Abstract

We propose a novel concept for creating high-Q cavities in photonic crystal slabs (PCS). These cavities are formed by depositing a polymer layer on top of a photonic crystal membrane fabricated in a high index semiconductor slab. We show that such multilayer structures exhibit a mode-gap and can yield high-Q microcavities with quality factors of Q~106. This allows the cavity to be created by polymer processing, following the much more demanding semiconductor processing that is used to generate a uniform PCS. Depending on the polymer used, these structures can be additionally tuned using photosensitivity or the electro-optic effect.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Asano, B.S. Song, and S. Noda, "Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, "Ultrasmall multi-channel resonant-tunneling filter using mode-gap of width-tuned photonic-crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 4202-4209 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M.J. Steel, C.M. de Sterke and J. Salzman, "Diamond based photonic crystal microcavities," Opt. Express 14, 3556-3562 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. R. van der Heijden, C.F. Carlström, J.A.P. Snijders, R.W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H.W.M. Salemink, B.K.C. Kjellander, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88161112 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L.A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C.L.C. Smith, D.K.C. Wu, M.W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen and Y.-H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M.W. Lee, C.L.C. Smith, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan and Y.-H. Lee, "Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 1277-1285 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete pohotonic band gap in chalcogenide glasses," Adv. Mater. 18, 265-269 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. Vydra, H Beisingoff, T. Tschudi and M. Eich, "Photodecay mechanisms in side chain nonlinear optical polymethacrylates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69,1035-1037 (1996).
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  13. A. Zakery, and S.R. Elliot, "Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 330, 1-12 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B.S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, "Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4591-4593 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B.S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Tanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C.M. de Sterke, and M.J. Steel, "Design of high-Q cavities in photonic crystal slab heterostructures by air-holes infiltration," Opt. Express 14, 12451-12456 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C. M. de Sterke and D. J. Moss, "High-Q cavities in photosensitive photonic crystals," Opt. Lett. 32, 542-544 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M.N.J. Diemeer, "Polymeric thermo-optic space switch for optical communications," Opt. Mater. 9,192-200 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R.M. Ridder, A. Driessen, E. Rikkers, P.V. Lambeck, and M.N.J. Diemeer, "Design and fabrication of electro-optic polymer modulators and switches," Opt. Mater. 12, 205-214 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  22. V.A. Mandelshtam and H.S. Taylor, "Harmonic inversion of time signals," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 6756-6769 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2007

C.L.C. Smith, D.K.C. Wu, M.W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen and Y.-H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.W. Lee, C.L.C. Smith, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan and Y.-H. Lee, "Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 1277-1285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, "Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities," Nature Photonics 1, 449-458 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C. M. de Sterke and D. J. Moss, "High-Q cavities in photosensitive photonic crystals," Opt. Lett. 32, 542-544 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C.M. de Sterke, and M.J. Steel, "Design of high-Q cavities in photonic crystal slab heterostructures by air-holes infiltration," Opt. Express 14, 12451-12456 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Tanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete pohotonic band gap in chalcogenide glasses," Adv. Mater. 18, 265-269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. van der Heijden, C.F. Carlström, J.A.P. Snijders, R.W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H.W.M. Salemink, B.K.C. Kjellander, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L.A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Asano, B.S. Song, and S. Noda, "Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M.J. Steel, C.M. de Sterke and J. Salzman, "Diamond based photonic crystal microcavities," Opt. Express 14, 3556-3562 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

B.S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, "Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4591-4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Zakery, and S.R. Elliot, "Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 330, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Loncar and A. Scherer, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648-4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

R.M. Ridder, A. Driessen, E. Rikkers, P.V. Lambeck, and M.N.J. Diemeer, "Design and fabrication of electro-optic polymer modulators and switches," Opt. Mater. 12, 205-214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M.N.J. Diemeer, "Polymeric thermo-optic space switch for optical communications," Opt. Mater. 9,192-200 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

V.A. Mandelshtam and H.S. Taylor, "Harmonic inversion of time signals," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 6756-6769 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. Vydra, H Beisingoff, T. Tschudi and M. Eich, "Photodecay mechanisms in side chain nonlinear optical polymethacrylates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69,1035-1037 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

B.S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B.S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, "Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4591-4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anand, S.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L.A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, "Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities," Nature Photonics 1, 449-458 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Asano, B.S. Song, and S. Noda, "Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B.S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, "Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4591-4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bastiaansen, C.W.M.

R. van der Heijden, C.F. Carlström, J.A.P. Snijders, R.W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H.W.M. Salemink, B.K.C. Kjellander, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beisingoff, H

J. Vydra, H Beisingoff, T. Tschudi and M. Eich, "Photodecay mechanisms in side chain nonlinear optical polymethacrylates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69,1035-1037 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bettoti, P.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Broer, D.J.

R. van der Heijden, C.F. Carlström, J.A.P. Snijders, R.W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H.W.M. Salemink, B.K.C. Kjellander, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carlström, C.F.

R. van der Heijden, C.F. Carlström, J.A.P. Snijders, R.W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H.W.M. Salemink, B.K.C. Kjellander, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Colocci, M.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

de Sterke, C.M.

Deubel, M.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete pohotonic band gap in chalcogenide glasses," Adv. Mater. 18, 265-269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diemeer, M.N.J.

R.M. Ridder, A. Driessen, E. Rikkers, P.V. Lambeck, and M.N.J. Diemeer, "Design and fabrication of electro-optic polymer modulators and switches," Opt. Mater. 12, 205-214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M.N.J. Diemeer, "Polymeric thermo-optic space switch for optical communications," Opt. Mater. 9,192-200 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

R.M. Ridder, A. Driessen, E. Rikkers, P.V. Lambeck, and M.N.J. Diemeer, "Design and fabrication of electro-optic polymer modulators and switches," Opt. Mater. 12, 205-214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dunbar, L.A.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L.A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B.J.

C.L.C. Smith, D.K.C. Wu, M.W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen and Y.-H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.W. Lee, C.L.C. Smith, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan and Y.-H. Lee, "Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 1277-1285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eich, M.

J. Vydra, H Beisingoff, T. Tschudi and M. Eich, "Photodecay mechanisms in side chain nonlinear optical polymethacrylates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69,1035-1037 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Elliot, S.R.

A. Zakery, and S.R. Elliot, "Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 330, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferrini, R.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L.A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, D.

C.L.C. Smith, D.K.C. Wu, M.W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen and Y.-H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.W. Lee, C.L.C. Smith, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan and Y.-H. Lee, "Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 1277-1285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujita, M.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, "Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities," Nature Photonics 1, 449-458 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

C.L.C. Smith, D.K.C. Wu, M.W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen and Y.-H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

C.L.C. Smith, D.K.C. Wu, M.W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen and Y.-H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.W. Lee, C.L.C. Smith, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan and Y.-H. Lee, "Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 1277-1285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houdré, R.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L.A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Intonti, F.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

John, S.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete pohotonic band gap in chalcogenide glasses," Adv. Mater. 18, 265-269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karouta, F.

R. van der Heijden, C.F. Carlström, J.A.P. Snijders, R.W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H.W.M. Salemink, B.K.C. Kjellander, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kjellander, B.K.C.

R. van der Heijden, C.F. Carlström, J.A.P. Snijders, R.W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H.W.M. Salemink, B.K.C. Kjellander, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Tanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, "Ultrasmall multi-channel resonant-tunneling filter using mode-gap of width-tuned photonic-crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 4202-4209 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lambeck, P.V.

R.M. Ridder, A. Driessen, E. Rikkers, P.V. Lambeck, and M.N.J. Diemeer, "Design and fabrication of electro-optic polymer modulators and switches," Opt. Mater. 12, 205-214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.W.

C.L.C. Smith, D.K.C. Wu, M.W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen and Y.-H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.W. Lee, C.L.C. Smith, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan and Y.-H. Lee, "Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 1277-1285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-H.

M.W. Lee, C.L.C. Smith, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan and Y.-H. Lee, "Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 1277-1285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.L.C. Smith, D.K.C. Wu, M.W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen and Y.-H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

M. Loncar and A. Scherer, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648-4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

C.L.C. Smith, D.K.C. Wu, M.W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen and Y.-H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.W. Lee, C.L.C. Smith, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan and Y.-H. Lee, "Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 1277-1285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madden, S.

M.W. Lee, C.L.C. Smith, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan and Y.-H. Lee, "Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 1277-1285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.L.C. Smith, D.K.C. Wu, M.W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen and Y.-H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mandelshtam, V.A.

V.A. Mandelshtam and H.S. Taylor, "Harmonic inversion of time signals," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 6756-6769 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Martz, J.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L.A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitsugi, S.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Tanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, "Ultrasmall multi-channel resonant-tunneling filter using mode-gap of width-tuned photonic-crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 4202-4209 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monat, C.

C.L.C. Smith, D.K.C. Wu, M.W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen and Y.-H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

Mulot, M.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L.A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, "Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities," Nature Photonics 1, 449-458 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Asano, B.S. Song, and S. Noda, "Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B.S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, "Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4591-4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Tanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, "Ultrasmall multi-channel resonant-tunneling filter using mode-gap of width-tuned photonic-crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 4202-4209 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nötzel, R.

R. van der Heijden, C.F. Carlström, J.A.P. Snijders, R.W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H.W.M. Salemink, B.K.C. Kjellander, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nüesch, F.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L.A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ozin, G. A.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete pohotonic band gap in chalcogenide glasses," Adv. Mater. 18, 265-269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Willard, F.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete pohotonic band gap in chalcogenide glasses," Adv. Mater. 18, 265-269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ridder, R.M.

R.M. Ridder, A. Driessen, E. Rikkers, P.V. Lambeck, and M.N.J. Diemeer, "Design and fabrication of electro-optic polymer modulators and switches," Opt. Mater. 12, 205-214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rikkers, E.

R.M. Ridder, A. Driessen, E. Rikkers, P.V. Lambeck, and M.N.J. Diemeer, "Design and fabrication of electro-optic polymer modulators and switches," Opt. Mater. 12, 205-214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A.

Ruan, Y.

M.W. Lee, C.L.C. Smith, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan and Y.-H. Lee, "Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 1277-1285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.L.C. Smith, D.K.C. Wu, M.W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen and Y.-H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salemink, H.W.M.

R. van der Heijden, C.F. Carlström, J.A.P. Snijders, R.W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H.W.M. Salemink, B.K.C. Kjellander, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salzman, J.

Scherer, A.

M. Loncar and A. Scherer, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648-4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, S. L.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Tanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, "Ultrasmall multi-channel resonant-tunneling filter using mode-gap of width-tuned photonic-crystal waveguide," Opt. Express 13, 4202-4209 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, C.L.C.

C.L.C. Smith, D.K.C. Wu, M.W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen and Y.-H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.W. Lee, C.L.C. Smith, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, B. Luther-Davies, S. Madden, A. Rode, Y. Ruan and Y.-H. Lee, "Photosensitive post tuning of chalcogenide photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 1277-1285 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snijders, J.A.P.

R. van der Heijden, C.F. Carlström, J.A.P. Snijders, R.W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H.W.M. Salemink, B.K.C. Kjellander, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, B.S.

T. Asano, B.S. Song, and S. Noda, "Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B.S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, "Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4591-4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steel, M. J.

Steel, M.J.

Tanabe, T.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Tanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

B.S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, "Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4591-4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H.S.

V.A. Mandelshtam and H.S. Taylor, "Harmonic inversion of time signals," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 6756-6769 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

Tschudi, T.

J. Vydra, H Beisingoff, T. Tschudi and M. Eich, "Photodecay mechanisms in side chain nonlinear optical polymethacrylates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69,1035-1037 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Türck, V.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Drift, E.

R. van der Heijden, C.F. Carlström, J.A.P. Snijders, R.W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H.W.M. Salemink, B.K.C. Kjellander, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Heijden, R.

R. van der Heijden, C.F. Carlström, J.A.P. Snijders, R.W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H.W.M. Salemink, B.K.C. Kjellander, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Heijden, R.W.

R. van der Heijden, C.F. Carlström, J.A.P. Snijders, R.W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H.W.M. Salemink, B.K.C. Kjellander, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vignolini, S.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

von Freymann, G.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete pohotonic band gap in chalcogenide glasses," Adv. Mater. 18, 265-269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vydra, J.

J. Vydra, H Beisingoff, T. Tschudi and M. Eich, "Photodecay mechanisms in side chain nonlinear optical polymethacrylates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69,1035-1037 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete pohotonic band gap in chalcogenide glasses," Adv. Mater. 18, 265-269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D.

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wild, B.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L.A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, S.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete pohotonic band gap in chalcogenide glasses," Adv. Mater. 18, 265-269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.K.C.

C.L.C. Smith, D.K.C. Wu, M.W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen and Y.-H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zakery, A.

A. Zakery, and S.R. Elliot, "Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 330, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zuppiroli, L.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L.A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

S. Wong, M. Deubel, F. Pérez-Willard, S. John, G. A. Ozin, M. Wegener, and G. von Freymann, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic crystals with a complete pohotonic band gap in chalcogenide glasses," Adv. Mater. 18, 265-269 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Vydra, H Beisingoff, T. Tschudi and M. Eich, "Photodecay mechanisms in side chain nonlinear optical polymethacrylates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69,1035-1037 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B.S. Song, T. Asano, Y. Akahane, Y. Tanaka, and S. Noda, "Transmission and reflection characteristics of in-plane hetero-photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4591-4593 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and T. Tanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Loncar and A. Scherer, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648-4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. van der Heijden, C.F. Carlström, J.A.P. Snijders, R.W. van der Heijden, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, H.W.M. Salemink, B.K.C. Kjellander, C.W.M. Bastiaansen, D.J. Broer, and E. van der Drift, "InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystals filled with polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88161112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.L.C. Smith, D.K.C. Wu, M.W. Lee, C. Monat, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, C. Grillet, B.J. Eggleton, D. Freeman, Y. Ruan, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, H. Giessen and Y.-H. Lee, "Microfluidic photonic crystal double heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 121103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Intonti, S. Vignolini, V. Türck, M. Colocci, P. Bettoti, L. Pavesi, S. L. Schweizer, R. Wehrspohn, and D. Wiersma, "Rewritable photonic circuits," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 211117 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Martz, R. Ferrini, F. Nüesch, L. Zuppiroli, B. Wild, L.A. Dunbar, R. Houdré, M. Mulot, and S. Anand, "Liquid crystal infiltration of InP-based planar photonic crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 103105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

V.A. Mandelshtam and H.S. Taylor, "Harmonic inversion of time signals," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 6756-6769 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mater.

B.S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, "Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities," Nature Photonics 1, 449-458 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

M.N.J. Diemeer, "Polymeric thermo-optic space switch for optical communications," Opt. Mater. 9,192-200 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R.M. Ridder, A. Driessen, E. Rikkers, P.V. Lambeck, and M.N.J. Diemeer, "Design and fabrication of electro-optic polymer modulators and switches," Opt. Mater. 12, 205-214 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sol.

A. Zakery, and S.R. Elliot, "Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review," J. Non-Cryst.Sol. 330, 1-12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Loncar, and A. Scherer, "Microfabricated optical cavities and photonic crystals," in Optical microcavities, K. Vahala, ed. (World Scientific Publishing, 2004).

J.P. Harmon, "Polymers for optical fibers and waveguides: An Overview," in Optical polymers fibers and waveguides, J.P. Harmon, and G.K. Noren, eds. (American Chemical Society, 2001) pp. 1-23.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Top view of a double heterostructure cavity; PC2 has slightly higher average refractive index than PC1. The black holes are air holes. (b) Silicon slab with polymer strip on the top (PCS I). In our structures typically a=410 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dispersion curves for W1 waveguide for the regular structure PC1 (full circles) and of PCS I (empty triangles), PCS II (full rectangles), with the holes infiltrated (full triangles), and PCS III (empty rectangles); the dashed line represents the light line.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Total Q versus the width m for PCS I; inset shows the cavity edge adjacent to the W1 waveguide for odd m; and (b) modal volume versus m; inset shows the major electric field component, Ex , in the plane for m=8.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Total Q (rectangles) and modal volume V (crosses) versus the cavity width m, for PCS III.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Total Q and resonant frequencies versus the layer thickness, h=H/f, for (a) PCS I, and (b) PCS II (w=8a).

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