Abstract

Using the unique detection properties offered by metastable helium atoms we have produced high resolution images of the transverse spatial profiles of an atom laser beam. We observe fringes on the beam, resulting from quantum mechanical interference between atoms that start from rest at different transverse locations within the outcoupling surface and end up at a later time with different velocities at the same transverse position. Numerical simulations in the low output-coupling limit give good quantitative agreement with our experimental data.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582–585 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Bouyer and M. A. Kasevich, “Heisenberg-limited spectroscopy with degenerate Bose-Einstein gases,” Phys. Rev. A 56, R1083–R1086 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Ying-Ju Wang, Dana Z. Anderson, Victor M. Bright, Eric A. Cornell, Quentin Diot, Tetsuo Kishimoto, Mara Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, Stephen R. Segal, and S. Wu, “Atom Michelson Interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Shin, C. Sanner, G.-B. Jo, T. A. Pasquini, M. Saba, W. Ketterle, and D. E. Pritchard “Interference of Bose- Einstein condensates split with an atom chip,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 021604(R) (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, “Transverse mode of an atom laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Kramer, C. Bracher, and M. Kleber, “Matter waves from quantum sources in a force field,” J. Phys. A 35, 8361–8372 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Kohl, Th. Busch, K. Molmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Observing the profile of an atom laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, “A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms,” Science 292, 461–464, (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Pereira Dos Santos, J. Léonard, Junmin Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Bose-Einstein Condensation of Metastable Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459–3462 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. S. Tychkov, T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, P. J. J. Tol, N. Herschbach, W. Hogervorst, and W. Vassen, “Metastable helium Bose-Einstein condensate with a large number of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 031603(R) (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K.G.H. Baldwin, “Metastable helium: Atom optics with nano-grenades,” Cont. Phys. 46, 105–120 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Blondel, C. Delsart, and F. Dulieu, “The Photodetachment Microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3755–3758 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Atom laser with a cw output coupler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008–3011 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. XMDS documentation and source code available from http://www.xmds.org
  17. Ch. J. Borde, “Theoretical tools for atom optics and interferometry,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 2, Serie IV, 509–530 (2001).
  18. R. G. Dall and A. G. Truscott, “Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a biplanar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap,” Opt. Commun. 270, 255–261 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. A. Swansson, R. G. Dall, and A. G. Truscott, “An intense cold beam of metastable helium,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 485–489 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron, and A. G. Truscott, “Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition,” Nature 403, 166–170 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. Ò ttl, S. Ritter, M. Kohl, and T. Esslinger, “Correlations and counting statistics of an atom laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. P. Robins, A. K. Morrison, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, “Limits to the flux of a continuous atom laser,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 031606(R) (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Jeppesen, J. Dugué, G. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, “Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser,” e-print arXiv:quant-ph/07040291.

2007 (3)

R. G. Dall and A. G. Truscott, “Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a biplanar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap,” Opt. Commun. 270, 255–261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Swansson, R. G. Dall, and A. G. Truscott, “An intense cold beam of metastable helium,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 485–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron, and A. G. Truscott, “Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

A. S. Tychkov, T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, P. J. J. Tol, N. Herschbach, W. Hogervorst, and W. Vassen, “Metastable helium Bose-Einstein condensate with a large number of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 031603(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

M. Kohl, Th. Busch, K. Molmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Observing the profile of an atom laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ying-Ju Wang, Dana Z. Anderson, Victor M. Bright, Eric A. Cornell, Quentin Diot, Tetsuo Kishimoto, Mara Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, Stephen R. Segal, and S. Wu, “Atom Michelson Interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shin, C. Sanner, G.-B. Jo, T. A. Pasquini, M. Saba, W. Ketterle, and D. E. Pritchard “Interference of Bose- Einstein condensates split with an atom chip,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 021604(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

K.G.H. Baldwin, “Metastable helium: Atom optics with nano-grenades,” Cont. Phys. 46, 105–120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ò ttl, S. Ritter, M. Kohl, and T. Esslinger, “Correlations and counting statistics of an atom laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Robins, A. K. Morrison, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, “Limits to the flux of a continuous atom laser,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 031606(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, “Transverse mode of an atom laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Kramer, C. Bracher, and M. Kleber, “Matter waves from quantum sources in a force field,” J. Phys. A 35, 8361–8372 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, “A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms,” Science 292, 461–464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pereira Dos Santos, J. Léonard, Junmin Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Bose-Einstein Condensation of Metastable Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459–3462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition,” Nature 403, 166–170 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Atom laser with a cw output coupler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008–3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582–585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Bouyer and M. A. Kasevich, “Heisenberg-limited spectroscopy with degenerate Bose-Einstein gases,” Phys. Rev. A 56, R1083–R1086 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Blondel, C. Delsart, and F. Dulieu, “The Photodetachment Microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3755–3758 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, Dana Z.

Ying-Ju Wang, Dana Z. Anderson, Victor M. Bright, Eric A. Cornell, Quentin Diot, Tetsuo Kishimoto, Mara Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, Stephen R. Segal, and S. Wu, “Atom Michelson Interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, M. R.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582–585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aspect, A.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, “A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms,” Science 292, 461–464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baldwin, K.G.H.

K.G.H. Baldwin, “Metastable helium: Atom optics with nano-grenades,” Cont. Phys. 46, 105–120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barrelet, C. J.

F. Pereira Dos Santos, J. Léonard, Junmin Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Bose-Einstein Condensation of Metastable Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459–3462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloch, I.

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition,” Nature 403, 166–170 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Atom laser with a cw output coupler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008–3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blondel, C.

C. Blondel, C. Delsart, and F. Dulieu, “The Photodetachment Microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3755–3758 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boiron, D.

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, “A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms,” Science 292, 461–464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borde, Ch. J.

Ch. J. Borde, “Theoretical tools for atom optics and interferometry,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 2, Serie IV, 509–530 (2001).

Bouyer, P.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bouyer and M. A. Kasevich, “Heisenberg-limited spectroscopy with degenerate Bose-Einstein gases,” Phys. Rev. A 56, R1083–R1086 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bracher, C.

T. Kramer, C. Bracher, and M. Kleber, “Matter waves from quantum sources in a force field,” J. Phys. A 35, 8361–8372 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bright, Victor M.

Ying-Ju Wang, Dana Z. Anderson, Victor M. Bright, Eric A. Cornell, Quentin Diot, Tetsuo Kishimoto, Mara Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, Stephen R. Segal, and S. Wu, “Atom Michelson Interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Browaeys, A.

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, “A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms,” Science 292, 461–464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Busch, Th.

M. Kohl, Th. Busch, K. Molmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Observing the profile of an atom laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, “Transverse mode of an atom laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Byron, L. J.

C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron, and A. G. Truscott, “Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Close, J. D.

N. P. Robins, A. K. Morrison, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, “Limits to the flux of a continuous atom laser,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 031606(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Jeppesen, J. Dugué, G. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, “Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser,” e-print arXiv:quant-ph/07040291.

Cohen-Tannoudji, C.

S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pereira Dos Santos, J. Léonard, Junmin Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Bose-Einstein Condensation of Metastable Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459–3462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornell, Eric A.

Ying-Ju Wang, Dana Z. Anderson, Victor M. Bright, Eric A. Cornell, Quentin Diot, Tetsuo Kishimoto, Mara Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, Stephen R. Segal, and S. Wu, “Atom Michelson Interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dall, R. G.

R. G. Dall and A. G. Truscott, “Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a biplanar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap,” Opt. Commun. 270, 255–261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron, and A. G. Truscott, “Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Swansson, R. G. Dall, and A. G. Truscott, “An intense cold beam of metastable helium,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 485–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dedman, C. J.

C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron, and A. G. Truscott, “Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delsart, C.

C. Blondel, C. Delsart, and F. Dulieu, “The Photodetachment Microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3755–3758 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dennis, G.

M. Jeppesen, J. Dugué, G. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, “Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser,” e-print arXiv:quant-ph/07040291.

Diot, Quentin

Ying-Ju Wang, Dana Z. Anderson, Victor M. Bright, Eric A. Cornell, Quentin Diot, Tetsuo Kishimoto, Mara Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, Stephen R. Segal, and S. Wu, “Atom Michelson Interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dugue, J.

S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dugué, J.

M. Jeppesen, J. Dugué, G. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, “Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser,” e-print arXiv:quant-ph/07040291.

Dulieu, F.

C. Blondel, C. Delsart, and F. Dulieu, “The Photodetachment Microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3755–3758 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durfee, D. S.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582–585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Esslinger, T.

M. Kohl, Th. Busch, K. Molmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Observing the profile of an atom laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ò ttl, S. Ritter, M. Kohl, and T. Esslinger, “Correlations and counting statistics of an atom laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, “Transverse mode of an atom laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition,” Nature 403, 166–170 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Atom laser with a cw output coupler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008–3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fauquembergue, M.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figl, C.

M. Jeppesen, J. Dugué, G. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, “Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser,” e-print arXiv:quant-ph/07040291.

Guerin, W.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansch, T. W.

M. Kohl, Th. Busch, K. Molmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Observing the profile of an atom laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition,” Nature 403, 166–170 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Atom laser with a cw output coupler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008–3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herschbach, N.

A. S. Tychkov, T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, P. J. J. Tol, N. Herschbach, W. Hogervorst, and W. Vassen, “Metastable helium Bose-Einstein condensate with a large number of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 031603(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hogervorst, W.

A. S. Tychkov, T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, P. J. J. Tol, N. Herschbach, W. Hogervorst, and W. Vassen, “Metastable helium Bose-Einstein condensate with a large number of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 031603(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hope, J. J.

N. P. Robins, A. K. Morrison, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, “Limits to the flux of a continuous atom laser,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 031606(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeltes, T.

A. S. Tychkov, T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, P. J. J. Tol, N. Herschbach, W. Hogervorst, and W. Vassen, “Metastable helium Bose-Einstein condensate with a large number of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 031603(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeppesen, M.

M. Jeppesen, J. Dugué, G. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, “Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser,” e-print arXiv:quant-ph/07040291.

Jo, G.-B.

Y. Shin, C. Sanner, G.-B. Jo, T. A. Pasquini, M. Saba, W. Ketterle, and D. E. Pritchard “Interference of Bose- Einstein condensates split with an atom chip,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 021604(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johnsson, M. T.

M. Jeppesen, J. Dugué, G. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, “Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser,” e-print arXiv:quant-ph/07040291.

Josse, V.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasevich, M. A.

P. Bouyer and M. A. Kasevich, “Heisenberg-limited spectroscopy with degenerate Bose-Einstein gases,” Phys. Rev. A 56, R1083–R1086 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ketterle, W.

Y. Shin, C. Sanner, G.-B. Jo, T. A. Pasquini, M. Saba, W. Ketterle, and D. E. Pritchard “Interference of Bose- Einstein condensates split with an atom chip,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 021604(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582–585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kishimoto, Tetsuo

Ying-Ju Wang, Dana Z. Anderson, Victor M. Bright, Eric A. Cornell, Quentin Diot, Tetsuo Kishimoto, Mara Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, Stephen R. Segal, and S. Wu, “Atom Michelson Interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleber, M.

T. Kramer, C. Bracher, and M. Kleber, “Matter waves from quantum sources in a force field,” J. Phys. A 35, 8361–8372 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kohl, M.

M. Kohl, Th. Busch, K. Molmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Observing the profile of an atom laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ò ttl, S. Ritter, M. Kohl, and T. Esslinger, “Correlations and counting statistics of an atom laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, “Transverse mode of an atom laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, T.

T. Kramer, C. Bracher, and M. Kleber, “Matter waves from quantum sources in a force field,” J. Phys. A 35, 8361–8372 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kurn, D. M.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582–585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Le Coq, Y.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leduc, M.

S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pereira Dos Santos, J. Léonard, Junmin Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Bose-Einstein Condensation of Metastable Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459–3462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Léonard, J.

F. Pereira Dos Santos, J. Léonard, Junmin Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Bose-Einstein Condensation of Metastable Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459–3462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNamara, J. M.

A. S. Tychkov, T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, P. J. J. Tol, N. Herschbach, W. Hogervorst, and W. Vassen, “Metastable helium Bose-Einstein condensate with a large number of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 031603(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mewes, M.-O.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582–585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moal, S.

S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molmer, K.

M. Kohl, Th. Busch, K. Molmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Observing the profile of an atom laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mølmer, K.

Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, “Transverse mode of an atom laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, A. K.

N. P. Robins, A. K. Morrison, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, “Limits to the flux of a continuous atom laser,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 031606(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nowak, S.

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, “A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms,” Science 292, 461–464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ò ttl, A.

A. Ò ttl, S. Ritter, M. Kohl, and T. Esslinger, “Correlations and counting statistics of an atom laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pasquini, T. A.

Y. Shin, C. Sanner, G.-B. Jo, T. A. Pasquini, M. Saba, W. Ketterle, and D. E. Pritchard “Interference of Bose- Einstein condensates split with an atom chip,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 021604(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perales, F.

F. Pereira Dos Santos, J. Léonard, Junmin Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Bose-Einstein Condensation of Metastable Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459–3462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pereira Dos Santos, F.

F. Pereira Dos Santos, J. Léonard, Junmin Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Bose-Einstein Condensation of Metastable Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459–3462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Portier, M.

S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poupard, J.

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, “A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms,” Science 292, 461–464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prentiss, Mara

Ying-Ju Wang, Dana Z. Anderson, Victor M. Bright, Eric A. Cornell, Quentin Diot, Tetsuo Kishimoto, Mara Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, Stephen R. Segal, and S. Wu, “Atom Michelson Interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pritchard, D. E.

Y. Shin, C. Sanner, G.-B. Jo, T. A. Pasquini, M. Saba, W. Ketterle, and D. E. Pritchard “Interference of Bose- Einstein condensates split with an atom chip,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 021604(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rapol, U. D.

S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasel, E.

F. Pereira Dos Santos, J. Léonard, Junmin Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Bose-Einstein Condensation of Metastable Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459–3462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riou, J.-F.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritter, S.

A. Ò ttl, S. Ritter, M. Kohl, and T. Esslinger, “Correlations and counting statistics of an atom laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robert, A.

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, “A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms,” Science 292, 461–464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robins, N. P.

N. P. Robins, A. K. Morrison, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, “Limits to the flux of a continuous atom laser,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 031606(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Jeppesen, J. Dugué, G. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, “Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser,” e-print arXiv:quant-ph/07040291.

Saba, M.

Y. Shin, C. Sanner, G.-B. Jo, T. A. Pasquini, M. Saba, W. Ketterle, and D. E. Pritchard “Interference of Bose- Einstein condensates split with an atom chip,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 021604(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanner, C.

Y. Shin, C. Sanner, G.-B. Jo, T. A. Pasquini, M. Saba, W. Ketterle, and D. E. Pritchard “Interference of Bose- Einstein condensates split with an atom chip,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 021604(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saravanan, R. A.

Ying-Ju Wang, Dana Z. Anderson, Victor M. Bright, Eric A. Cornell, Quentin Diot, Tetsuo Kishimoto, Mara Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, Stephen R. Segal, and S. Wu, “Atom Michelson Interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segal, Stephen R.

Ying-Ju Wang, Dana Z. Anderson, Victor M. Bright, Eric A. Cornell, Quentin Diot, Tetsuo Kishimoto, Mara Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, Stephen R. Segal, and S. Wu, “Atom Michelson Interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, Y.

Y. Shin, C. Sanner, G.-B. Jo, T. A. Pasquini, M. Saba, W. Ketterle, and D. E. Pritchard “Interference of Bose- Einstein condensates split with an atom chip,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 021604(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sirjean, O.

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, “A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms,” Science 292, 461–464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swansson, J. A.

J. A. Swansson, R. G. Dall, and A. G. Truscott, “An intense cold beam of metastable helium,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 485–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tol, P. J. J.

A. S. Tychkov, T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, P. J. J. Tol, N. Herschbach, W. Hogervorst, and W. Vassen, “Metastable helium Bose-Einstein condensate with a large number of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 031603(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, C. G.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582–585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Truscott, A. G.

J. A. Swansson, R. G. Dall, and A. G. Truscott, “An intense cold beam of metastable helium,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 485–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron, and A. G. Truscott, “Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Dall and A. G. Truscott, “Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a biplanar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap,” Opt. Commun. 270, 255–261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tychkov, A. S.

A. S. Tychkov, T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, P. J. J. Tol, N. Herschbach, W. Hogervorst, and W. Vassen, “Metastable helium Bose-Einstein condensate with a large number of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 031603(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Unnikrishnan, C. S.

F. Pereira Dos Santos, J. Léonard, Junmin Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Bose-Einstein Condensation of Metastable Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459–3462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vassen, W.

A. S. Tychkov, T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, P. J. J. Tol, N. Herschbach, W. Hogervorst, and W. Vassen, “Metastable helium Bose-Einstein condensate with a large number of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 031603(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Junmin

F. Pereira Dos Santos, J. Léonard, Junmin Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Bose-Einstein Condensation of Metastable Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459–3462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Ying-Ju

Ying-Ju Wang, Dana Z. Anderson, Victor M. Bright, Eric A. Cornell, Quentin Diot, Tetsuo Kishimoto, Mara Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, Stephen R. Segal, and S. Wu, “Atom Michelson Interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westbrook, C. I.

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, “A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms,” Science 292, 461–464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, S.

Ying-Ju Wang, Dana Z. Anderson, Victor M. Bright, Eric A. Cornell, Quentin Diot, Tetsuo Kishimoto, Mara Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, Stephen R. Segal, and S. Wu, “Atom Michelson Interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. A. Swansson, R. G. Dall, and A. G. Truscott, “An intense cold beam of metastable helium,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 485–489 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cont. Phys. (1)

K.G.H. Baldwin, “Metastable helium: Atom optics with nano-grenades,” Cont. Phys. 46, 105–120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. A (1)

T. Kramer, C. Bracher, and M. Kleber, “Matter waves from quantum sources in a force field,” J. Phys. A 35, 8361–8372 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a trapped Bose gas at the phase transition,” Nature 403, 166–170 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. G. Dall and A. G. Truscott, “Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable helium in a biplanar quadrupole Ioffe configuration trap,” Opt. Commun. 270, 255–261 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (6)

N. P. Robins, A. K. Morrison, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, “Limits to the flux of a continuous atom laser,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 031606(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Kohl, Th. Busch, K. Molmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Observing the profile of an atom laser beam,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Th. Busch, M. Kohl, T. Esslinger, and K. Mølmer, “Transverse mode of an atom laser,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 043615 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Bouyer and M. A. Kasevich, “Heisenberg-limited spectroscopy with degenerate Bose-Einstein gases,” Phys. Rev. A 56, R1083–R1086 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shin, C. Sanner, G.-B. Jo, T. A. Pasquini, M. Saba, W. Ketterle, and D. E. Pritchard “Interference of Bose- Einstein condensates split with an atom chip,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 021604(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Tychkov, T. Jeltes, J. M. McNamara, P. J. J. Tol, N. Herschbach, W. Hogervorst, and W. Vassen, “Metastable helium Bose-Einstein condensate with a large number of atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 73, 031603(R) (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

F. Pereira Dos Santos, J. Léonard, Junmin Wang, C. J. Barrelet, F. Perales, E. Rasel, C. S. Unnikrishnan, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Bose-Einstein Condensation of Metastable Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3459–3462 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Moal, M. Portier, J. Kim, J. Dugue, U. D. Rapol, M. Leduc, and C. Cohen-Tannoudji, “Accurate determination of the scattering length of metastable helium atoms using dark resonances between atoms and exotic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 023203 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Blondel, C. Delsart, and F. Dulieu, “The Photodetachment Microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3755–3758 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bloch, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, “Atom laser with a cw output coupler,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008–3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. Le Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, “Beam quality of a Nonideal atom laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ying-Ju Wang, Dana Z. Anderson, Victor M. Bright, Eric A. Cornell, Quentin Diot, Tetsuo Kishimoto, Mara Prentiss, R. A. Saravanan, Stephen R. Segal, and S. Wu, “Atom Michelson Interferometer on a chip using a Bose-Einstein condensate,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 090405 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, “Output coupler for Bose-Einstein condensed atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582–585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Ò ttl, S. Ritter, M. Kohl, and T. Esslinger, “Correlations and counting statistics of an atom laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. J. Dedman, R. G. Dall, L. J. Byron, and A. G. Truscott, “Active cancellation of stray magnetic fields in a Bose-Einstein condensation experiment,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 024703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

A. Robert, O. Sirjean, A. Browaeys, J. Poupard, S. Nowak, D. Boiron, C. I. Westbrook, and A. Aspect, “A Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable atoms,” Science 292, 461–464, (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

XMDS documentation and source code available from http://www.xmds.org

Ch. J. Borde, “Theoretical tools for atom optics and interferometry,” C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 2, Serie IV, 509–530 (2001).

M. Jeppesen, J. Dugué, G. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, “Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser,” e-print arXiv:quant-ph/07040291.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Near field simulations of atom laser profiles, showing vastly different output dynamics depending whether output-coupling takes place on (A) planes or on (B) oblate spheres. The output-coupling regions (dashed line), relative to the BEC (circle), used to create these plots are shown diagrammatically in the upper left corner of each plot. In both cases the BEC is located at the origin, with radial trapping frequencies of 50 Hz and 460 Hz for (A) and (B) respectively. The resulting far field atom laser profiles as calculated at our detector for (A) and (B) are shown in (C). The green profile results from the near field distribution shown in (A). The blue and red profiles result from the near field distribution shown in (B) and are calculated using the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and classical mechanics respectively. The classical simulation treats the atoms as classical particles that begin on the outcoupling surface and are pushed from the BEC due to a potential that is given by the mean field repulsion; the resulting two-lobe caustic structure is clearly visible.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of theory and experiment. Upper trace shows an experimental 2-D MCP image of the transverse profile of an atom laser (image size is 13 mm by 3.4 mm). Middle trace is an averaged profile taken through the centre of the 2-D image. Lower trace is the expected theoretical profile corresponding to the experimental conditions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental MCP image (upper plot) and cross-section (lower plot) showing interference fringes. Upper trace is the raw 2-D image, while the lower trace is an averaged profile.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental two-dimensional images of a He* atom laser beam. Successive images are plotted in which the detuning of the RF, shown to the left of each image, is moved from the central high density region of the condensate to the edge of the condensate. For comparison two configurations are shown for which the radial trapping frequency is significantly different (A) fa =55 Hz, fr =460 Hz and (B) fa =55 Hz, fr =113 Hz.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

i Ψ t t = 2 2 2 m Ψ t + V trap ( x ) Ψ t mgz Ψ t + U ( Ψ t 2 + Ψ u 2 ) Ψ t + Ω Ψ u ,
i Ψ u t = 2 2 2 m Ψ u mgz Ψ u + U ( Ψ t 2 + Ψ u 2 ) Ψ u + Ω Ψ t ,
Ψ ( r ) = S d S · [ G E ( r , r ) Ψ ( r ) Ψ ( r ) G E ( r , r ) ] ,

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