Abstract

Bend loss characterisation tests are carried out in two air-silica structured fibres: a periodic photonic crystal fibre and a non-periodic fibre. An explanation based on resonant coupling between interstitial zones accounts for the improved confinement of non-periodic structured optical fibres.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Kaiser, E. A. J. Marcatili, S. E. Miller, "A new optical fiber," B.S.T.J. 52, 265-269 (1973)
  2. A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, "Periodic structures for integrated-optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233-253 (1977)
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, "Theory of Bragg fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1196- (1978) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-68-9-1196
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics", Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987)
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibers, (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2003)
  6. M. Kristensen, J. Canning, T. Ryan, "Mode-coupling in photonic crystal fibres with multiple cores," Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe 2000), Nice, France, (2000)
  7. C. Martelli, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, N. Groothoff, "Refractive index measurement within a photonic crystal fibre based on short wavelength diffraction," Sensors 7, 2492-2498 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. Hansen, and H. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 4080-4087 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, P. St. J. Russel, "Stimulated raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 11, 399-402 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Roberts, F. Couny, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, D. Williams, L. Farr, M. Mason, A. Tomlinson, T. Birks, J. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Ultimate low loss of hollow-core photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 13, 236-244 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, "Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 287-289 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa, V. Finazzi, D. J. Richardson, "Understanding bending losses in holey optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 227, 317-335 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. D. Love, and V. Steblina, "A fractal-based fibre for ultra-high throughput optical probes," Opt. Express 15, 2468-2475 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Kácik, I. Turek, I. Martincek, J. Canning, K. Lyytikäinen, "The role of diffraction in influencing the short wavelength loss edge of photonic crystal fibres," Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (ACOFT 2005), Sydney, Australia, (2005).
  15. D. Ká?ik, I. Turek, I. Martin?ek, J. Canning, N. Issa, and K. Lyytikäinen, "Intermodal interference in a photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Express 12, 3465-3470 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. Canning, "Diffraction-Free Mode Generation and Propagation in Optical Waveguides," Opt. Commun. 207, 35-39 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. W. Takeda, S. Kirihara, Y. Miyamoto, K. Sakoda, K. Honda, "Localization of electromagnetic waves in three-dimensional fractal cavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093902-1 - 093902-4 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Donlagic and B. Culshaw, "Low-loss transmission through tightly bent standar telecommunication fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett 77, 3911-3913 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Corning Incorporated, "Corning® HI 1060 FLEX speciality fiber - ultra-low bending loss in C- and L-bands," information data sheet (2003).

2007

C. Martelli, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, N. Groothoff, "Refractive index measurement within a photonic crystal fibre based on short wavelength diffraction," Sensors 7, 2492-2498 (2007)
[CrossRef]

S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. D. Love, and V. Steblina, "A fractal-based fibre for ultra-high throughput optical probes," Opt. Express 15, 2468-2475 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

2003

J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa, V. Finazzi, D. J. Richardson, "Understanding bending losses in holey optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 227, 317-335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, P. St. J. Russel, "Stimulated raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 11, 399-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, "Diffraction-Free Mode Generation and Propagation in Optical Waveguides," Opt. Commun. 207, 35-39 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, "Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 287-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Donlagic and B. Culshaw, "Low-loss transmission through tightly bent standar telecommunication fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett 77, 3911-3913 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1987

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics", Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987)
[CrossRef]

1977

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, "Periodic structures for integrated-optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233-253 (1977)
[CrossRef]

Antonopoulos, G.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, P. St. J. Russel, "Stimulated raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 11, 399-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baggett, J. C.

J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa, V. Finazzi, D. J. Richardson, "Understanding bending losses in holey optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 227, 317-335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, P. St. J. Russel, "Stimulated raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 11, 399-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T.

Bjarklev, A.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, "Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 287-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, "Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 287-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, N. Groothoff, "Refractive index measurement within a photonic crystal fibre based on short wavelength diffraction," Sensors 7, 2492-2498 (2007)
[CrossRef]

S. T. Huntington, B. C. Gibson, J. Canning, K. Digweed-Lyytikäinen, J. D. Love, and V. Steblina, "A fractal-based fibre for ultra-high throughput optical probes," Opt. Express 15, 2468-2475 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ká?ik, I. Turek, I. Martin?ek, J. Canning, N. Issa, and K. Lyytikäinen, "Intermodal interference in a photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Express 12, 3465-3470 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Canning, "Diffraction-Free Mode Generation and Propagation in Optical Waveguides," Opt. Commun. 207, 35-39 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Couny, F.

Culshaw, B.

D. Donlagic and B. Culshaw, "Low-loss transmission through tightly bent standar telecommunication fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett 77, 3911-3913 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Digweed-Lyytikäinen, K.

Donlagic, D.

D. Donlagic and B. Culshaw, "Low-loss transmission through tightly bent standar telecommunication fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett 77, 3911-3913 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Farr, L.

Finazzi, V.

J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa, V. Finazzi, D. J. Richardson, "Understanding bending losses in holey optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 227, 317-335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Furusawa, K.

J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa, V. Finazzi, D. J. Richardson, "Understanding bending losses in holey optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 227, 317-335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, B. C.

Groothoff, N.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, N. Groothoff, "Refractive index measurement within a photonic crystal fibre based on short wavelength diffraction," Sensors 7, 2492-2498 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T.

Huntington, S. T.

Issa, N.

Kácik, D.

Knight, J.

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, P. St. J. Russel, "Stimulated raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 11, 399-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Knudsen, E.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, "Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 287-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, N. Groothoff, "Refractive index measurement within a photonic crystal fibre based on short wavelength diffraction," Sensors 7, 2492-2498 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Libori, S. E. B.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, "Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 287-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

Ludvigsen, H.

Lyytikäinen, K.

Mangan, B.

Martelli, C.

C. Martelli, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, N. Groothoff, "Refractive index measurement within a photonic crystal fibre based on short wavelength diffraction," Sensors 7, 2492-2498 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Martincek, I.

Mason, M.

Monro, T. M.

J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa, V. Finazzi, D. J. Richardson, "Understanding bending losses in holey optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 227, 317-335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, "Periodic structures for integrated-optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233-253 (1977)
[CrossRef]

Petersen, J.

Richardson, D. J.

J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa, V. Finazzi, D. J. Richardson, "Understanding bending losses in holey optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 227, 317-335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ritari, T.

Roberts, P.

Russel, P. St. J.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, P. St. J. Russel, "Stimulated raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 11, 399-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Sabert, H.

Simonsen, H.

Sørensen, T.

T. Ritari, J. Tuominen, H. Ludvigsen, J. Petersen, T. Sørensen, T. Hansen, and H. Simonsen, "Gas sensing using air-guiding photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 12, 4080-4087 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, "Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 287-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steblina, V.

Tomlinson, A.

Tuominen, J.

Turek, I.

Williams, D.

Yablonovitch, E.

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics", Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987)
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, "Periodic structures for integrated-optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233-253 (1977)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett

D. Donlagic and B. Culshaw, "Low-loss transmission through tightly bent standar telecommunication fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett 77, 3911-3913 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

T. Sørensen, J. Broeng, A. Bjarklev, E. Knudsen, and S. E. B. Libori, "Macro-bending loss properties of photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 37, 287-289 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

A. Yariv and M. Nakamura, "Periodic structures for integrated-optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13, 233-253 (1977)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, K. Furusawa, V. Finazzi, D. J. Richardson, "Understanding bending losses in holey optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 227, 317-335 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, "Diffraction-Free Mode Generation and Propagation in Optical Waveguides," Opt. Commun. 207, 35-39 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited Spontaneous Emission in Solid-State Physics and Electronics", Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987)
[CrossRef]

Science

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, P. St. J. Russel, "Stimulated raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Science 11, 399-402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sensors

C. Martelli, J. Canning, M. Kristensen, N. Groothoff, "Refractive index measurement within a photonic crystal fibre based on short wavelength diffraction," Sensors 7, 2492-2498 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Kaiser, E. A. J. Marcatili, S. E. Miller, "A new optical fiber," B.S.T.J. 52, 265-269 (1973)

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibers, (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2003)

M. Kristensen, J. Canning, T. Ryan, "Mode-coupling in photonic crystal fibres with multiple cores," Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics (CLEO/Europe 2000), Nice, France, (2000)

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, and E. Marom, "Theory of Bragg fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1196- (1978) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josa-68-9-1196
[CrossRef]

D. Kácik, I. Turek, I. Martincek, J. Canning, K. Lyytikäinen, "The role of diffraction in influencing the short wavelength loss edge of photonic crystal fibres," Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology (ACOFT 2005), Sydney, Australia, (2005).

M. W. Takeda, S. Kirihara, Y. Miyamoto, K. Sakoda, K. Honda, "Localization of electromagnetic waves in three-dimensional fractal cavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 093902-1 - 093902-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Corning Incorporated, "Corning® HI 1060 FLEX speciality fiber - ultra-low bending loss in C- and L-bands," information data sheet (2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

a) Schematic representation of the experimental setup employed to characterize the short wavelength cut-off due to bend loss in air-silica structured fibres. b) Images of the air-silica structured fibres cross-sections used in the experiments.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

a) PCF fibre bend loss measurements for five different radii and b) Bragg shift of the resonant band as function of bend radius.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Bend loss at 1550 nm for various bend lengths.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fractal fibre bend loss for five different radii and b) bend loss at 1550 nm for various bend lengths.

Equations (1)

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λ B = 2 n eff Λ m ( a + R ) ( a 2 + 2 a R ) 1 2

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