Abstract

An optical modulator design based upon anti-crossing between coupled silicon microrings with independent amplitude and phase functionality is presented. The device exhibits over 25x improvement in sensitivity to an input drive signal when compared with previously studied microring modulators based on control of waveguide-resonator coupling. The new design also demonstrates an ON-OFF contrast of 14 dB, and has an ultra-compact footprint of 0.003 mm2. The observed sensitivity enhancement suggests that this modulator may be driven directly by digital CMOS electrical signals with less than 1 V amplitude.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express13, 3129–3135 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-8-3129
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. Q. Xu, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Direct measurement of tunable optical delays on chip analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express14, 6463–6468 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-14-6463
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nature Photonics 1, 65–71 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. E. Heebner, V. Wong, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Jackson, “Optical transmission characteristics of fiber ring resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 726–730 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

M. T. Hill, X. J. M. Leijtens, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, “Optimizing imbalance and loss in 2 x 2 3-dB multimode interference couplers via access waveguide width,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2305–2313 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483–485 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 6, 1312–1317 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Analui, B.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[Crossref]

Basak, J.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed silicon modulator for future VLSI interconnect,” in OSA Topical Meeting on Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper IMD3.
[PubMed]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, J. A. Kash, and Y. Vlasov, “On-chip photonic communication for high-performance multi-core processors,” presented at the Eleventh Annual Workshop on High Performance Embedded Computing, Lexington, MA, 18–20 Sept. 2007.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “On the design of a photonic network on chip,” in Proceedings of the First IEEE International Symposium on Networks-on-Chips (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), pp. 53–64.
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

J. E. Heebner, V. Wong, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Jackson, “Optical transmission characteristics of fiber ring resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 726–730 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. E. Heebner and R. W. Boyd, “Enhanced all-optical switching by use of a nonlinear fiber ring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 24, 847–849 (1999).
[Crossref]

Carloni, L. P.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “On the design of a photonic network on chip,” in Proceedings of the First IEEE International Symposium on Networks-on-Chips (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), pp. 53–64.
[Crossref]

K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, J. A. Kash, and Y. Vlasov, “On-chip photonic communication for high-performance multi-core processors,” presented at the Eleventh Annual Workshop on High Performance Embedded Computing, Lexington, MA, 18–20 Sept. 2007.

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed silicon modulator for future VLSI interconnect,” in OSA Topical Meeting on Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper IMD3.
[PubMed]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15, 660–668 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-660
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, M. K.

S. Darmawan, Y. M. Landobasa, and M. K. Chin, “Phase engineering for ring enhanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Express13, 4580–4588 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4580
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ciftcioglu, B.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15, 660–668 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-660
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, R.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed silicon modulator for future VLSI interconnect,” in OSA Topical Meeting on Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper IMD3.
[PubMed]

Darmawan, S.

S. Darmawan, Y. M. Landobasa, and M. K. Chin, “Phase engineering for ring enhanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Express13, 4580–4588 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4580
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeRose, G. A.

W. M. J. Green, R. K. Lee, G. A. DeRose, A. Scherer, and A. Yariv, “Hybrid InGaAsP-InP Mach-Zehnder Racetrack Resonator for Thermooptic Switching and Coupling Control,” Opt. Express13, 1651–1659 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-5-1651
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emerson, N. G.

F. Y Gardes, G. T. Reed, N. G. Emerson, and C. E. Png, “A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in Silicon On Insulator,” Opt. Express13, 8845–8854 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-8845
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franck, T.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express13, 3129–3135 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-8-3129
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardes, F. Y

F. Y Gardes, G. T. Reed, N. G. Emerson, and C. E. Png, “A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in Silicon On Insulator,” Opt. Express13, 8845–8854 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-8845
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, W. M. J.

W. M. J. Green, R. K. Lee, G. A. DeRose, A. Scherer, and A. Yariv, “Hybrid InGaAsP-InP Mach-Zehnder Racetrack Resonator for Thermooptic Switching and Coupling Control,” Opt. Express13, 1651–1659 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-5-1651
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon modulator based on anti-crossing between paired amplitude and phase tunable microring resonators,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuQ3.
[PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), Postdeadline paper PD1.2.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express15, 17106–17113 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-25-17106
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guckenberger, D.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[Crossref]

Heebner, J. E.

J. E. Heebner, V. Wong, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Jackson, “Optical transmission characteristics of fiber ring resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 726–730 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. E. Heebner and R. W. Boyd, “Enhanced all-optical switching by use of a nonlinear fiber ring resonator,” Opt. Lett. 24, 847–849 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hill, M. T.

Hodge, D.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express13, 3129–3135 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-8-3129
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izhaky, N.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed silicon modulator for future VLSI interconnect,” in OSA Topical Meeting on Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper IMD3.
[PubMed]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15, 660–668 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-660
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jackson, D. J.

J. E. Heebner, V. Wong, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Jackson, “Optical transmission characteristics of fiber ring resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 726–730 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kash, J. A.

K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, J. A. Kash, and Y. Vlasov, “On-chip photonic communication for high-performance multi-core processors,” presented at the Eleventh Annual Workshop on High Performance Embedded Computing, Lexington, MA, 18–20 Sept. 2007.

Keil, U.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express13, 3129–3135 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-8-3129
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khoe, G. D.

Kippenberg, T. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kucharski, D.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[Crossref]

Landobasa, Y. M.

S. Darmawan, Y. M. Landobasa, and M. K. Chin, “Phase engineering for ring enhanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Express13, 4580–4588 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4580
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, R. K.

W. M. J. Green, R. K. Lee, G. A. DeRose, A. Scherer, and A. Yariv, “Hybrid InGaAsP-InP Mach-Zehnder Racetrack Resonator for Thermooptic Switching and Coupling Control,” Opt. Express13, 1651–1659 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-5-1651
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leijtens, X. J. M.

Li, C. L.

C. L. Li, L. Zhou, and A. W. Poon, “Silicon microring carrier-injection-based modulators/switches with tunable extinction ratios and OR-logic switching by using waveguide cross-coupling,” Opt. Express15, 5069–5076 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-8-5069
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15, 660–668 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-660
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed silicon modulator for future VLSI interconnect,” in OSA Topical Meeting on Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper IMD3.
[PubMed]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express13, 3129–3135 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-8-3129
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express15, 430–436 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-430
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, and M. Lipson, “PINIP based high-speed high-extinction ratio micron-size silicon electrooptic modulator,” Opt. Express15, 13035–13042 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-20-13035
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Direct measurement of tunable optical delays on chip analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express14, 6463–6468 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-14-6463
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express13, 3129–3135 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-8-3129
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15, 660–668 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-660
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed silicon modulator for future VLSI interconnect,” in OSA Topical Meeting on Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper IMD3.
[PubMed]

Manipatruni, S.

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, and M. Lipson, “PINIP based high-speed high-extinction ratio micron-size silicon electrooptic modulator,” Opt. Express15, 13035–13042 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-20-13035
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express15, 430–436 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-430
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express12, 1622–1631 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1622
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express11, 2927–2939 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-22-2927
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 6, 1312–1317 (2000).
[Crossref]

Moll, N.

S. J. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express11, 2927–2939 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-22-2927
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morse, M.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express13, 3129–3135 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-8-3129
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narasimha, A.

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, H.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15, 660–668 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-660
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed silicon modulator for future VLSI interconnect,” in OSA Topical Meeting on Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper IMD3.
[PubMed]

Painter, O. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed silicon modulator for future VLSI interconnect,” in OSA Topical Meeting on Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper IMD3.
[PubMed]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15, 660–668 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-660
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Png, C. E.

F. Y Gardes, G. T. Reed, N. G. Emerson, and C. E. Png, “A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in Silicon On Insulator,” Opt. Express13, 8845–8854 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-8845
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poon, A. W.

C. L. Li, L. Zhou, and A. W. Poon, “Silicon microring carrier-injection-based modulators/switches with tunable extinction ratios and OR-logic switching by using waveguide cross-coupling,” Opt. Express15, 5069–5076 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-8-5069
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Povinelli, M. L.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reed, G. T.

F. Y Gardes, G. T. Reed, N. G. Emerson, and C. E. Png, “A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in Silicon On Insulator,” Opt. Express13, 8845–8854 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-8845
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rooks, M. J.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express15, 17106–17113 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-25-17106
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), Postdeadline paper PD1.2.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon modulator based on anti-crossing between paired amplitude and phase tunable microring resonators,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuQ3.
[PubMed]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15, 660–668 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-660
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed silicon modulator for future VLSI interconnect,” in OSA Topical Meeting on Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper IMD3.
[PubMed]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express13, 3129–3135 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-8-3129
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express13, 3129–3135 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-8-3129
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sandhu, S.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

W. M. J. Green, R. K. Lee, G. A. DeRose, A. Scherer, and A. Yariv, “Hybrid InGaAsP-InP Mach-Zehnder Racetrack Resonator for Thermooptic Switching and Coupling Control,” Opt. Express13, 1651–1659 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-5-1651
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express15, 430–436 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-430
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweinsberg, A.

J. E. Heebner, V. Wong, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Jackson, “Optical transmission characteristics of fiber ring resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 726–730 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nature Photonics 1, 65–71 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), Postdeadline paper PD1.2.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express15, 17106–17113 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-25-17106
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon modulator based on anti-crossing between paired amplitude and phase tunable microring resonators,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuQ3.
[PubMed]

Shacham, A.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “On the design of a photonic network on chip,” in Proceedings of the First IEEE International Symposium on Networks-on-Chips (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), pp. 53–64.
[Crossref]

Shakya, J.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Direct measurement of tunable optical delays on chip analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express14, 6463–6468 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-14-6463
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express15, 430–436 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-430
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smit, M. K.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Spillane, S. M.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nature Photonics 1, 65–71 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, J. A. Kash, and Y. Vlasov, “On-chip photonic communication for high-performance multi-core processors,” presented at the Eleventh Annual Workshop on High Performance Embedded Computing, Lexington, MA, 18–20 Sept. 2007.

Vlasov, Y. A.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express15, 17106–17113 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-25-17106
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), Postdeadline paper PD1.2.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon modulator based on anti-crossing between paired amplitude and phase tunable microring resonators,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuQ3.
[PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express12, 1622–1631 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1622
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express11, 2927–2939 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-22-2927
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, V.

J. E. Heebner, V. Wong, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Jackson, “Optical transmission characteristics of fiber ring resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 726–730 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nature Photonics 1, 65–71 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express15, 430–436 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-430
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, and M. Lipson, “PINIP based high-speed high-extinction ratio micron-size silicon electrooptic modulator,” Opt. Express15, 13035–13042 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-20-13035
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Direct measurement of tunable optical delays on chip analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express14, 6463–6468 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-14-6463
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483–485 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. M. J. Green, R. K. Lee, G. A. DeRose, A. Scherer, and A. Yariv, “Hybrid InGaAsP-InP Mach-Zehnder Racetrack Resonator for Thermooptic Switching and Coupling Control,” Opt. Express13, 1651–1659 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-5-1651
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

C. L. Li, L. Zhou, and A. W. Poon, “Silicon microring carrier-injection-based modulators/switches with tunable extinction ratios and OR-logic switching by using waveguide cross-coupling,” Opt. Express15, 5069–5076 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-8-5069
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36, 321–322 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. E. Heebner, V. Wong, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, and D. J. Jackson, “Optical transmission characteristics of fiber ring resonators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 726–730 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 6, 1312–1317 (2000).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

B. Analui, D. Guckenberger, D. Kucharski, and A. Narasimha, “A fully integrated 20-Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13-µm CMOS SOI technology,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2945–2955 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483–485 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435, 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Photonics (1)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nature Photonics 1, 65–71 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 123901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, O. J. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, “Ideality in a fiber-taper-coupled microresonator system for application to cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 043902 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (18)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide,” Opt. Express15, 660–668 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-660
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “High-speed silicon modulator for future VLSI interconnect,” in OSA Topical Meeting on Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper IMD3.
[PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Silicon modulator based on anti-crossing between paired amplitude and phase tunable microring resonators,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuQ3.
[PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, R. K. Lee, G. A. DeRose, A. Scherer, and A. Yariv, “Hybrid InGaAsP-InP Mach-Zehnder Racetrack Resonator for Thermooptic Switching and Coupling Control,” Opt. Express13, 1651–1659 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-5-1651
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Li, L. Zhou, and A. W. Poon, “Silicon microring carrier-injection-based modulators/switches with tunable extinction ratios and OR-logic switching by using waveguide cross-coupling,” Opt. Express15, 5069–5076 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-8-5069
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express15, 430–436 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-430
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, and M. Lipson, “PINIP based high-speed high-extinction ratio micron-size silicon electrooptic modulator,” Opt. Express15, 13035–13042 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-20-13035
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express15, 17106–17113 (2007). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-25-17106
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers & Electro-Optics Society (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), Postdeadline paper PD1.2.

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS 2006). http://www.itrs.net/

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “On the design of a photonic network on chip,” in Proceedings of the First IEEE International Symposium on Networks-on-Chips (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), pp. 53–64.
[Crossref]

K. Bergman, L. P. Carloni, J. A. Kash, and Y. Vlasov, “On-chip photonic communication for high-performance multi-core processors,” presented at the Eleventh Annual Workshop on High Performance Embedded Computing, Lexington, MA, 18–20 Sept. 2007.

Q. Xu, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Direct measurement of tunable optical delays on chip analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Opt. Express14, 6463–6468 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-14-6463
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Darmawan, Y. M. Landobasa, and M. K. Chin, “Phase engineering for ring enhanced Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Express13, 4580–4588 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4580
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express12, 1622–1631 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1622
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express11, 2927–2939 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-22-2927
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Y Gardes, G. T. Reed, N. G. Emerson, and C. E. Png, “A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in Silicon On Insulator,” Opt. Express13, 8845–8854 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-8845
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express13, 3129–3135 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-8-3129
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustrations of various modulators based on control of waveguide-resonator coupling. (a) Side-coupled racetrack resonator interacting with a bus waveguide via a generalized variable power coupler, (b) single amplitude resonator (SAR) modulator, (c) paired amplitude phase resonator (PAPR) modulator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical microscope images of fabricated SOI modulator devices. (a) Paired amplitude phase resonator (PAPR) modulator, (b) single amplitude resonator (SAR) modulator. Red circles indicate “control terminal” locations at which an Ar-ion pump laser is focused for optical injection of free carriers. Inset: SEM image of the 3 dB multimode interference coupler.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Series of PAPR modulator transmission spectra, obtained as a function of increasing Ar-ion pump laser power incident upon the phase resonator. Interaction with the phase resonance results in large modulation of transmission at the amplitude resonance. Spectra are vertically offset from one another for visibility.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Comparison of relative transmission at zero detuning through the PAPR and SAR modulator devices, as a function of incident Ar laser power. (b) Temporal modulation of transmission through a PAPR device. Inset: Rapid signal attenuation occurs with a fall time of ~60 ps.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulated PAPR transmission map, showing anti-crossing behavior near the joint amplitude-phase resonance condition. The colorbar on the right labels the normalized transmitted power.

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