Abstract

Silica micro-tube resonators were studied by using a prism-coupled method and act as refractive index sensing elements. Two types of refractive index sensing modes were observed experimentally by tuning the incident angles in the prism-coupled configuration. The resonance mode with sensitivity below 100nm/RIU is a result of the typical evanescent wave interaction with the fluid, while the mode with record high sensitivity of ~ 600nm/RIU is a form of non-evanescent wave with high optical field in the low index fluid region. An analysis of the field distribution of the resonance modes in the micro-tube also revealed the existence of high order modes with strong optical field inside the low index liquid core, which leads to the high index sensitivity. Theoretical calculation of the sensitivity for this specific mode obtained by the Mie scattering method is consistent with the experimental result. A ray optics picture is presented to elucidate the physical nature of this special resonance mode observed in the micro-tube resonator.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. W. Lukosz, "Integrated optical chemical and direct biochemical sensors," Sens. Actuators B,  29, 37-50 (1995)
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  3. C.Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "High Q-Factor Polymer Microring Resonators for Biochemical Sensing Applications," IEEE Special Topic in Quantum Electronics. 12, 134-142 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  4. C.Y. Chao and L.J. Guo, "Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527-1529 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. W. Boyd and J. E. Heebner "Sensitive Disk Resonator Photonic Biosensor," Appl. Opt. 40,5742-5747 (2001)
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. M. White, J.D. Suter, H. Oveys, X.D. Fan, "Universal coupling between metal-cald waveguide and optical ring resonators," Opt. Express,  15, 646-651 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-646
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, O.C. Aldridge, T.A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, B.E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washbun, M.S. Unlu and B.B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using Microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.,  12, 148-155 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  8. I.M. White, H. Oveys, X.D. Fan "Liquid-core optical ring-resonator sensors," Opt. Lett. 31, 1319-1321 (2006)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. Zamora, A. Díez, M.V. Andrés and B. Gimeno, "Refractometric sensor based on whispering gallery modes of thin capillaries," Opt. Exp. 15, 12011-12016(2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-19-12011
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Liang, Y.Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R.K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "High sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  11. C.F. Bohren, D.R. Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles (Wiley, 1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P.W. Barber, S.C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particles: Computational Methods (World Scientific 1990), Chapter 2. H.J. Moon, K.An, "Interferential coupling effect on the whispering-gallery mode lasing in a double-layered microcylinder,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3250-3252 (2002)
  13. H.J. Moon, K. An, "Interferential coupling effect on the whispering-gallery mode lasing in a double-layered microcylinder,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3250-3252 (2002)
    [CrossRef]

2007

2006

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, O.C. Aldridge, T.A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, B.E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washbun, M.S. Unlu and B.B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using Microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.,  12, 148-155 (2006)
[CrossRef]

I.M. White, H. Oveys, X.D. Fan "Liquid-core optical ring-resonator sensors," Opt. Lett. 31, 1319-1321 (2006)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "High Q-Factor Polymer Microring Resonators for Biochemical Sensing Applications," IEEE Special Topic in Quantum Electronics. 12, 134-142 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005

W. Liang, Y.Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R.K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "High sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005)
[CrossRef]

2003

C.Y. Chao and L.J. Guo, "Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527-1529 (2003)
[CrossRef]

2002

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002)
[CrossRef]

H.J. Moon, K. An, "Interferential coupling effect on the whispering-gallery mode lasing in a double-layered microcylinder,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3250-3252 (2002)
[CrossRef]

2001

1995

W. Lukosz, "Integrated optical chemical and direct biochemical sensors," Sens. Actuators B,  29, 37-50 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Aldridge, O.C.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, O.C. Aldridge, T.A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, B.E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washbun, M.S. Unlu and B.B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using Microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.,  12, 148-155 (2006)
[CrossRef]

An, K.

H.J. Moon, K. An, "Interferential coupling effect on the whispering-gallery mode lasing in a double-layered microcylinder,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3250-3252 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Anthes-Washbun, M.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, O.C. Aldridge, T.A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, B.E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washbun, M.S. Unlu and B.B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using Microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.,  12, 148-155 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Braun, D.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Chao, C.Y.

C.Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "High Q-Factor Polymer Microring Resonators for Biochemical Sensing Applications," IEEE Special Topic in Quantum Electronics. 12, 134-142 (2006)
[CrossRef]

C.Y. Chao and L.J. Guo, "Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527-1529 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, O.C. Aldridge, T.A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, B.E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washbun, M.S. Unlu and B.B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using Microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.,  12, 148-155 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Desai, T.A.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, O.C. Aldridge, T.A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, B.E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washbun, M.S. Unlu and B.B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using Microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.,  12, 148-155 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.D.

Fung, W.

C.Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "High Q-Factor Polymer Microring Resonators for Biochemical Sensing Applications," IEEE Special Topic in Quantum Electronics. 12, 134-142 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Gill, D.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, O.C. Aldridge, T.A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, B.E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washbun, M.S. Unlu and B.B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using Microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.,  12, 148-155 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B.B.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, O.C. Aldridge, T.A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, B.E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washbun, M.S. Unlu and B.B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using Microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.,  12, 148-155 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

C.Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "High Q-Factor Polymer Microring Resonators for Biochemical Sensing Applications," IEEE Special Topic in Quantum Electronics. 12, 134-142 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Guo, L.J.

C.Y. Chao and L.J. Guo, "Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527-1529 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Heebner, J. E.

Hryniewicz, J.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, O.C. Aldridge, T.A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, B.E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washbun, M.S. Unlu and B.B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using Microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.,  12, 148-155 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.Y.

W. Liang, Y.Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R.K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "High sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Khoshsima, M.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002)
[CrossRef]

King, O.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, O.C. Aldridge, T.A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, B.E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washbun, M.S. Unlu and B.B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using Microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.,  12, 148-155 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Lee, R.K.

W. Liang, Y.Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R.K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "High sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.

W. Liang, Y.Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R.K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "High sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Libchaber, A.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Little, B.E.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, O.C. Aldridge, T.A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, B.E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washbun, M.S. Unlu and B.B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using Microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.,  12, 148-155 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

W. Lukosz, "Integrated optical chemical and direct biochemical sensors," Sens. Actuators B,  29, 37-50 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Moon, H.J.

H.J. Moon, K. An, "Interferential coupling effect on the whispering-gallery mode lasing in a double-layered microcylinder,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3250-3252 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Oveys, H.

Popat, K.C.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, O.C. Aldridge, T.A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, B.E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washbun, M.S. Unlu and B.B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using Microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.,  12, 148-155 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Suter, J.D.

Teraoka, I.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Unlu, M.S.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, O.C. Aldridge, T.A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, B.E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washbun, M.S. Unlu and B.B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using Microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.,  12, 148-155 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Van, V.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, O.C. Aldridge, T.A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, B.E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washbun, M.S. Unlu and B.B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using Microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.,  12, 148-155 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002)
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

White, I.M.

Xu, Y.

W. Liang, Y.Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R.K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "High sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Yalcin, A.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, O.C. Aldridge, T.A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, B.E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washbun, M.S. Unlu and B.B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using Microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.,  12, 148-155 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

W. Liang, Y.Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R.K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "High sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, "Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4057-4059 (2002)
[CrossRef]

C.Y. Chao and L.J. Guo, "Biochemical sensors based on polymer microrings with sharp asymmetrical resonance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1527-1529 (2003)
[CrossRef]

W. Liang, Y.Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R.K. Lee, and A. Yariv, "High sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122 (2005)
[CrossRef]

H.J. Moon, K. An, "Interferential coupling effect on the whispering-gallery mode lasing in a double-layered microcylinder,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 80,3250-3252 (2002)
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. Yalcin, K.C. Popat, O.C. Aldridge, T.A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, B.E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washbun, M.S. Unlu and B.B. Goldberg, "Optical sensing of biomolecules using Microring resonators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.,  12, 148-155 (2006)
[CrossRef]

IEEE Special Topic in Quantum Electronics.

C.Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, "High Q-Factor Polymer Microring Resonators for Biochemical Sensing Applications," IEEE Special Topic in Quantum Electronics. 12, 134-142 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Sens. Actuators B

W. Lukosz, "Integrated optical chemical and direct biochemical sensors," Sens. Actuators B,  29, 37-50 (1995)
[CrossRef]

Other

V. Zamora, A. Díez, M.V. Andrés and B. Gimeno, "Refractometric sensor based on whispering gallery modes of thin capillaries," Opt. Exp. 15, 12011-12016(2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-19-12011
[CrossRef]

C.F. Bohren, D.R. Huffman, Absorption and scattering of light by small particles (Wiley, 1998).
[CrossRef]

P.W. Barber, S.C. Hill, Light Scattering by Particles: Computational Methods (World Scientific 1990), Chapter 2. H.J. Moon, K.An, "Interferential coupling effect on the whispering-gallery mode lasing in a double-layered microcylinder,"Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3250-3252 (2002)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig.1 .
Fig.1 .

he schematic of the experimental setup

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Resonance curve shift due to the change of liquid refractive index in the micro-tube. (b) Resonance wavelength as a function of the change in liquid refractive index in the micro-tube at an incident angle of 37.5o

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Resonance curve shift due to the change of liquid refractive index in the microtube, and (b) resonance wavelength shift as a function of the change in liquid refractive index at an incident angle of ~35 degree.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Radial electrical field intensity distribution for the resonance mode E 35 r714. (b) Resonance wavelength shift related to liquid’s refractive index change for the resonance mode E 35 r714

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Radial electrical field intensity distribution for resonance mode E r 37 700, (b) Resonance wavelength shift related to liquid’s refractive index change for resonance mode E 37 r700

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The schematic ray picture of resonance mode with light transmitted into the inner boundary.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n = κ · n IPA 2 + ( 1 κ ) · n water 2
H z = { A J m ( n 1 k 0 r ) 0 < r R 1 [ B J m ( n 2 k 0 r ) + C N m ( n 2 k 0 r ) ] R 1 < r R 2 D H m ( 1 ) ( n 3 k 0 r ) R 2 r <
n 1 J m ( k 0 n 1 R 1 ) n 2 J m ( k 0 n 1 R 1 ) = ( B C ) J m ( k 0 n 2 R 1 ) + N m ( k 0 n 2 R 1 ) ( B C ) J m ( k 0 n 2 R 1 ) + N m ( k 0 n 2 R 1 )
E r = m ω ε o ε r r H z
E ϕ = 1 i ω ε o ε r H z r
H z = H z inc . + H z scat .
sin ( π θ 1 ) R 2 = sin θ 2 R 1 , sin θ 1 < n 1 n 2 and sin θ 2 > n 3 n 2
1 Q = 1 Q radiation + 1 Q absorption + 1 Q scattering

Metrics