Abstract

Micro-resonators have attracted considerable attention as a potential geometry for photonic devices used in multiplexing, memory and switching. These all-optical-resonators allow light at certain wavelengths to build up in intensity allowing nonlinear effects to be seen for much lower input power than in a bulk material. We report here on microspheres made from gallium-lanthanum-sulphide glass. Spheres have been produced with diameters from less than 1 µm up to 450µm, and we demonstrate a first measured quality factor of 8x104 at 1.55µm, for a chalcogenide sphere diameter of 100µm. We also predict an ultimate Q of up to 4x1010 at 3µm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Marcatili, “Bends in Optical Dielectric Guides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103–2132 (1969).
  2. B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Light. Tech. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Laine, B. Little, D. Lim, H. Tapalian, I. Kimerling, and H. Haus, “Planar integrated wavelength-drop device based on pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguides and high-Q silica microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1636–1638 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Cai, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, “Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 686–687 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77. (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. F. Blom, D. vanDijk, H. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and T. Popma, “Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device,” App. Phys. Lett. 71, 747–749 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Ibrahim, K. Amarnath, L. Kuo, R. Grover, V. Van, and P. Ho, “Photonic logic NOR gate based on two symmetric microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2779–2781 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. T. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. Calhoun, and P. Ho, “All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 15, 1422–1424 (2003).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  14. H. Yayama, S. Fujino, K. Morinaga, H. Takebe, D. Hewak, and D. Payne, “Refractive index dispersion of gallium lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 187–191 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Requejo-Isidro, A. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. Hewak, M. Netti, and J. Baumberg, “Self refractive nonlinearities in chalcogenide based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241–246 (2003).
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    [Crossref]
  19. I. Grudinin, A. Matsko, and L. Maleki. “On the fundamental limits of Q factor of crystalline dielectric resonators,” Opt Express 15, 3390–3395 (2007).
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  20. M. Gorodetsky, A. Savchenkov, and V. Ilchenko, “Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators,” Opt. Lett. 21, 453–455 (1996).
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  21. D. Brady, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, and D. Hewak, “Minimum loss predictions and measurements in gallium lanthanum sulphide based glasses and fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 92–98 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  22. R. Curry, S. Birtwell, A. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. Hewak, “A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477–481 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2007 (1)

I. Grudinin, A. Matsko, and L. Maleki. “On the fundamental limits of Q factor of crystalline dielectric resonators,” Opt Express 15, 3390–3395 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

R. Curry, S. Birtwell, A. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. Hewak, “A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477–481 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak, and J. Badding, “Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451–2455 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe, and M. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206–209 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ibrahim, K. Amarnath, L. Kuo, R. Grover, V. Van, and P. Ho, “Photonic logic NOR gate based on two symmetric microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2779–2781 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

A. Zakery and S. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1–12 (2003).
[Crossref]

T. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. Calhoun, and P. Ho, “All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 15, 1422–1424 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Requejo-Isidro, A. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. Hewak, M. Netti, and J. Baumberg, “Self refractive nonlinearities in chalcogenide based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241–246 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77. (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. Vahala, and P. Sercel, “Fiber-coupled microsphere laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1430–1432 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Laine, B. Little, D. Lim, H. Tapalian, I. Kimerling, and H. Haus, “Planar integrated wavelength-drop device based on pedestal antiresonant reflecting waveguides and high-Q silica microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1636–1638 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. Cai, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, “Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 686–687 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

H. Yayama, S. Fujino, K. Morinaga, H. Takebe, D. Hewak, and D. Payne, “Refractive index dispersion of gallium lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 187–191 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. Brady, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, and D. Hewak, “Minimum loss predictions and measurements in gallium lanthanum sulphide based glasses and fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 92–98 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Light. Tech. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. Blom, D. vanDijk, H. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and T. Popma, “Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device,” App. Phys. Lett. 71, 747–749 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

T. Schweizer, D. Hewak, D. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Elec. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Gorodetsky, A. Savchenkov, and V. Ilchenko, “Ultimate Q of optical microsphere resonators,” Opt. Lett. 21, 453–455 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1969 (1)

E. Marcatili, “Bends in Optical Dielectric Guides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103–2132 (1969).

Aitken, B.

Amarnath, K.

Badding, J.

R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak, and J. Badding, “Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451–2455 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baumberg, J.

J. Requejo-Isidro, A. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. Hewak, M. Netti, and J. Baumberg, “Self refractive nonlinearities in chalcogenide based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241–246 (2003).
[Crossref]

Binsma, H.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe, and M. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206–209 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birtwell, S.

R. Curry, S. Birtwell, A. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. Hewak, “A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477–481 (2005).
[Crossref]

Blom, F.

F. Blom, D. vanDijk, H. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and T. Popma, “Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device,” App. Phys. Lett. 71, 747–749 (1997).
[Crossref]

Borrelli, N.

Brady, D.

D. Brady, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, and D. Hewak, “Minimum loss predictions and measurements in gallium lanthanum sulphide based glasses and fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 92–98 (1998).
[Crossref]

Cai, M.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77. (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. Vahala, and P. Sercel, “Fiber-coupled microsphere laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1430–1432 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Cai, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, “Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 686–687 (1999).
[Crossref]

Calhoun, L.

T. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. Calhoun, and P. Ho, “All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 15, 1422–1424 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chu, S.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Light. Tech. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Curry, R.

R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak, and J. Badding, “Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451–2455 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Curry, S. Birtwell, A. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. Hewak, “A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477–481 (2005).
[Crossref]

De Vries, T.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe, and M. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206–209 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Den Besten, J.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe, and M. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206–209 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorren, H.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe, and M. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206–209 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Driessen, A.

F. Blom, D. vanDijk, H. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and T. Popma, “Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device,” App. Phys. Lett. 71, 747–749 (1997).
[Crossref]

Eason, R.

R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak, and J. Badding, “Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451–2455 (2005).
[Crossref]

Elliott, S.

A. Zakery and S. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1–12 (2003).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

R. Curry, S. Birtwell, A. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. Hewak, “A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477–481 (2005).
[Crossref]

Foresi, J.

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Light. Tech. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fujino, S.

H. Yayama, S. Fujino, K. Morinaga, H. Takebe, D. Hewak, and D. Payne, “Refractive index dispersion of gallium lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 187–191 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gorodetsky, M.

Grivas, C.

R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak, and J. Badding, “Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451–2455 (2005).
[Crossref]

Grover, R.

T. Ibrahim, K. Amarnath, L. Kuo, R. Grover, V. Van, and P. Ho, “Photonic logic NOR gate based on two symmetric microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2779–2781 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. Calhoun, and P. Ho, “All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 15, 1422–1424 (2003).
[Crossref]

Grudinin, I.

I. Grudinin, A. Matsko, and L. Maleki. “On the fundamental limits of Q factor of crystalline dielectric resonators,” Opt Express 15, 3390–3395 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haus, H.

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics(second edition), (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Ma, 1987), Chap. 9.6.

Hewak, D.

R. Curry, S. Birtwell, A. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. Hewak, “A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477–481 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak, and J. Badding, “Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451–2455 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Requejo-Isidro, A. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. Hewak, M. Netti, and J. Baumberg, “Self refractive nonlinearities in chalcogenide based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241–246 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Brady, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, and D. Hewak, “Minimum loss predictions and measurements in gallium lanthanum sulphide based glasses and fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 92–98 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. Yayama, S. Fujino, K. Morinaga, H. Takebe, D. Hewak, and D. Payne, “Refractive index dispersion of gallium lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 187–191 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Schweizer, D. Hewak, D. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Elec. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hill, M.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe, and M. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206–209 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, P.

T. Ibrahim, K. Amarnath, L. Kuo, R. Grover, V. Van, and P. Ho, “Photonic logic NOR gate based on two symmetric microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2779–2781 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. Calhoun, and P. Ho, “All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 15, 1422–1424 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hoekstra, H.

F. Blom, D. vanDijk, H. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and T. Popma, “Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device,” App. Phys. Lett. 71, 747–749 (1997).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.

R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak, and J. Badding, “Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451–2455 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

T. Schweizer, D. Hewak, D. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Elec. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hunziker, G.

M. Cai, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, “Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 686–687 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ibrahim, T.

T. Ibrahim, K. Amarnath, L. Kuo, R. Grover, V. Van, and P. Ho, “Photonic logic NOR gate based on two symmetric microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2779–2781 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. Calhoun, and P. Ho, “All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 15, 1422–1424 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ilchenko, V.

Jensen, T.

T. Schweizer, D. Hewak, D. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Elec. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kanakaraju, S.

T. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. Calhoun, and P. Ho, “All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 15, 1422–1424 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kang, I.

Khoe, G.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe, and M. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206–209 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimerling, I.

Krauss, T.

Kuo, L.

T. Ibrahim, K. Amarnath, L. Kuo, R. Grover, V. Van, and P. Ho, “Photonic logic NOR gate based on two symmetric microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2779–2781 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. Calhoun, and P. Ho, “All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 15, 1422–1424 (2003).
[Crossref]

Laine, J.

Leijtens, X.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe, and M. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206–209 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, D.

Little, B.

Mairaj, A.

R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak, and J. Badding, “Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451–2455 (2005).
[Crossref]

R. Curry, S. Birtwell, A. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. Hewak, “A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477–481 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Requejo-Isidro, A. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. Hewak, M. Netti, and J. Baumberg, “Self refractive nonlinearities in chalcogenide based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241–246 (2003).
[Crossref]

Maleki, L.

I. Grudinin, A. Matsko, and L. Maleki. “On the fundamental limits of Q factor of crystalline dielectric resonators,” Opt Express 15, 3390–3395 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marcatili, E.

E. Marcatili, “Bends in Optical Dielectric Guides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103–2132 (1969).

Matsko, A.

I. Grudinin, A. Matsko, and L. Maleki. “On the fundamental limits of Q factor of crystalline dielectric resonators,” Opt Express 15, 3390–3395 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morinaga, K.

H. Yayama, S. Fujino, K. Morinaga, H. Takebe, D. Hewak, and D. Payne, “Refractive index dispersion of gallium lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 187–191 (1998).
[Crossref]

Netti, M.

J. Requejo-Isidro, A. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. Hewak, M. Netti, and J. Baumberg, “Self refractive nonlinearities in chalcogenide based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241–246 (2003).
[Crossref]

Oei, Y.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe, and M. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206–209 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Painter, O.

M. Cai, O. Painter, K. Vahala, and P. Sercel, “Fiber-coupled microsphere laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1430–1432 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77. (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Payne, D.

H. Yayama, S. Fujino, K. Morinaga, H. Takebe, D. Hewak, and D. Payne, “Refractive index dispersion of gallium lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 187–191 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Schweizer, D. Hewak, D. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Elec. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[Crossref]

Popma, T.

F. Blom, D. vanDijk, H. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and T. Popma, “Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device,” App. Phys. Lett. 71, 747–749 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pruneri, V.

J. Requejo-Isidro, A. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. Hewak, M. Netti, and J. Baumberg, “Self refractive nonlinearities in chalcogenide based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241–246 (2003).
[Crossref]

Requejo-Isidro, J.

J. Requejo-Isidro, A. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. Hewak, M. Netti, and J. Baumberg, “Self refractive nonlinearities in chalcogenide based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241–246 (2003).
[Crossref]

Savchenkov, A.

Schweizer, T.

D. Brady, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, and D. Hewak, “Minimum loss predictions and measurements in gallium lanthanum sulphide based glasses and fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 92–98 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Schweizer, D. Hewak, D. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Elec. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sercel, P.

Smalbrugge, B.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe, and M. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206–209 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smit, M.

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe, and M. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206–209 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takebe, H.

H. Yayama, S. Fujino, K. Morinaga, H. Takebe, D. Hewak, and D. Payne, “Refractive index dispersion of gallium lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 187–191 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tapalian, H.

Vahala, K.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77. (2000).
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M. Cai, O. Painter, K. Vahala, and P. Sercel, “Fiber-coupled microsphere laser,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1430–1432 (2000).
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M. Cai, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, “Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 686–687 (1999).
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vanDijk, D.

F. Blom, D. vanDijk, H. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and T. Popma, “Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device,” App. Phys. Lett. 71, 747–749 (1997).
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Wang, J.

D. Brady, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, and D. Hewak, “Minimum loss predictions and measurements in gallium lanthanum sulphide based glasses and fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 92–98 (1998).
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A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000).
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H. Yayama, S. Fujino, K. Morinaga, H. Takebe, D. Hewak, and D. Payne, “Refractive index dispersion of gallium lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 187–191 (1998).
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Zakery, A.

A. Zakery and S. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1–12 (2003).
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App. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. Blom, D. vanDijk, H. Hoekstra, A. Driessen, and T. Popma, “Experimental study of integrated-optics microcavity resonators: Toward an all-optical switching device,” App. Phys. Lett. 71, 747–749 (1997).
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Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. Marcatili, “Bends in Optical Dielectric Guides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103–2132 (1969).

Elec. Lett. (1)

T. Schweizer, D. Hewak, D. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Elec. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. (2)

M. Cai, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, “Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 11, 686–687 (1999).
[Crossref]

T. Ibrahim, R. Grover, L. Kuo, S. Kanakaraju, L. Calhoun, and P. Ho, “All-optical AND/NAND logic gates using semiconductor microresonators,” IEEE Phot. Tech. Lett. 15, 1422–1424 (2003).
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J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

R. Curry, A. Mairaj, C. Huang, R. Eason, C. Grivas, D. Hewak, and J. Badding, “Chalcogenide glass thin films and planar waveguides,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 88, 2451–2455 (2005).
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J. Light. Tech. (1)

B. Little, S. Chu, H. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Light. Tech. 15, 998–1005 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (5)

H. Yayama, S. Fujino, K. Morinaga, H. Takebe, D. Hewak, and D. Payne, “Refractive index dispersion of gallium lanthanum sulfide and oxysulfide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 187–191 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Requejo-Isidro, A. Mairaj, V. Pruneri, D. Hewak, M. Netti, and J. Baumberg, “Self refractive nonlinearities in chalcogenide based glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 317, 241–246 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Zakery and S. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1–12 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Brady, T. Schweizer, J. Wang, and D. Hewak, “Minimum loss predictions and measurements in gallium lanthanum sulphide based glasses and fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 92–98 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Curry, S. Birtwell, A. Mairaj, X. Feng, and D. Hewak, “A study of environmental effects on the attenuation of chalcogenide optical fibre,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 477–481 (2005).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

M. Hill, H. Dorren, T. De Vries, X. Leijtens, J. Den Besten, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Oei, H. Binsma, G. Khoe, and M. Smit, “A fast low-power optical memory based on coupled micro-ring lasers,” Nature 432, 206–209 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt Express (1)

I. Grudinin, A. Matsko, and L. Maleki. “On the fundamental limits of Q factor of crystalline dielectric resonators,” Opt Express 15, 3390–3395 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. Vahala, “Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74–77. (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E. Hecht, Optics(second edition), (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Ma, 1987), Chap. 9.6.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

An example of an Airy function describing the discrete whispering gallery modes. Showing full width half maximum (FWHM) and free spectral range (FSR)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Maximum theoretically possible Q as a function of wavelength, for two GLS glass compositions (red=GLSO, blue=GLS).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Small microspheres produced from blown dust, as collected from the furnace and prior to further processing.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental apparatus used for Q measurements.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

A microsphere with a diameter of 450um.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SEM pictures showing the particles that rolled (left) and did not roll (right) down the glass slope.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Weakly coupled spectra from a 100um diameter sphere plotted with the fitted spectra. Showing periodic nature of the spectrum (Left) and a close up of the fitted curve (right).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Strongly coupled spectra from a 100um diameter sphere plotted with the fitted spectra. Showing periodic nature of the spectrum (Left) and a close up of the fitted curve (right).

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Parameter values which make up the fitted spectra in Fig. 7

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameter values which make up the fitted spectra in Fig. 8

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A = 1 1 + F sin 2 ( k p n 2 )
F = ( 1 L ) 2 L 2
Q λ Δ λ
Q 1 = Q mat 1 + Q surf 1 + Q curv 1 + Q coupl 1
Q m a t 2 π n λ α
N = λ p λ p λ p 1 1
Q = kpn 2 L
kpn = 2 π λ p N λ
L N π Q
A = 1 1 + F sin 2 ( π λ p N λ )

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