Abstract

Using the unique detection properties offered by metastable helium atoms we have produced high resolution images of the transverse spatial profiles of an atom laser beam. We observe fringes on the beam, resulting from quantum mechanical interference between atoms that start from rest at different transverse locations within the outcoupling surface and end up at a later time with different velocities at the same transverse position. Numerical simulations in the low output-coupling limit give good quantitative agreement with our experimental data.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Kramer, C. Bracher, and M. Kleber, "Matter waves from quantum sources in a force field," J. Phys. A 35, 8361-8372 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Kohl, Th. Busch, K. Molmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, "A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms," Science 292, 461-464, (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2007

R. G. Dall, and A. G. Truscott, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a biplanar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap," Opt. Commun. 270, 255-261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Swansson, R. G. Dall and A. G. Truscott, "An intense cold beam of metastable helium," Appl. Phys. B 86, 485-489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron and A. G. Truscott, "Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. Kohl, Th. Busch, K. Molmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Wang, D. Z. Anderson, V. M. Bright, E. A. Cornell, Q. Diot, T. Kishimoto, M. Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, S. R. Segal, and S. Wu, "Atom Michelson interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. H. Baldwin, "Metastable helium: Atom optics with nano-grenades," Cont. Phys. 46, 105-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Òttl, S. Ritter, M. Kohl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and counting statistics of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, "Transverse mode of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kramer, C. Bracher, and M. Kleber, "Matter waves from quantum sources in a force field," J. Phys. A 35, 8361-8372 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, "A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms," Science 292, 461-464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pereira Dos Santos, J. L’eonard, Junmin Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Bose-Einstein Condensation of Metastable Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459-3462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition," Nature 403, 166-170 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Atom laser with a cw output coupler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008-3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Bouyer and M. A. Kasevich, "Heisenberg-limited spectroscopy with degenerate Bose-Einstein gases," Phys. Rev. A 56, R1083-R1086 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

C. Blondel, C. Delsart, and F. Dulieu, "The Photodetachment Microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3755-3758 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, D. Z.

Y.-J. Wang, D. Z. Anderson, V. M. Bright, E. A. Cornell, Q. Diot, T. Kishimoto, M. Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, S. R. Segal, and S. Wu, "Atom Michelson interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, M. R.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aspect, A.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, "A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms," Science 292, 461-464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldwin, K. G. H.

K. G. H. Baldwin, "Metastable helium: Atom optics with nano-grenades," Cont. Phys. 46, 105-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, I.

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition," Nature 403, 166-170 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Atom laser with a cw output coupler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008-3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blondel, C.

C. Blondel, C. Delsart, and F. Dulieu, "The Photodetachment Microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3755-3758 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boiron, D.

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, "A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms," Science 292, 461-464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borde, Ch. J.

Ch. J. Borde, "Theoretical tools for atom optics and interferometry," Acad. Sci. Paris, C. R.  4, 509-530 (2001).

Bouyer, P.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bouyer and M. A. Kasevich, "Heisenberg-limited spectroscopy with degenerate Bose-Einstein gases," Phys. Rev. A 56, R1083-R1086 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bracher, C.

T. Kramer, C. Bracher, and M. Kleber, "Matter waves from quantum sources in a force field," J. Phys. A 35, 8361-8372 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bright, V. M.

Y.-J. Wang, D. Z. Anderson, V. M. Bright, E. A. Cornell, Q. Diot, T. Kishimoto, M. Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, S. R. Segal, and S. Wu, "Atom Michelson interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Browaeys, A.

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, "A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms," Science 292, 461-464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busch, Th.

M. Kohl, Th. Busch, K. Molmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, "Transverse mode of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Byron, L. J.

C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron and A. G. Truscott, "Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornell, E. A.

Y.-J. Wang, D. Z. Anderson, V. M. Bright, E. A. Cornell, Q. Diot, T. Kishimoto, M. Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, S. R. Segal, and S. Wu, "Atom Michelson interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dall, R. G.

J. A. Swansson, R. G. Dall and A. G. Truscott, "An intense cold beam of metastable helium," Appl. Phys. B 86, 485-489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron and A. G. Truscott, "Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Dall, and A. G. Truscott, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a biplanar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap," Opt. Commun. 270, 255-261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dedman, C. J.

C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron and A. G. Truscott, "Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delsart, C.

C. Blondel, C. Delsart, and F. Dulieu, "The Photodetachment Microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3755-3758 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diot, Q.

Y.-J. Wang, D. Z. Anderson, V. M. Bright, E. A. Cornell, Q. Diot, T. Kishimoto, M. Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, S. R. Segal, and S. Wu, "Atom Michelson interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dugue, J.

S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dulieu, F.

C. Blondel, C. Delsart, and F. Dulieu, "The Photodetachment Microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3755-3758 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durfee, D. S.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Esslinger, T.

M. Kohl, Th. Busch, K. Molmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Òttl, S. Ritter, M. Kohl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and counting statistics of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, "Transverse mode of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition," Nature 403, 166-170 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Atom laser with a cw output coupler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008-3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fauquembergue, M.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guerin, W.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansch, T. W.

M. Kohl, Th. Busch, K. Molmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition," Nature 403, 166-170 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Atom laser with a cw output coupler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008-3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Josse, V.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasevich, M. A.

P. Bouyer and M. A. Kasevich, "Heisenberg-limited spectroscopy with degenerate Bose-Einstein gases," Phys. Rev. A 56, R1083-R1086 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ketterle, W.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kishimoto, T.

Y.-J. Wang, D. Z. Anderson, V. M. Bright, E. A. Cornell, Q. Diot, T. Kishimoto, M. Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, S. R. Segal, and S. Wu, "Atom Michelson interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleber, M.

T. Kramer, C. Bracher, and M. Kleber, "Matter waves from quantum sources in a force field," J. Phys. A 35, 8361-8372 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kohl, M.

M. Kohl, Th. Busch, K. Molmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Òttl, S. Ritter, M. Kohl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and counting statistics of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, "Transverse mode of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, T.

T. Kramer, C. Bracher, and M. Kleber, "Matter waves from quantum sources in a force field," J. Phys. A 35, 8361-8372 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurn, D. M.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Le Coq, Y.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leduc, M.

S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mewes, M.-O.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moal, S.

S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molmer, K.

M. Kohl, Th. Busch, K. Molmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mølmer, K.

Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, "Transverse mode of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nowak, S.

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, "A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms," Science 292, 461-464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Òttl, A.

A. Òttl, S. Ritter, M. Kohl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and counting statistics of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pereira Dos Santos, F.

F. Pereira Dos Santos, J. L’eonard, Junmin Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Bose-Einstein Condensation of Metastable Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459-3462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Portier, M.

S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poupard, J.

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, "A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms," Science 292, 461-464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prentiss, M.

Y.-J. Wang, D. Z. Anderson, V. M. Bright, E. A. Cornell, Q. Diot, T. Kishimoto, M. Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, S. R. Segal, and S. Wu, "Atom Michelson interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rapol, U. D.

S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riou, J.-F.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritter, S.

A. Òttl, S. Ritter, M. Kohl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and counting statistics of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robert, A.

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, "A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms," Science 292, 461-464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saravanan, R. A.

Y.-J. Wang, D. Z. Anderson, V. M. Bright, E. A. Cornell, Q. Diot, T. Kishimoto, M. Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, S. R. Segal, and S. Wu, "Atom Michelson interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segal, S. R.

Y.-J. Wang, D. Z. Anderson, V. M. Bright, E. A. Cornell, Q. Diot, T. Kishimoto, M. Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, S. R. Segal, and S. Wu, "Atom Michelson interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirjean, O.

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, "A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms," Science 292, 461-464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swansson, J. A.

J. A. Swansson, R. G. Dall and A. G. Truscott, "An intense cold beam of metastable helium," Appl. Phys. B 86, 485-489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, C. G.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Truscott, A. G.

R. G. Dall, and A. G. Truscott, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a biplanar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap," Opt. Commun. 270, 255-261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron and A. G. Truscott, "Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Swansson, R. G. Dall and A. G. Truscott, "An intense cold beam of metastable helium," Appl. Phys. B 86, 485-489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Wang, D. Z. Anderson, V. M. Bright, E. A. Cornell, Q. Diot, T. Kishimoto, M. Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, S. R. Segal, and S. Wu, "Atom Michelson interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westbrook, C. I.

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, "A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms," Science 292, 461-464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S.

Y.-J. Wang, D. Z. Anderson, V. M. Bright, E. A. Cornell, Q. Diot, T. Kishimoto, M. Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, S. R. Segal, and S. Wu, "Atom Michelson interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B

J. A. Swansson, R. G. Dall and A. G. Truscott, "An intense cold beam of metastable helium," Appl. Phys. B 86, 485-489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cont. Phys.

K. G. H. Baldwin, "Metastable helium: Atom optics with nano-grenades," Cont. Phys. 46, 105-120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. A

T. Kramer, C. Bracher, and M. Kleber, "Matter waves from quantum sources in a force field," J. Phys. A 35, 8361-8372 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition," Nature 403, 166-170 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

R. G. Dall, and A. G. Truscott, "Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a biplanar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap," Opt. Commun. 270, 255-261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, "Transverse mode of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Kohl, Th. Busch, K. Molmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Bouyer and M. A. Kasevich, "Heisenberg-limited spectroscopy with degenerate Bose-Einstein gases," Phys. Rev. A 56, R1083-R1086 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y.-J. Wang, D. Z. Anderson, V. M. Bright, E. A. Cornell, Q. Diot, T. Kishimoto, M. Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, S. R. Segal, and S. Wu, "Atom Michelson interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pereira Dos Santos, J. L’eonard, Junmin Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Bose-Einstein Condensation of Metastable Helium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459-3462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, "Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Blondel, C. Delsart, and F. Dulieu, "The Photodetachment Microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3755-3758 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Atom laser with a cw output coupler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008-3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Òttl, S. Ritter, M. Kohl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and counting statistics of an atom laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron and A. G. Truscott, "Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, "A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms," Science 292, 461-464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. S. Tychkov, T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, P. J. J. Tol, N. Herschbach, W. Hogervorst, W. Vassen, "Metastable helium Bose-Einstein condensate with a large number of atoms," Phys. Rev. A 73, 031603(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shin, C. Sanner, G.-B. Jo, T. A. Pasquini, M. Saba, W. Ketterle, and D. E. Pritchard,"Interference of Bose-Einstein condensates split with an atom chip," Phys. Rev. A 72, 021604(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

XMDS documentation and source code available from http://www.xmds.org

Ch. J. Borde, "Theoretical tools for atom optics and interferometry," Acad. Sci. Paris, C. R.  4, 509-530 (2001).

N. P. Robins, A. K. Morrison, J. J. Hope and J. D. Close, "Limits to the flux of a continuous atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 72, 031606(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Jeppesen, J. Dugu’e, G. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, J. D. Close, "Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser," e-print arXiv:quant-ph/07040291.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Near field simulations of atom laser profiles, showing vastly different output dynamics depending whether output-coupling takes place on (A) planes or on (B) oblate spheres. The output-coupling regions (dashed line), relative to the BEC (circle), used to create these plots are shown diagrammatically in the upper left corner of each plot. In both cases the BEC is located at the origin, with radial trapping frequencies of 50 Hz and 460 Hz for (A) and (B) respectively. The resulting far field atom laser profiles as calculated at our detector for (A) and (B) are shown in (C). The green profile results from the near field distribution shown in (A). The blue and red profiles result from the near field distribution shown in (B) and are calculated using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and classical mechanics respectively. The classical simulation treats the atoms as classical particles that begin on the outcoupling surface and are pushed from the BEC due to a potential that is given by the mean field repulsion; the resulting two-lobe caustic structure is clearly visible.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of theory and experiment. Upper trace shows an experimental 2-D MCP image of the transverse profile of an atom laser (image size is 13 mm by 3.4 mm). Middle trace is an averaged profile taken through the centre of the 2-D image. Lower trace is the expected theoretical profile corresponding to the experimental conditions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental MCP image (upper plot) and cross-section (lower plot) showing interference fringes. Upper trace is the raw 2-D image, while the lower trace is an averaged profile.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental two-dimensional images of a He* atom laser beam. Successive images are plotted in which the detuning of the RF, shown to the left of each image, is moved from the central high density region of the condensate to the edge of the condensate. For comparison two configurations are shown for which the radial trapping frequency is significantly different (A) fa =55 Hz, fr =460 Hz and (B) fa =55 Hz, fr =113 Hz.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i Ψ t t = 2 2 2 m Ψ t + V trap ( x ) Ψ t mgz Ψ t + U ( Ψ t 2 + Ψ u 2 ) Ψ t + Ω Ψ u ,
i Ψ u t = 2 2 2 m Ψ u mgz Ψ u + U ( Ψ t 2 + Ψ u 2 ) Ψ u + Ω Ψ t ,
Ψ ( r ) = S d S · [ G E ( r , r ) Ψ ( r ) Ψ ( r ) G E ( r , r ) ] ,

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