Abstract

A three-core tellurite glass fiber having different combinations of rare earth oxide dopants in each core has been fabricated using shaped die-extrusion. Three cores, doped with Ho3+-Tm3+-Yb3+, Er3+-Ce3+, and Tm3+-Yb3+ respectively, exhibited visible upconversion (blue, green and red) and infrared emissions at 1.4 µm, 1.5 µm, 1.9 µm and 2.05 µm when pumped at a wavelength of 980 nm. The prospects for multi-band amplifiers and lasers are discussed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. K. Singh, "Ho3+:TeO2 glass as a probe for temperature measurements." Sens. Actuators A 136, 173-177, (2006).
  2. S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics." J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano and M. Shimizu, "Ultra-wide-band tellurite-based fiber Raman amplifier." J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 13100-13106, (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Tellurite photonic crystal fiber." Opt. Express 11, 2641-2645, (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Lousteau, H. Bookey, X. Jiang, C. Hill, A. Kar and A. Jha, "Fabrication of multicore tellurite glass optical fibres." in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Rome, 2007), pp. 504-509.
  6. T. Delmonte, M. A. Watson, E. J. O'Driscoll, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, J. H. Price, J. C. Baggett, W. Loh, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Hand, "Generation of Mid-IR Continuum Using Tellurite Microstructured Fiber," presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21-26, 2006, paper CTuA4.
  7. .S. Shen, L. Huang, P. Joshi and A. Jha, "Gain characteristics of Er3+/Ce3+ codoped tellurite short fibre amplifier pumped at 980nm." Electron. Lett. 39, 1797-1799, (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Jha, S. Shen and M Naftaly, "Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5 - ?m emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses," Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215-6227, 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Richards, S. Shen, A. Jha, Y. Tsang and D. Binks, "Infrared emission and energy transfer in Tm3+, Tm3+-Ho3+ and Tm3+-Yb3+-doped tellurite fibre." Opt. Express 15, 6546-6551, (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. X. Shen, B. Richards and A. Jha, "Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in Er3+, Er3+/Eu3+ and Er3+/Ce3+ doped tellurite glass fibers." Opt. Express 14, 5050-5054, (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. S. Wang, D. P. Machewirth, F. Wu, E. Snitzer, E. M. Vogel, "Neodymium-doped tellurite single-mode fiber laser." Opt. Lett. 19, 1448-1449, (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Li, J. Lousteau, W. N. MacPherson, X. Jiang, H. T. Bookey, J. S. Barton, A. Jha, A. K. Kar, "Thermal sensitivity of tellurite and germanate optical fibers." Opt. Express 15, 8857-8863, (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher and Th. Pertsch, "The multicore fiber - a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser." Opt. Commun. 151, 187-195, (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MachPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Two-axis bend measurement with Bragg gratings in multicore optical fiber." Opt. Lett. 28, 387-389, (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. D. Psaila, A. Fender, S. Campbell, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, D. T. Reid, and A. K. Kar, "Ultrafast-laser inscription of a three dimensional fan-out device for multicore fiber coupling applications." Opt. Express 15, 11691-11697, (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

2003 (4)

A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano and M. Shimizu, "Ultra-wide-band tellurite-based fiber Raman amplifier." J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 13100-13106, (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Tellurite photonic crystal fiber." Opt. Express 11, 2641-2645, (2003).
[CrossRef]

.S. Shen, L. Huang, P. Joshi and A. Jha, "Gain characteristics of Er3+/Ce3+ codoped tellurite short fibre amplifier pumped at 980nm." Electron. Lett. 39, 1797-1799, (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MachPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang and I. Bennion, "Two-axis bend measurement with Bragg gratings in multicore optical fiber." Opt. Lett. 28, 387-389, (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics." J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395, (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Jha, S. Shen and M Naftaly, "Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5 - ?m emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses," Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215-6227, 2000.
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher and Th. Pertsch, "The multicore fiber - a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser." Opt. Commun. 151, 187-195, (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Barton, J. S.

Bennion, I.

Bindra, K.

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics." J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Binks, D.

Bookey, H. T.

Campbell, S.

Fender, A.

Flockhart, G. M. H.

George, A. K.

Glas, P.

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher and Th. Pertsch, "The multicore fiber - a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser." Opt. Commun. 151, 187-195, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

.S. Shen, L. Huang, P. Joshi and A. Jha, "Gain characteristics of Er3+/Ce3+ codoped tellurite short fibre amplifier pumped at 980nm." Electron. Lett. 39, 1797-1799, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

B. Richards, S. Shen, A. Jha, Y. Tsang and D. Binks, "Infrared emission and energy transfer in Tm3+, Tm3+-Ho3+ and Tm3+-Yb3+-doped tellurite fibre." Opt. Express 15, 6546-6551, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Li, J. Lousteau, W. N. MacPherson, X. Jiang, H. T. Bookey, J. S. Barton, A. Jha, A. K. Kar, "Thermal sensitivity of tellurite and germanate optical fibers." Opt. Express 15, 8857-8863, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. X. Shen, B. Richards and A. Jha, "Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in Er3+, Er3+/Eu3+ and Er3+/Ce3+ doped tellurite glass fibers." Opt. Express 14, 5050-5054, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

.S. Shen, L. Huang, P. Joshi and A. Jha, "Gain characteristics of Er3+/Ce3+ codoped tellurite short fibre amplifier pumped at 980nm." Electron. Lett. 39, 1797-1799, (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics." J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395, (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Jha, S. Shen and M Naftaly, "Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5 - ?m emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses," Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215-6227, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

Jones, J. D. C.

Joshi, P.

.S. Shen, L. Huang, P. Joshi and A. Jha, "Gain characteristics of Er3+/Ce3+ codoped tellurite short fibre amplifier pumped at 980nm." Electron. Lett. 39, 1797-1799, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

Knight, J. C.

Li, H.

Liu, X. B.

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics." J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lousteau, J.

Machewirth, D. P.

MachPherson, W. N.

MacPherson, W. N.

Masuda, H.

A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano and M. Shimizu, "Ultra-wide-band tellurite-based fiber Raman amplifier." J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 13100-13106, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mori, A.

A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano and M. Shimizu, "Ultra-wide-band tellurite-based fiber Raman amplifier." J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 13100-13106, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Naftaly, M

A. Jha, S. Shen and M Naftaly, "Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5 - ?m emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses," Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215-6227, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Naftaly, M.

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics." J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Naumann, M.

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher and Th. Pertsch, "The multicore fiber - a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser." Opt. Commun. 151, 187-195, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, Th.

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher and Th. Pertsch, "The multicore fiber - a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser." Opt. Commun. 151, 187-195, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Psaila, N. D.

Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.

Reid, D. T.

Richards, B.

Schirmacher, A.

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher and Th. Pertsch, "The multicore fiber - a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser." Opt. Commun. 151, 187-195, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S.

B. Richards, S. Shen, A. Jha, Y. Tsang and D. Binks, "Infrared emission and energy transfer in Tm3+, Tm3+-Ho3+ and Tm3+-Yb3+-doped tellurite fibre." Opt. Express 15, 6546-6551, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

.S. Shen, L. Huang, P. Joshi and A. Jha, "Gain characteristics of Er3+/Ce3+ codoped tellurite short fibre amplifier pumped at 980nm." Electron. Lett. 39, 1797-1799, (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Jha, S. Shen and M Naftaly, "Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5 - ?m emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses," Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215-6227, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Shen, S. X.

S. X. Shen, B. Richards and A. Jha, "Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in Er3+, Er3+/Eu3+ and Er3+/Ce3+ doped tellurite glass fibers." Opt. Express 14, 5050-5054, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics." J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shikano, K.

A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano and M. Shimizu, "Ultra-wide-band tellurite-based fiber Raman amplifier." J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 13100-13106, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, M.

A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano and M. Shimizu, "Ultra-wide-band tellurite-based fiber Raman amplifier." J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 13100-13106, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Singh, A. K.

A. K. Singh, "Ho3+:TeO2 glass as a probe for temperature measurements." Sens. Actuators A 136, 173-177, (2006).

Snitzer, E.

St, P.

Thomson, R. R.

Tsang, Y.

Vogel, E. M.

Wang, J. S.

Wu, F.

Zhang, L.

Electron. Lett. (1)

.S. Shen, L. Huang, P. Joshi and A. Jha, "Gain characteristics of Er3+/Ce3+ codoped tellurite short fibre amplifier pumped at 980nm." Electron. Lett. 39, 1797-1799, (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, "Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics." J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391-1395, (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano and M. Shimizu, "Ultra-wide-band tellurite-based fiber Raman amplifier." J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 13100-13106, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher and Th. Pertsch, "The multicore fiber - a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser." Opt. Commun. 151, 187-195, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Jha, S. Shen and M Naftaly, "Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5 - ?m emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses," Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215-6227, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

A. K. Singh, "Ho3+:TeO2 glass as a probe for temperature measurements." Sens. Actuators A 136, 173-177, (2006).

Other (2)

J. Lousteau, H. Bookey, X. Jiang, C. Hill, A. Kar and A. Jha, "Fabrication of multicore tellurite glass optical fibres." in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Rome, 2007), pp. 504-509.

T. Delmonte, M. A. Watson, E. J. O'Driscoll, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, J. H. Price, J. C. Baggett, W. Loh, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Hand, "Generation of Mid-IR Continuum Using Tellurite Microstructured Fiber," presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21-26, 2006, paper CTuA4.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical microscope image of three-core fiber (a) with different core doping giving different colour cores in transmission, also shown are SEM images of the fiber (b) and of the interface of core 1 (c).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Imaged output at 1550 nm from 3.2 cm of the active three core fiber for light coupled into the outer cladding (a), inner cladding (b) and cores 1 - (c) - (d).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Energy level diagrams and pumping schemes for the three cores 1 - 3 (a)-(c) [Refs 7, 9].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plots (a)–(c) show near infrared emission spectra for cores 1–3 respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Plots (a)–(c) show mid-infrared emission spectra for cores 1–3 respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Visible upconversion luminescence when pumping Cores 1, 2 and 3 (a, b, and c) with a fiber coupled 980 nm laser diode. The high degree of visible upconversion fluorescence is evident in images of the fiber when pumping each of the cores (d).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Fiber composition.

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