Abstract

Micro-resonators have attracted considerable attention as a potential geometry for photonic devices used in multiplexing, memory and switching. These all-optical-resonators allow light at certain wavelengths to build up in intensity allowing nonlinear effects to be seen for much lower input power than in a bulk material. We report here on microspheres made from gallium-lanthanum-sulphide glass. Spheres have been produced with diameters from less than 1 µm up to 450µm, and we demonstrate a first measured quality factor of 8x104 at 1.55µm, for a chalcogenide sphere diameter of 100µm. We also predict an ultimate Q of up to 4x1010 at 3µm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Marcatili, "Bends in Optical Dielectric Guides," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103-2132 (1969).
  2. B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Light. Tech. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Laine, B. Little, D. Lim, H. Tapalian, I. Kimerling, and H. Haus, "Planar integrated wavelength-drop device based on pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguides and high-Q silica microspheres," Opt. Lett. 25, 1636-1638 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Cai, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, "Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77. (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Blom, D. vanDijk, H. Hoekstra, A. Driessen and T. Popma, "Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device," App. Phys. Lett. 71, 747-749 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Ibrahim, K. Amarnath, L. Kuo, R. Grover, V. Van and P. Ho, "Photonic logic NOR gate based on two symmetric microring resonators," Opt. Lett. 29, 2779-2781 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. Calhoun and P. Ho, "All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 15, 1422-1424 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Cai, O. Painter, K. Vahala and P. Sercel, "Fiber-coupled microsphere laser," Opt. Lett. 25, 1430-1432 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe and M. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Zakery and S. Elliott, "Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1-12 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Schweizer, D. Hewak, D. Payne, T. Jensen and G. Huber, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser," Elec. Lett. 32, 666-667 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak and J. Badding, "Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451-2455 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Yayama, S. Fujino, K. Morinaga, H. Takebe, D. Hewak and D. Payne, "Refractive index dispersion of gallium lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 187-191 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Requejo-Isidro, A. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. Hewak, M. Netti and J. Baumberg, "Self refractive non-linearities in chalcogenide based glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241-246 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. Kang, T. Krauss, F. Wise, B. Aitken and N. Borrelli, "Femtosecond Measurement of Enhanced Optical Nonlinearities of Sulfide Glasses and Heavy-Metal-Doped Oxide Glasses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2053-2059 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Hecht, Optics(second edition), (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Ma, 1987), Chap. 9.6.
  18. A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. I. Grudinin, A. Matsko and L. Maleki. "On the fundamental limits of Q factor of crystalline dielectric resonators," Opt Express 15, 3390-3395 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Gorodetsky, A. Savchenkov and V. Ilchenko, "Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators," Opt. Lett. 21, 453-455 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. Brady, T. Schweizer, J. Wang and D. Hewak, "Minimum loss predictions and measurements in gallium lanthanum sulphide based glasses and fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 92-98 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Curry, S. Birtwell, A. Mairaj, X. Feng and D. Hewak, "A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477-481 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

I. Grudinin, A. Matsko and L. Maleki. "On the fundamental limits of Q factor of crystalline dielectric resonators," Opt Express 15, 3390-3395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak and J. Badding, "Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451-2455 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Curry, S. Birtwell, A. Mairaj, X. Feng and D. Hewak, "A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe and M. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ibrahim, K. Amarnath, L. Kuo, R. Grover, V. Van and P. Ho, "Photonic logic NOR gate based on two symmetric microring resonators," Opt. Lett. 29, 2779-2781 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

T. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. Calhoun and P. Ho, "All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 15, 1422-1424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Zakery and S. Elliott, "Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Requejo-Isidro, A. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. Hewak, M. Netti and J. Baumberg, "Self refractive non-linearities in chalcogenide based glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241-246 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. Vahala and P. Sercel, "Fiber-coupled microsphere laser," Opt. Lett. 25, 1430-1432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77. (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Laine, B. Little, D. Lim, H. Tapalian, I. Kimerling, and H. Haus, "Planar integrated wavelength-drop device based on pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguides and high-Q silica microspheres," Opt. Lett. 25, 1636-1638 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Cai, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, "Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

H. Yayama, S. Fujino, K. Morinaga, H. Takebe, D. Hewak and D. Payne, "Refractive index dispersion of gallium lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 187-191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Brady, T. Schweizer, J. Wang and D. Hewak, "Minimum loss predictions and measurements in gallium lanthanum sulphide based glasses and fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 92-98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Light. Tech. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Blom, D. vanDijk, H. Hoekstra, A. Driessen and T. Popma, "Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device," App. Phys. Lett. 71, 747-749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

T. Schweizer, D. Hewak, D. Payne, T. Jensen and G. Huber, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser," Elec. Lett. 32, 666-667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Gorodetsky, A. Savchenkov and V. Ilchenko, "Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators," Opt. Lett. 21, 453-455 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1969 (1)

E. Marcatili, "Bends in Optical Dielectric Guides," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103-2132 (1969).

Aitken, B.

Amarnath, K.

Badding, J.

R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak and J. Badding, "Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451-2455 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J.

J. Requejo-Isidro, A. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. Hewak, M. Netti and J. Baumberg, "Self refractive non-linearities in chalcogenide based glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241-246 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Binsma, H.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe and M. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birtwell, S.

R. Curry, S. Birtwell, A. Mairaj, X. Feng and D. Hewak, "A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blom, F.

F. Blom, D. vanDijk, H. Hoekstra, A. Driessen and T. Popma, "Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device," App. Phys. Lett. 71, 747-749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N.

Brady, D.

D. Brady, T. Schweizer, J. Wang and D. Hewak, "Minimum loss predictions and measurements in gallium lanthanum sulphide based glasses and fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 92-98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cai, M.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77. (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. Vahala and P. Sercel, "Fiber-coupled microsphere laser," Opt. Lett. 25, 1430-1432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, "Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Calhoun, L.

T. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. Calhoun and P. Ho, "All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 15, 1422-1424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Light. Tech. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Curry, R.

R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak and J. Badding, "Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451-2455 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Curry, S. Birtwell, A. Mairaj, X. Feng and D. Hewak, "A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

De Vries, T.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe and M. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Den Besten, J.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe and M. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorren, H.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe and M. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Driessen, A.

F. Blom, D. vanDijk, H. Hoekstra, A. Driessen and T. Popma, "Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device," App. Phys. Lett. 71, 747-749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Eason, R.

R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak and J. Badding, "Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451-2455 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, S.

A. Zakery and S. Elliott, "Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

R. Curry, S. Birtwell, A. Mairaj, X. Feng and D. Hewak, "A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Light. Tech. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujino, S.

H. Yayama, S. Fujino, K. Morinaga, H. Takebe, D. Hewak and D. Payne, "Refractive index dispersion of gallium lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 187-191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M.

Grivas, C.

R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak and J. Badding, "Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451-2455 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grover, R.

T. Ibrahim, K. Amarnath, L. Kuo, R. Grover, V. Van and P. Ho, "Photonic logic NOR gate based on two symmetric microring resonators," Opt. Lett. 29, 2779-2781 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. Calhoun and P. Ho, "All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 15, 1422-1424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, I.

I. Grudinin, A. Matsko and L. Maleki. "On the fundamental limits of Q factor of crystalline dielectric resonators," Opt Express 15, 3390-3395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H.

Hewak, D.

R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak and J. Badding, "Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451-2455 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Curry, S. Birtwell, A. Mairaj, X. Feng and D. Hewak, "A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Requejo-Isidro, A. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. Hewak, M. Netti and J. Baumberg, "Self refractive non-linearities in chalcogenide based glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241-246 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Brady, T. Schweizer, J. Wang and D. Hewak, "Minimum loss predictions and measurements in gallium lanthanum sulphide based glasses and fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 92-98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Yayama, S. Fujino, K. Morinaga, H. Takebe, D. Hewak and D. Payne, "Refractive index dispersion of gallium lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 187-191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. Hewak, D. Payne, T. Jensen and G. Huber, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser," Elec. Lett. 32, 666-667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe and M. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, P.

T. Ibrahim, K. Amarnath, L. Kuo, R. Grover, V. Van and P. Ho, "Photonic logic NOR gate based on two symmetric microring resonators," Opt. Lett. 29, 2779-2781 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. Calhoun and P. Ho, "All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 15, 1422-1424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hoekstra, H.

F. Blom, D. vanDijk, H. Hoekstra, A. Driessen and T. Popma, "Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device," App. Phys. Lett. 71, 747-749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak and J. Badding, "Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451-2455 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

T. Schweizer, D. Hewak, D. Payne, T. Jensen and G. Huber, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser," Elec. Lett. 32, 666-667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hunziker, G.

M. Cai, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, "Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, T.

T. Ibrahim, K. Amarnath, L. Kuo, R. Grover, V. Van and P. Ho, "Photonic logic NOR gate based on two symmetric microring resonators," Opt. Lett. 29, 2779-2781 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. Calhoun and P. Ho, "All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 15, 1422-1424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V.

Jensen, T.

T. Schweizer, D. Hewak, D. Payne, T. Jensen and G. Huber, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser," Elec. Lett. 32, 666-667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kanakaraju, S.

T. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. Calhoun and P. Ho, "All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 15, 1422-1424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kang, I.

Khoe, G.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe and M. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, I.

Krauss, T.

Kuo, L.

T. Ibrahim, K. Amarnath, L. Kuo, R. Grover, V. Van and P. Ho, "Photonic logic NOR gate based on two symmetric microring resonators," Opt. Lett. 29, 2779-2781 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. Calhoun and P. Ho, "All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 15, 1422-1424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J.

Leijtens, X.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe and M. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, D.

Little, B.

Mairaj, A.

R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak and J. Badding, "Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451-2455 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Curry, S. Birtwell, A. Mairaj, X. Feng and D. Hewak, "A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Requejo-Isidro, A. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. Hewak, M. Netti and J. Baumberg, "Self refractive non-linearities in chalcogenide based glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241-246 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

I. Grudinin, A. Matsko and L. Maleki. "On the fundamental limits of Q factor of crystalline dielectric resonators," Opt Express 15, 3390-3395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcatili, E.

E. Marcatili, "Bends in Optical Dielectric Guides," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103-2132 (1969).

Matsko, A.

I. Grudinin, A. Matsko and L. Maleki. "On the fundamental limits of Q factor of crystalline dielectric resonators," Opt Express 15, 3390-3395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morinaga, K.

H. Yayama, S. Fujino, K. Morinaga, H. Takebe, D. Hewak and D. Payne, "Refractive index dispersion of gallium lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 187-191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Netti, M.

J. Requejo-Isidro, A. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. Hewak, M. Netti and J. Baumberg, "Self refractive non-linearities in chalcogenide based glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241-246 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe and M. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Painter, O.

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. Vahala and P. Sercel, "Fiber-coupled microsphere laser," Opt. Lett. 25, 1430-1432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77. (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payne, D.

H. Yayama, S. Fujino, K. Morinaga, H. Takebe, D. Hewak and D. Payne, "Refractive index dispersion of gallium lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 187-191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. Hewak, D. Payne, T. Jensen and G. Huber, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser," Elec. Lett. 32, 666-667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Popma, T.

F. Blom, D. vanDijk, H. Hoekstra, A. Driessen and T. Popma, "Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device," App. Phys. Lett. 71, 747-749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pruneri, V.

J. Requejo-Isidro, A. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. Hewak, M. Netti and J. Baumberg, "Self refractive non-linearities in chalcogenide based glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241-246 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Requejo-Isidro, J.

J. Requejo-Isidro, A. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. Hewak, M. Netti and J. Baumberg, "Self refractive non-linearities in chalcogenide based glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241-246 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A.

Schweizer, T.

D. Brady, T. Schweizer, J. Wang and D. Hewak, "Minimum loss predictions and measurements in gallium lanthanum sulphide based glasses and fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 92-98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. Hewak, D. Payne, T. Jensen and G. Huber, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser," Elec. Lett. 32, 666-667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sercel, P.

Smalbrugge, B.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe and M. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smit, M.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe and M. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takebe, H.

H. Yayama, S. Fujino, K. Morinaga, H. Takebe, D. Hewak and D. Payne, "Refractive index dispersion of gallium lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 187-191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tapalian, H.

Vahala, K.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77. (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. Vahala and P. Sercel, "Fiber-coupled microsphere laser," Opt. Lett. 25, 1430-1432 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, "Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van, V.

vanDijk, D.

F. Blom, D. vanDijk, H. Hoekstra, A. Driessen and T. Popma, "Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device," App. Phys. Lett. 71, 747-749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

D. Brady, T. Schweizer, J. Wang and D. Hewak, "Minimum loss predictions and measurements in gallium lanthanum sulphide based glasses and fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 92-98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yayama, H.

H. Yayama, S. Fujino, K. Morinaga, H. Takebe, D. Hewak and D. Payne, "Refractive index dispersion of gallium lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 187-191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery and S. Elliott, "Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Blom, D. vanDijk, H. Hoekstra, A. Driessen and T. Popma, "Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device," App. Phys. Lett. 71, 747-749 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. Marcatili, "Bends in Optical Dielectric Guides," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103-2132 (1969).

Elec. Lett. (1)

T. Schweizer, D. Hewak, D. Payne, T. Jensen and G. Huber, "Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser," Elec. Lett. 32, 666-667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. (2)

M. Cai, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, "Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. Calhoun and P. Ho, "All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators," IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 15, 1422-1424 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak and J. Badding, "Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451-2455 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Light. Tech. (1)

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Light. Tech. 15, 998-1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (5)

H. Yayama, S. Fujino, K. Morinaga, H. Takebe, D. Hewak and D. Payne, "Refractive index dispersion of gallium lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 187-191 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Requejo-Isidro, A. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. Hewak, M. Netti and J. Baumberg, "Self refractive non-linearities in chalcogenide based glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241-246 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Zakery and S. Elliott, "Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Brady, T. Schweizer, J. Wang and D. Hewak, "Minimum loss predictions and measurements in gallium lanthanum sulphide based glasses and fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 92-98 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Curry, S. Birtwell, A. Mairaj, X. Feng and D. Hewak, "A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477-481 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe and M. Smit, "A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers," Nature 432, 206-209 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt Express (1)

I. Grudinin, A. Matsko and L. Maleki. "On the fundamental limits of Q factor of crystalline dielectric resonators," Opt Express 15, 3390-3395 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77. (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E. Hecht, Optics(second edition), (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Ma, 1987), Chap. 9.6.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

An example of an Airy function describing the discrete whispering gallery modes. Showing full width half maximum (FWHM) and free spectral range (FSR)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Maximum theoretically possible Q as a function of wavelength, for two GLS glass compositions (red=GLSO, blue=GLS).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Small microspheres produced from blown dust, as collected from the furnace and prior to further processing.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental apparatus used for Q measurements.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

A microsphere with a diameter of 450um.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SEM pictures showing the particles that rolled (left) and did not roll (right) down the glass slope.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Weakly coupled spectra from a 100um diameter sphere plotted with the fitted spectra. Showing periodic nature of the spectrum (Left) and a close up of the fitted curve (right).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Strongly coupled spectra from a 100um diameter sphere plotted with the fitted spectra. Showing periodic nature of the spectrum (Left) and a close up of the fitted curve (right).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameter values which make up the fitted spectra in Fig. 7

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameter values which make up the fitted spectra in Fig. 8

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A = 1 1 + F sin 2 ( k p n 2 )
F = ( 1 L ) 2 L 2
Q λ Δ λ
Q 1 = Q mat 1 + Q surf 1 + Q curv 1 + Q coupl 1
Q m a t 2 π n λ α
N = λ p λ p λ p 1 1
Q = kpn 2 L
kpn = 2 π λ p N λ
L N π Q
A = 1 1 + F sin 2 ( π λ p N λ )

Metrics