Abstract

Symmetric directional emission of light from multisphere photonic molecules is experimentally shown in this work. The photonic molecules are illuminated in the vertical direction with a defocused laser beam. The emission is attributed to photonic nanojets generated in the structure. Furthermore, spectral analysis exhibit whispering gallery mode resonances of coupled and uncoupled modes. A benzene molecule-like structure consisting of a 7-microspheres cyclic photonic molecule shows a field emission pattern similar to the spatial distribution of the orbitals of the benzene molecule.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature 424, 839 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Bayer, T. Gudbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, and P. A. Knipp, "Optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. V. Boriskina, "Theoretical prediction of a dramatic Q-factor enhancement and degeneracy removal of whispering gallery modes in symmetrical photonic molecules," Opt. Lett. 31, 338 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. I. Smotrova, A. I. Nosich, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, "Threshold reduction in a cyclic photonic molecule laser composed of identical microdisks with whispering-gallery modes", Opt. Lett. 31, 921 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. V. Boriskina, "Spectrally engineered photonic molecules as optical sensors with enhanced sensitivity: a proposal and numerical analysis," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 1565 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, "Photonic molecules made of matched and mismatched microcavities: new functionalities of microlasers and optoelectronic components," Proceedings of SPIE, Laser Resonators and Beam Control IX6452, (2007).
  7. V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, "Optical coupling and transport phenomena in chains of spherical dielectric microresonators with size disorder," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Moeller, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, "Photons in coupled microsphere resonators," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S113 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, "Photonic nanojet enhancement of backscattering of light by nanoparticles: a potential novel visible-light ultramicroscopy technique," Opt. Exp. 12, 1214 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. M. Kapitonov and V. N. Astratov, "Observation of nanjet-induced modes with small propagation losses in chains of coupled spherical cavities," Opt. Lett. 32, 409 (2007).
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  12. S. Lecler, Y. Takakura, and P. Meyrueis, "Properties of a three-dimensional photonic jet," Opt. Lett. 30, 2641 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. A. V. Itagi and W. A. Challenger, "Optics of photonic nanojets," Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2847 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Thio, "Coaxing light into small spaces," Nature Nanotechnology 2, 136 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. S. Lin, "Variational analysis for photonic molecules: Application to photonic benzene waveguides," Phys. Rev. E 68, 0336611 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, "3D Wire Mesh Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y.P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E.M. McCabe, J.F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Whispering Gallery Mode Emission from a Composite System of CdTe Nanocrystals and a Spherical Microcavity," Sem. Sci. Tech. 18, 914 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. Le Thomas, U. Woggon, W. Langbein, and M. V. Artemyev, "Effect of a dielectric substrate on whispering-gallery-mode sensors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 2361 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Chylek, H.-B. Lin, J. D. Eversole, and A. J. Campillo, "Absorption effects on microdroplet resonant emission structure," Opt. Lett. 16, 1723 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, "Photonic molecules made of matched and mismatched microcavities: new functionalities of microlasers and optoelectronic components," Proceedings of SPIE, Laser Resonators and Beam Control IX6452, (2007).

T. Thio, "Coaxing light into small spaces," Nature Nanotechnology 2, 136 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Kapitonov and V. N. Astratov, "Observation of nanjet-induced modes with small propagation losses in chains of coupled spherical cavities," Opt. Lett. 32, 409 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, "Photonic nanojet enhancement of backscattering of light by nanoparticles: a potential novel visible-light ultramicroscopy technique," Opt. Exp. 12, 1214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, "Optical coupling and transport phenomena in chains of spherical dielectric microresonators with size disorder," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Lin, "Variational analysis for photonic molecules: Application to photonic benzene waveguides," Phys. Rev. E 68, 0336611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y.P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E.M. McCabe, J.F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Whispering Gallery Mode Emission from a Composite System of CdTe Nanocrystals and a Spherical Microcavity," Sem. Sci. Tech. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Bayer, T. Gudbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, and P. A. Knipp, "Optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, "3D Wire Mesh Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

Artemyev, M. V.

N. Le Thomas, U. Woggon, W. Langbein, and M. V. Artemyev, "Effect of a dielectric substrate on whispering-gallery-mode sensors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 2361 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Moeller, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, "Photons in coupled microsphere resonators," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ashili, S. P.

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, "Optical coupling and transport phenomena in chains of spherical dielectric microresonators with size disorder," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Astratov, V. N.

A. M. Kapitonov and V. N. Astratov, "Observation of nanjet-induced modes with small propagation losses in chains of coupled spherical cavities," Opt. Lett. 32, 409 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, "Optical coupling and transport phenomena in chains of spherical dielectric microresonators with size disorder," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, "Photonic nanojet enhancement of backscattering of light by nanoparticles: a potential novel visible-light ultramicroscopy technique," Opt. Exp. 12, 1214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, M.

M. Bayer, T. Gudbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, and P. A. Knipp, "Optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benson, T. M.

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, "Photonic molecules made of matched and mismatched microcavities: new functionalities of microlasers and optoelectronic components," Proceedings of SPIE, Laser Resonators and Beam Control IX6452, (2007).

E. I. Smotrova, A. I. Nosich, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, "Threshold reduction in a cyclic photonic molecule laser composed of identical microdisks with whispering-gallery modes", Opt. Lett. 31, 921 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boland, J. J.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boriskina, S. V.

Bradley, A. L.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campillo, A. J.

Challenger, W. A.

A. V. Itagi and W. A. Challenger, "Optics of photonic nanojets," Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, "Photonic nanojet enhancement of backscattering of light by nanoparticles: a potential novel visible-light ultramicroscopy technique," Opt. Exp. 12, 1214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chylek, P.

Connolly, T. M.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Donegan, J. F.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Donegan, J.F.

Y.P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E.M. McCabe, J.F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Whispering Gallery Mode Emission from a Composite System of CdTe Nanocrystals and a Spherical Microcavity," Sem. Sci. Tech. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eversole, J. D.

Forchel, A.

M. Bayer, T. Gudbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, and P. A. Knipp, "Optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Franchak, J. P.

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, "Optical coupling and transport phenomena in chains of spherical dielectric microresonators with size disorder," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gaponik, N.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E.M. McCabe, J.F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Whispering Gallery Mode Emission from a Composite System of CdTe Nanocrystals and a Spherical Microcavity," Sem. Sci. Tech. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gerlach, M.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gudbrod, T.

M. Bayer, T. Gudbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, and P. A. Knipp, "Optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Itagi, A. V.

A. V. Itagi and W. A. Challenger, "Optics of photonic nanojets," Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kapitonov, A. M.

Knipp, P. A.

M. Bayer, T. Gudbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, and P. A. Knipp, "Optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Langbein, W.

Le Thomas, N.

Lecler, S.

Lin, B. S.

B. S. Lin, "Variational analysis for photonic molecules: Application to photonic benzene waveguides," Phys. Rev. E 68, 0336611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-B.

McCabe, E.M.

Y.P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E.M. McCabe, J.F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Whispering Gallery Mode Emission from a Composite System of CdTe Nanocrystals and a Spherical Microcavity," Sem. Sci. Tech. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meyrueis, P.

Moeller, B.

B. Moeller, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, "Photons in coupled microsphere resonators," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moore, A.

Y.P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E.M. McCabe, J.F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Whispering Gallery Mode Emission from a Composite System of CdTe Nanocrystals and a Spherical Microcavity," Sem. Sci. Tech. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nosich, A. I.

Perova, T.

Y.P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E.M. McCabe, J.F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Whispering Gallery Mode Emission from a Composite System of CdTe Nanocrystals and a Spherical Microcavity," Sem. Sci. Tech. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rakovich, Y. P.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rakovich, Y.P.

Y.P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E.M. McCabe, J.F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Whispering Gallery Mode Emission from a Composite System of CdTe Nanocrystals and a Spherical Microcavity," Sem. Sci. Tech. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reinecke, T. L.

M. Bayer, T. Gudbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, and P. A. Knipp, "Optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Reithmaier, J. P.

M. Bayer, T. Gudbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, and P. A. Knipp, "Optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rogach, A.

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E.M. McCabe, J.F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Whispering Gallery Mode Emission from a Composite System of CdTe Nanocrystals and a Spherical Microcavity," Sem. Sci. Tech. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sewell, P.

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, "Photonic molecules made of matched and mismatched microcavities: new functionalities of microlasers and optoelectronic components," Proceedings of SPIE, Laser Resonators and Beam Control IX6452, (2007).

E. I. Smotrova, A. I. Nosich, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, "Threshold reduction in a cyclic photonic molecule laser composed of identical microdisks with whispering-gallery modes", Opt. Lett. 31, 921 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sickmiller, M. E.

D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, "3D Wire Mesh Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sievenpiper, D. F.

D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, "3D Wire Mesh Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smotrova, E. I.

Taflove, A.

Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, "Photonic nanojet enhancement of backscattering of light by nanoparticles: a potential novel visible-light ultramicroscopy technique," Opt. Exp. 12, 1214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takakura, Y.

Thio, T.

T. Thio, "Coaxing light into small spaces," Nature Nanotechnology 2, 136 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woggon, U.

B. Moeller, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, "Photons in coupled microsphere resonators," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Le Thomas, U. Woggon, W. Langbein, and M. V. Artemyev, "Effect of a dielectric substrate on whispering-gallery-mode sensors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 2361 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, "3D Wire Mesh Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

Y.P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E.M. McCabe, J.F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Whispering Gallery Mode Emission from a Composite System of CdTe Nanocrystals and a Spherical Microcavity," Sem. Sci. Tech. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. N. Astratov, J. P. Franchak, and S. P. Ashili, "Optical coupling and transport phenomena in chains of spherical dielectric microresonators with size disorder," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5508 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

B. Moeller, U. Woggon, and M. V. Artemyev, "Photons in coupled microsphere resonators," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, S113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Laser Resonators and Beam Control (1)

S. V. Boriskina, T. M. Benson, and P. Sewell, "Photonic molecules made of matched and mismatched microcavities: new functionalities of microlasers and optoelectronic components," Proceedings of SPIE, Laser Resonators and Beam Control IX6452, (2007).

Nature (1)

K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature 424, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Nanotechnology (1)

T. Thio, "Coaxing light into small spaces," Nature Nanotechnology 2, 136 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp. (1)

Z. Chen, A. Taflove, and V. Backman, "Photonic nanojet enhancement of backscattering of light by nanoparticles: a potential novel visible-light ultramicroscopy technique," Opt. Exp. 12, 1214 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

A. V. Itagi and W. A. Challenger, "Optics of photonic nanojets," Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 2847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Y. P. Rakovich, J. F. Donegan, M. Gerlach, A. L. Bradley, T. M. Connolly, J. J. Boland, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Fine structure of coupled optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. A 70, 051801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

B. S. Lin, "Variational analysis for photonic molecules: Application to photonic benzene waveguides," Phys. Rev. E 68, 0336611 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, "3D Wire Mesh Photonic Crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bayer, T. Gudbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, and P. A. Knipp, "Optical modes in photonic molecules," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2582 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sem. Sci. Tech. (1)

Y.P. Rakovich, L. Yang, E.M. McCabe, J.F. Donegan, T. Perova, A. Moore, N. Gaponik, and A. Rogach, "Whispering Gallery Mode Emission from a Composite System of CdTe Nanocrystals and a Spherical Microcavity," Sem. Sci. Tech. 18, 914 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

left: Photonic nanojets generated by laser illumination of a triangular photonic molecule. The far-field emission is visible due to reflection from the Si-substrate. The length scale in the frame is in micro-metres. Inset top right: Image of the tri-sphere photonic molecule in white light. The crosshair indicates the focus position of the laser. Inset bottom right: A merged image of the triangular structure under laser illumination and under white light, showing the spatial distribution of the emission within the structure. Right: Image shown in inverse colours. Dark colours indicate high intensities.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

left: Triangular photonic molecule with attached single sphere. Light is coupled into the attached sphere by nanojet coupling. Inset top right: Image of the triangular photonic molecule with attached sphere in white light. The crosshair indicates the focus position of the laser. Inset bottom right: A merged image of the triangular structure with attached sphere under laser illumination and under white light, showing the spatial distribution of the emission within the structure. Right: Image shown in inverse colours. Dark colours indicate high intensities.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

left: 5-sphere ring photonic molecule without a sphere in the centre. The photonic molecule shows symmetrical directional emission. Inset top right: Image of 5-sphere cyclic photonic molecule in white light. The crosshair indicates the focus position of the laser. Inset bottom right: A merged image of the 5-sphere cyclic photonic molecule under laser illumination and under white light, showing the spatial distribution of the emission within the structure. Right: Image shown in inverse colours. Dark colours indicate high intensities.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

left: A 7-sphere cyclic photonic molecule which shows strong similarities to a benzene ring structure of a chemical benzene molecule. Inset top right: Image of 7-sphere cyclic photonic molecule in white light. The crosshair indicates the focus position of the laser. Inset bottom right: A merged image of the 7-sphere cyclic photonic molecule under laser illumination and under white light, showing the spatial distribution of the emission within the structure. Right: Image shown in inverse colours. Dark colours indicate high intensities.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Emission spectra of a single sphere (a), a triangular structure (b), a 5-sphere ring (c) and a 7-sphere cyclic photonic molecule (d). The microspheres have a nominal diameter of 5.374µm. The red arrows in (b) indicate additional peaks in the coupled spectrum compared to the single sphere spectrum.

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