Abstract

We demonstrate experimentally the light coupling effects between two parallel CO2-laser written long-period fiber gratings. For gratings written in standard single-mode fibers, the coupling efficiency depends strongly on the fiber orientation with the strongest coupling obtained when the exposed sides of the fibers face each other, while for gratings written in boron-doped fibers, the coupling efficiency is independent of the fiber orientation. We achieve a peak coupling efficiency of ~86% with gratings written in boron-doped fibers by using a suitable surrounding refractive index and offset distance between the two gratings. Our results suggest the possibility of realizing efficient broadband all-fiber couplers with CO2-laser written long-period fiber gratings.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,58-65 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1408-1409 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. S. Chiang, M. N. Ng, Y. Liu, and S. Li, "Evanescent-field coupling between two parallel long-period fiber gratings," in Proc. IEEE Lasers Electro-Op. Soc. Conf., Puerto Rico (2000), pp. 836-837.
  4. V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, "Wavelength-selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings," in Tech. Dig. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., vol. 4, (2000), pp. 28-30.
  5. K. S. Chiang, F. Y. M. Chan, and M. N. Ng, "Analysis of two parallel long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 22,1358-1366 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. H. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, and M. Y. Jeong, "Tunable optical add-drop multiplexer based on long-period fiber gratings for coarse wavelength division multiplexing systems," Opt. Lett. 31,703-705 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. J. Kim, Y. M. Jung, B. H. Kim, W. T. Han, and B. H. Lee, "Ultra-wide bandpass filter based on long-period fiber gratings and the evanescent field coupling between two fiber," Opt. Express 15, 10855-10862 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Liu and K. S. Chiang, "Broadband optical coupler based on evanescent-field coupling between three parallel long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,229-231 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and Q. Liu, "Symmetric 3 × 3 optical coupler using three parallel long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Express 15, 6494-6499 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, "Fabrication of long-period fibre gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Lett. 24,646-648 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. Dianov, and V. Sulimov, "High-temperature stability of long-period fibre gratings using an electric arc," J. Lightwave Technol.,  19,1574-1579 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser beams," Electron. Lett. 34,302-303 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Induction of the refractive index changes in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress," Opt. Commun. 185, 337-342 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. J. Rao, Y. P. Wang, Z. L. Ran, and T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on the long-period fiber grating written by high-frequency CO2 laser pulses," J. Lightwave Technol. 21,1320-1327 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, "Rewritable densification gratings in boron-doped fibers," Opt. Lett. 30,1279-1281 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. Y. M. Chan and K. S. Chiang, "Transfer-matrix method for the analysis of two parallel dissimilar non-uniform long-period fiber gratings", J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1008-1018 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, "Axial rotation dependence of the resonances in the curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1354-1355 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, "Fabrication of axially symmetric long-period fiber gratings with a carbon dioxide laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2296-2298 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Slavik, "Coupling to circularly asymmetric modes via long-period gratings made in a standard straight fiber," Opt. Commun.,  275, 90-93 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. S. Ryu, Y. Park, S. T. Oh, Y. Chung, and D. Y. Kim, "Effect of asymmetric stress relaxation on the polarization-dependent transmission characteristics of a CO2 laser-written long-period fiber grating," Opt. Lett. 28, 155-157 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. Morishita and A. Kaino, "Residual stress effects on post-fabrication resonance wavelength trimming of long-period fiber gratings," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (OSA, Washington, DC, 2007), JWA18.
  22. A. K. Varshneya, Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses, (Academic Press, Boston, 1994).
  23. K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36,966-967 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2007

2006

Y. H. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, and M. Y. Jeong, "Tunable optical add-drop multiplexer based on long-period fiber gratings for coarse wavelength division multiplexing systems," Opt. Lett. 31,703-705 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. M. Chan and K. S. Chiang, "Transfer-matrix method for the analysis of two parallel dissimilar non-uniform long-period fiber gratings", J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1008-1018 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and K. S. Chiang, "Broadband optical coupler based on evanescent-field coupling between three parallel long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,229-231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, "Fabrication of axially symmetric long-period fiber gratings with a carbon dioxide laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2296-2298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

2001

2000

C. S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Induction of the refractive index changes in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress," Opt. Commun. 185, 337-342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, "Axial rotation dependence of the resonances in the curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1354-1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1408-1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Varshneya, Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses, (Academic Press, Boston, 1994).

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36,966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser beams," Electron. Lett. 34,302-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anemogiannis, E.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, "Axial rotation dependence of the resonances in the curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1354-1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Braiwish, M. I.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, "Axial rotation dependence of the resonances in the curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1354-1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chan, F. Y. M.

Chiang, K. S.

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and Q. Liu, "Symmetric 3 × 3 optical coupler using three parallel long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Express 15, 6494-6499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu and K. S. Chiang, "Broadband optical coupler based on evanescent-field coupling between three parallel long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,229-231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. M. Chan and K. S. Chiang, "Transfer-matrix method for the analysis of two parallel dissimilar non-uniform long-period fiber gratings", J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1008-1018 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, F. Y. M. Chan, and M. N. Ng, "Analysis of two parallel long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 22,1358-1366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36,966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1408-1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

H. S. Ryu, Y. Park, S. T. Oh, Y. Chung, and D. Y. Kim, "Effect of asymmetric stress relaxation on the polarization-dependent transmission characteristics of a CO2 laser-written long-period fiber grating," Opt. Lett. 28, 155-157 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Induction of the refractive index changes in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress," Opt. Commun. 185, 337-342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davis, D. D.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, "Axial rotation dependence of the resonances in the curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1354-1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser beams," Electron. Lett. 34,302-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E.

Dong, X.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36,966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feinberg, J.

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, "Fabrication of axially symmetric long-period fiber gratings with a carbon dioxide laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2296-2298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, "Rewritable densification gratings in boron-doped fibers," Opt. Lett. 30,1279-1281 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garrett, B. D.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, "Axial rotation dependence of the resonances in the curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1354-1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gaylord, T. K.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, "Axial rotation dependence of the resonances in the curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1354-1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser beams," Electron. Lett. 34,302-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Glytsis, E. N.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, "Axial rotation dependence of the resonances in the curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1354-1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser beams," Electron. Lett. 34,302-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grubsky, V.

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, "Fabrication of axially symmetric long-period fiber gratings with a carbon dioxide laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2296-2298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, "Rewritable densification gratings in boron-doped fibers," Opt. Lett. 30,1279-1281 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, W. T.

M. J. Kim, Y. M. Jung, B. H. Kim, W. T. Han, and B. H. Lee, "Ultra-wide bandpass filter based on long-period fiber gratings and the evanescent field coupling between two fiber," Opt. Express 15, 10855-10862 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Induction of the refractive index changes in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress," Opt. Commun. 185, 337-342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

C. S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Induction of the refractive index changes in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress," Opt. Commun. 185, 337-342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y. H.

Hirao, K.

Jeong, M. Y.

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y. M.

Kazansky, P.

Kim, B. H.

Kim, C. S.

Y. H. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, and M. Y. Jeong, "Tunable optical add-drop multiplexer based on long-period fiber gratings for coarse wavelength division multiplexing systems," Opt. Lett. 31,703-705 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Induction of the refractive index changes in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress," Opt. Commun. 185, 337-342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. Y.

Kim, M. J.

Kondo, Y.

Kosinski, S. G.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser beams," Electron. Lett. 34,302-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. H.

M. J. Kim, Y. M. Jung, B. H. Kim, W. T. Han, and B. H. Lee, "Ultra-wide bandpass filter based on long-period fiber gratings and the evanescent field coupling between two fiber," Opt. Express 15, 10855-10862 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Induction of the refractive index changes in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress," Opt. Commun. 185, 337-342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. B.

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1408-1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, and Q. Liu, "Symmetric 3 × 3 optical coupler using three parallel long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Express 15, 6494-6499 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu and K. S. Chiang, "Broadband optical coupler based on evanescent-field coupling between three parallel long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,229-231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36,966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1408-1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mettler, S. C.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser beams," Electron. Lett. 34,302-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

Ng, M. N.

K. S. Chiang, F. Y. M. Chan, and M. N. Ng, "Analysis of two parallel long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightwave Technol. 22,1358-1366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36,966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1408-1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nouchi, K.

Oh, S. T.

Okhotnikov, O.

Paek, U. C.

C. S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Induction of the refractive index changes in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress," Opt. Commun. 185, 337-342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Ran, Z. L.

Rao, Y. J.

Rego, G.

Ryu, H. S.

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Slavik, R.

R. Slavik, "Coupling to circularly asymmetric modes via long-period gratings made in a standard straight fiber," Opt. Commun.,  275, 90-93 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sulimov, V.

Van Wiggeren, G. D.

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, "Axial rotation dependence of the resonances in the curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1354-1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Varshneya, A. K.

A. K. Varshneya, Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses, (Academic Press, Boston, 1994).

Vengsarkar, A. M.

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser beams," Electron. Lett. 34,302-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. P.

Watanabe, M.

Zhu, T.

Electron. Lett.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and S. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1408-1409 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Van Wiggeren, T. K. Gaylord, D. D. Davis, E. Anemogiannis, B. D. Garrett, M. I. Braiwish, and E. N. Glytsis, "Axial rotation dependence of the resonances in the curved CO2-laser-induced long-period fiber gratings," Electron. Lett. 36,1354-1355 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Davis, T. K. Gaylord, E. N. Glytsis, S. G. Kosinski, S. C. Mettler, and A. M. Vengsarkar, "Long-period fibre grating fabrication with focused CO2 laser beams," Electron. Lett. 34,302-303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Varshneya, Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses, (Academic Press, Boston, 1994).

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36,966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

V. Grubsky and J. Feinberg, "Fabrication of axially symmetric long-period fiber gratings with a carbon dioxide laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2296-2298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu and K. S. Chiang, "Broadband optical coupler based on evanescent-field coupling between three parallel long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,229-231 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Commun.

C. S. Kim, Y. Han, B. H. Lee, W. T. Han, U. C. Paek, and Y. Chung, "Induction of the refractive index changes in B-doped optical fibers through relaxation of the mechanical stress," Opt. Commun. 185, 337-342 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Slavik, "Coupling to circularly asymmetric modes via long-period gratings made in a standard straight fiber," Opt. Commun.,  275, 90-93 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

K. Morishita and A. Kaino, "Residual stress effects on post-fabrication resonance wavelength trimming of long-period fiber gratings," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and The National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference on CD-ROM (OSA, Washington, DC, 2007), JWA18.

K. S. Chiang, M. N. Ng, Y. Liu, and S. Li, "Evanescent-field coupling between two parallel long-period fiber gratings," in Proc. IEEE Lasers Electro-Op. Soc. Conf., Puerto Rico (2000), pp. 836-837.

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, and J. Feinberg, "Wavelength-selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings," in Tech. Dig. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., vol. 4, (2000), pp. 28-30.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of two parallel identical LPFGs. (b) Four different fiber orientations for the two LPFGs, where the red areas represent the sides exposed to the CO2-laser pulses.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectrum of a LPFG written in (a) a standard SMF; (b) a boron-doped SMF.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Normalized output spectra from the tapping fiber measured in air for the four fiber orientations. (b) The dependence of the peak coupling efficiency on the offset distance for Configurations I and IV with the surrounding index fixed at 1.448.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Dependence of the peak coupling efficiency on the offset distance with the surrounding index n fixed at 1.0 (air) and 1.420. (b) Normalized output spectra from the tapping fiber measured with the surrounding index 1.420 at the offset distances: s=0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Peak coupling efficiencies of the coupler formed with gratings written in the standard SMF measured for the four fiber orientations with the surrounding index n fixed at 1.0, 1.420, or 1.448.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Peak coupling efficiencies of the coupler formed with gratings written in the boron-doped SMF measured for the four fiber orientations with the surrounding index n fixed at 1.0 or 1.420.

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