopy with single-fiber probes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1004-1012 (2001).

Norris, T. B.

Paek, U. C.

Pavlova, I.

Pfefer, T. J.

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, A. M. Ross, and M. N. Ediger, "Selective detection of fluorophore layers in turbid media: the role of fiber-optic probe design," Opt. Lett. 28, 120-122 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, "Light propagation in tissue during fluorescence spectroscopy with single-fiber probes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1004-1012 (2001).

Ramanujam, N.

N. Ramanujam, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues," Neoplasia 2, 89-117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, A. D.

L. Bachmann, D. M. Zezell, A. D. Ribeiro, L. Gomes, and A. S. Ito, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of biological tissues - A review," Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41, 575-590 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy," J. of Biomed. Opt. 8, 121-147 (2003).

Ross, A. M.

Russell, P. S. J.

Sanders, S. T.

C. L. Hagen, J. R. Schmidt, and S. T. Sanders, "Spectroscopic sensing via dual-clad optical fiber," IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1227-1231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

Schmidt, J. R.

C. L. Hagen, J. R. Schmidt, and S. T. Sanders, "Spectroscopic sensing via dual-clad optical fiber," IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1227-1231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schomacker, K. T.

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, "Light propagation in tissue during fluorescence spectroscopy with single-fiber probes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1004-1012 (2001).

Schulze, H. G.

Schwarz, R. A.

Tashiro, H.

Tearney, G. J.

Thomas, T.

Turner, R. F. B.

Utzinger, U.

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy," J. of Biomed. Opt. 8, 121-147 (2003).

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wolfbeis, O. S.

O. S. Wolfbeis, "Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors," Analytical Chemistry 74, 2663-2677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J. Y.

Yelin, D.

Yun, S. H.

Zenteno, L.

L. Zenteno, "High-Power Double-Clad Fiber Lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1435-1446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zezell, D. M.

L. Bachmann, D. M. Zezell, A. D. Ribeiro, L. Gomes, and A. S. Ito, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of biological tissues - A review," Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41, 575-590 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Analytical Chemistry (1)

O. S. Wolfbeis, "Fiber-optic chemical sensors and biosensors," Analytical Chemistry 74, 2663-2677 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

L. Bachmann, D. M. Zezell, A. D. Ribeiro, L. Gomes, and A. S. Ito, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of biological tissues - A review," Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 41, 575-590 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. H. Lee, and J. Nishii, "Cladding-surrounding interface insensitive long-period grating," Electron. Lett. 34, 1129-1130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, "Light propagation in tissue during fluorescence spectroscopy with single-fiber probes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 1004-1012 (2001).

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

C. L. Hagen, J. R. Schmidt, and S. T. Sanders, "Spectroscopic sensing via dual-clad optical fiber," IEEE Sens. J. 6, 1227-1231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. Zenteno, "High-Power Double-Clad Fiber Lasers," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 1435-1446 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. of Biomed. Opt. (1)

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy," J. of Biomed. Opt. 8, 121-147 (2003).

Neoplasia (1)

N. Ramanujam, "Fluorescence spectroscopy of neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissues," Neoplasia 2, 89-117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Photosynthetica (1)

C. Buschmann, G. Langsdorf, and H. K. Lichtenthaler, "Imaging of the blue, green, and red fluorescence emission of plants: An overview," Photosynthetica 38, 483-491 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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