Abstract

A three-core tellurite glass fiber having different combinations of rare earth oxide dopants in each core has been fabricated using shaped die-extrusion. Three cores, doped with Ho3+-Tm3+-Yb3+, Er3+-Ce3+, and Tm3+-Yb3+ respectively, exhibited visible upconversion (blue, green and red) and infrared emissions at 1.4 µm, 1.5 µm, 1.9 µm and 2.05 µm when pumped at a wavelength of 980 nm. The prospects for multi-band amplifiers and lasers are discussed.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. K. Singh, “Ho3+:TeO2 glass as a probe for temperature measurements.” Sens. Actuators A 136, 173–177, (2006).
  2. S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics.” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391–1395, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Mori, H. Masuda, K. Shikano, and M. Shimizu, “Ultra-wide-band tellurite-based fiber Raman amplifier.” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 1300–13106, (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. V. Ravi Kanth Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Tellurite photonic crystal fiber.” Opt. Express 11, 2641–2645, (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Lousteau, H. Bookey, X. Jiang, C. Hill, A. Kar, and A. Jha, “Fabrication of multicore tellurite glass optical fibres.” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Rome, 2007), pp. 504–509.
  6. T. Delmonte, M. A. Watson, E. J. O’Driscoll, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, J. H. Price, J. C. Baggett, W. Loh, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Hand, “Generation of Mid-IR Continuum Using Tellurite Microstructured Fiber,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21–26, 2006, paper CTuA4.
  7. S. Shen, L. Huang, P. Joshi, and A. Jha, “Gain characteristics of Er3+/Ce3+ codoped tellurite short fibre amplifier pumped at 980nm.” Electron. Lett. 39, 1797–1799, (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Jha, S. Shen, and M Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5 - µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227, 2000.
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Richards, S. Shen, A. Jha, Y. Tsang, and D. Binks, “Infrared emission and energy transfer in Tm3+, Tm3+-Ho3+ and Tm3+-Yb3+-doped tellurite fibre.” Opt. Express 15, 6546–6551, (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. X. Shen, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in Er3+, Er3+/Eu3+ and Er3+/Ce3+ doped tellurite glass fibers.” Opt. Express 14, 5050–5054, (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. S. Wang, D. P. Machewirth, F. Wu, E. Snitzer, and E. M. Vogel, “Neodymium-doped tellurite single-mode fiber laser.” Opt. Lett. 19, 1448–1449, (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher, and Th. Pertsch, “The multicore fiber — a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser.” Opt. Commun. 151, 187–195, (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. M. H. Flockhart, W. N. MachPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Two-axis bend measurement with Bragg gratings in multicore optical fiber.” Opt. Lett. 28, 387–389, (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

2003 (4)

2002 (1)

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics.” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391–1395, (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5 - µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227, 2000.
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher, and Th. Pertsch, “The multicore fiber — a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser.” Opt. Commun. 151, 187–195, (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Baggett, J. C.

T. Delmonte, M. A. Watson, E. J. O’Driscoll, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, J. H. Price, J. C. Baggett, W. Loh, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Hand, “Generation of Mid-IR Continuum Using Tellurite Microstructured Fiber,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21–26, 2006, paper CTuA4.

Barton, J. S.

Bennion, I.

Bindra, K.

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics.” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391–1395, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Binks, D.

Bookey, H.

J. Lousteau, H. Bookey, X. Jiang, C. Hill, A. Kar, and A. Jha, “Fabrication of multicore tellurite glass optical fibres.” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Rome, 2007), pp. 504–509.

Bookey, H. T.

Campbell, S.

Delmonte, T.

T. Delmonte, M. A. Watson, E. J. O’Driscoll, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, J. H. Price, J. C. Baggett, W. Loh, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Hand, “Generation of Mid-IR Continuum Using Tellurite Microstructured Fiber,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21–26, 2006, paper CTuA4.

Fender, A.

Feng, X.

T. Delmonte, M. A. Watson, E. J. O’Driscoll, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, J. H. Price, J. C. Baggett, W. Loh, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Hand, “Generation of Mid-IR Continuum Using Tellurite Microstructured Fiber,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21–26, 2006, paper CTuA4.

Finazzi, V.

T. Delmonte, M. A. Watson, E. J. O’Driscoll, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, J. H. Price, J. C. Baggett, W. Loh, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Hand, “Generation of Mid-IR Continuum Using Tellurite Microstructured Fiber,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21–26, 2006, paper CTuA4.

Flockhart, G. M. H.

George, A. K.

Glas, P.

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher, and Th. Pertsch, “The multicore fiber — a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser.” Opt. Commun. 151, 187–195, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D. P.

T. Delmonte, M. A. Watson, E. J. O’Driscoll, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, J. H. Price, J. C. Baggett, W. Loh, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Hand, “Generation of Mid-IR Continuum Using Tellurite Microstructured Fiber,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21–26, 2006, paper CTuA4.

Hill, C.

J. Lousteau, H. Bookey, X. Jiang, C. Hill, A. Kar, and A. Jha, “Fabrication of multicore tellurite glass optical fibres.” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Rome, 2007), pp. 504–509.

Huang, L.

S. Shen, L. Huang, P. Joshi, and A. Jha, “Gain characteristics of Er3+/Ce3+ codoped tellurite short fibre amplifier pumped at 980nm.” Electron. Lett. 39, 1797–1799, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

H. Li, J. Lousteau, W. N. MacPherson, X. Jiang, H. T. Bookey, J. S. Barton, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, “Thermal sensitivity of tellurite and germanate optical fibers.” Opt. Express 15, 8857–8863, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Richards, S. Shen, A. Jha, Y. Tsang, and D. Binks, “Infrared emission and energy transfer in Tm3+, Tm3+-Ho3+ and Tm3+-Yb3+-doped tellurite fibre.” Opt. Express 15, 6546–6551, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. X. Shen, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in Er3+, Er3+/Eu3+ and Er3+/Ce3+ doped tellurite glass fibers.” Opt. Express 14, 5050–5054, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shen, L. Huang, P. Joshi, and A. Jha, “Gain characteristics of Er3+/Ce3+ codoped tellurite short fibre amplifier pumped at 980nm.” Electron. Lett. 39, 1797–1799, (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics.” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391–1395, (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5 - µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227, 2000.
[CrossRef]

J. Lousteau, H. Bookey, X. Jiang, C. Hill, A. Kar, and A. Jha, “Fabrication of multicore tellurite glass optical fibres.” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Rome, 2007), pp. 504–509.

Jiang, X.

H. Li, J. Lousteau, W. N. MacPherson, X. Jiang, H. T. Bookey, J. S. Barton, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, “Thermal sensitivity of tellurite and germanate optical fibers.” Opt. Express 15, 8857–8863, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lousteau, H. Bookey, X. Jiang, C. Hill, A. Kar, and A. Jha, “Fabrication of multicore tellurite glass optical fibres.” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Rome, 2007), pp. 504–509.

Jones, J. D. C.

Joshi, P.

S. Shen, L. Huang, P. Joshi, and A. Jha, “Gain characteristics of Er3+/Ce3+ codoped tellurite short fibre amplifier pumped at 980nm.” Electron. Lett. 39, 1797–1799, (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A.

J. Lousteau, H. Bookey, X. Jiang, C. Hill, A. Kar, and A. Jha, “Fabrication of multicore tellurite glass optical fibres.” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Rome, 2007), pp. 504–509.

Kar, A. K.

Knight, J. C.

Li, H.

Liu, X. B.

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics.” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391–1395, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W.

T. Delmonte, M. A. Watson, E. J. O’Driscoll, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, J. H. Price, J. C. Baggett, W. Loh, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Hand, “Generation of Mid-IR Continuum Using Tellurite Microstructured Fiber,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21–26, 2006, paper CTuA4.

Lousteau, J.

H. Li, J. Lousteau, W. N. MacPherson, X. Jiang, H. T. Bookey, J. S. Barton, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, “Thermal sensitivity of tellurite and germanate optical fibers.” Opt. Express 15, 8857–8863, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lousteau, H. Bookey, X. Jiang, C. Hill, A. Kar, and A. Jha, “Fabrication of multicore tellurite glass optical fibres.” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Rome, 2007), pp. 504–509.

Machewirth, D. P.

MachPherson, W. N.

MacPherson, W. N.

Masuda, H.

Monro, T. M.

T. Delmonte, M. A. Watson, E. J. O’Driscoll, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, J. H. Price, J. C. Baggett, W. Loh, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Hand, “Generation of Mid-IR Continuum Using Tellurite Microstructured Fiber,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21–26, 2006, paper CTuA4.

Mori, A.

Naftaly, M

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5 - µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Naftaly, M.

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics.” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391–1395, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Naumann, M.

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher, and Th. Pertsch, “The multicore fiber — a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser.” Opt. Commun. 151, 187–195, (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’Driscoll, E. J.

T. Delmonte, M. A. Watson, E. J. O’Driscoll, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, J. H. Price, J. C. Baggett, W. Loh, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Hand, “Generation of Mid-IR Continuum Using Tellurite Microstructured Fiber,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21–26, 2006, paper CTuA4.

Pertsch, Th.

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher, and Th. Pertsch, “The multicore fiber — a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser.” Opt. Commun. 151, 187–195, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

T. Delmonte, M. A. Watson, E. J. O’Driscoll, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, J. H. Price, J. C. Baggett, W. Loh, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Hand, “Generation of Mid-IR Continuum Using Tellurite Microstructured Fiber,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21–26, 2006, paper CTuA4.

Price, J. H.

T. Delmonte, M. A. Watson, E. J. O’Driscoll, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, J. H. Price, J. C. Baggett, W. Loh, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Hand, “Generation of Mid-IR Continuum Using Tellurite Microstructured Fiber,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21–26, 2006, paper CTuA4.

Psaila, N. D.

Ravi Kanth Kumar, V. V.

Reid, D. T.

Richards, B.

Richardson, D. J.

T. Delmonte, M. A. Watson, E. J. O’Driscoll, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, J. H. Price, J. C. Baggett, W. Loh, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Hand, “Generation of Mid-IR Continuum Using Tellurite Microstructured Fiber,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21–26, 2006, paper CTuA4.

Russell, P. St. J.

Schirmacher, A.

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher, and Th. Pertsch, “The multicore fiber — a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser.” Opt. Commun. 151, 187–195, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S.

B. Richards, S. Shen, A. Jha, Y. Tsang, and D. Binks, “Infrared emission and energy transfer in Tm3+, Tm3+-Ho3+ and Tm3+-Yb3+-doped tellurite fibre.” Opt. Express 15, 6546–6551, (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shen, L. Huang, P. Joshi, and A. Jha, “Gain characteristics of Er3+/Ce3+ codoped tellurite short fibre amplifier pumped at 980nm.” Electron. Lett. 39, 1797–1799, (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5 - µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Shen, S. X.

S. X. Shen, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Enhancement in pump inversion efficiency at 980 nm in Er3+, Er3+/Eu3+ and Er3+/Ce3+ doped tellurite glass fibers.” Opt. Express 14, 5050–5054, (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics.” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391–1395, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shikano, K.

Shimizu, M.

Singh, A. K.

A. K. Singh, “Ho3+:TeO2 glass as a probe for temperature measurements.” Sens. Actuators A 136, 173–177, (2006).

Snitzer, E.

Thomson, R. R.

Tsang, Y.

Vogel, E. M.

Wang, J. S.

Watson, M. A.

T. Delmonte, M. A. Watson, E. J. O’Driscoll, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, J. H. Price, J. C. Baggett, W. Loh, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Hand, “Generation of Mid-IR Continuum Using Tellurite Microstructured Fiber,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21–26, 2006, paper CTuA4.

Wu, F.

Zhang, L.

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Shen, L. Huang, P. Joshi, and A. Jha, “Gain characteristics of Er3+/Ce3+ codoped tellurite short fibre amplifier pumped at 980nm.” Electron. Lett. 39, 1797–1799, (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

S. X. Shen, A. Jha, X. B. Liu, M. Naftaly, K. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Tellurite glasses for broadband amplifiers and integrated optics.” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 85, 1391–1395, (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Commun. (1)

P. Glas, M. Naumann, A. Schirmacher, and Th. Pertsch, “The multicore fiber — a novel design for a diode pumped fiber laser.” Opt. Commun. 151, 187–195, (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Jha, S. Shen, and M Naftaly, “Structural origin of spectral broadening of 1.5 - µm emission in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 6215–6227, 2000.
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators A (1)

A. K. Singh, “Ho3+:TeO2 glass as a probe for temperature measurements.” Sens. Actuators A 136, 173–177, (2006).

Other (2)

J. Lousteau, H. Bookey, X. Jiang, C. Hill, A. Kar, and A. Jha, “Fabrication of multicore tellurite glass optical fibres.” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Rome, 2007), pp. 504–509.

T. Delmonte, M. A. Watson, E. J. O’Driscoll, X. Feng, T. M. Monro, V. Finazzi, P. Petropoulos, J. H. Price, J. C. Baggett, W. Loh, D. J. Richardson, and D. P. Hand, “Generation of Mid-IR Continuum Using Tellurite Microstructured Fiber,” presented at Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics CLEO 2006, Long Beach, Calif., May 21–26, 2006, paper CTuA4.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical microscope image of three-core fiber (a) with different core doping giving different colour cores in transmission, also shown are SEM images of the fiber (b) and of the interface of core 1 (c).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Imaged output at 1550 nm from 3.2 cm of the active three core fiber for light coupled into the outer cladding (a), inner cladding (b) and cores 1 - (c) - (d).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Energy level diagrams and pumping schemes for the three cores 1 - 3 (a)-(c) [Refs 7, 9].

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plots (a)–(c) show near infrared emission spectra for cores 1–3 respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Plots (a)–(c) show mid-infrared emission spectra for cores 1–3 respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Visible upconversion luminescence when pumping Cores 1, 2 and 3 (a, b, and c) with a fiber coupled 980 nm laser diode. The high degree of visible upconversion fluorescence is evident in images of the fiber when pumping each of the cores (d).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Fiber composition.

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