Abstract

We have succeeded in fabricating a photonic crystal nanocavity with a photon lifetime of 2.1 ns, which corresponds to a quality factor of 2.5×106. This lifetime is the longest recorded thus far in photonic crystal cavities, and was brought about by improvements in the fabrication process. Comparing our experimental quality factor with the results of calculations shows that we have suppressed variations in the radii and positions of the air holes composing a nanocavity such that their standard deviations are less than 1 nm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-High-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, "Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities," Nature Photon. 1, 449-458 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y, Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Room temperature continuous-wave lasing in photonic crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 14, 6308-6315 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Noda, "Seeking the ultimate nanolaser," Science 314, 260-261 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano, "Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals," Science 300, 1537 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Takano, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Highly efficient multi-channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal," Opt. Express 14, 3491-3496 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, "Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors," Nature Phys. 2, 81-90 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factors in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Mater. 6, 862-865 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. In fact there are three guidance mechanisms in the photonic heterostructures: the total internal reflection at the slab-air interface, the photonic band gap effect across the waveguide, and the photonic mode gap effect along the waveguide.
  17. T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~ 1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nature Photon. 1, 49-52 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, "Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131114 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. U. Fano, "Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts," Phys. Rev. 124, 1866-1878 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki, M. Imada, and S. Noda, "Surface-emitting channel drop filters using single defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2690-2692 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C.M. Sterke, and D. J. Moss, "High-Q cavities in photosensitive photonic crystals," Optics Lett. 32, 542-544 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (5)

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, "Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities," Nature Photon. 1, 449-458 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factors in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Mater. 6, 862-865 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nature Photon. 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C.M. Sterke, and D. J. Moss, "High-Q cavities in photosensitive photonic crystals," Optics Lett. 32, 542-544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (9)

G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, "Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors," Nature Phys. 2, 81-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, "Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~ 1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takano, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Highly efficient multi-channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal," Opt. Express 14, 3491-3496 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nomura, S. Iwamoto, K. Watanabe, N. Kumagai, Y. Nakata, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, "Room temperature continuous-wave lasing in photonic crystal nanocavity," Opt. Express 14, 6308-6315 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Noda, "Seeking the ultimate nanolaser," Science 314, 260-261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-High-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y, Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano, "Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals," Science 300, 1537 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki, M. Imada, and S. Noda, "Surface-emitting channel drop filters using single defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2690-2692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

U. Fano, "Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts," Phys. Rev. 124, 1866-1878 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-High-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreani, L. C.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arakawa, Y.

Asano, T.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, "Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities," Nature Photon. 1, 449-458 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factors in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Mater. 6, 862-865 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~ 1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Takano, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Highly efficient multi-channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal," Opt. Express 14, 3491-3496 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-High-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano, "Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals," Science 300, 1537 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atature, M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badolato, A.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borselli, M.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, "Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bouwmeester, D.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, Y.-S.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chutinan, A.

A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki, M. Imada, and S. Noda, "Surface-emitting channel drop filters using single defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2690-2692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deppe, D. G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ell, C.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Englund, D.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y, Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falt, S.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fano, U.

U. Fano, "Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts," Phys. Rev. 124, 1866-1878 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Fattal, D.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y, Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujita, M.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, "Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities," Nature Photon. 1, 449-458 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gerace, D.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibbs, H. M.

G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, "Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors," Nature Phys. 2, 81-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gulde, S.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendrickson, J.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hennessy, K.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, E. L.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imada, M.

A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki, M. Imada, and S. Noda, "Surface-emitting channel drop filters using single defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2690-2692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishida, S.

Iwamoto, S.

Johnson, T. J.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, "Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khitrova, G.

G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, "Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors," Nature Phys. 2, 81-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kira, M.

G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, "Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors," Nature Phys. 2, 81-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, "Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors," Nature Phys. 2, 81-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kumagai, N.

Kuramochi, E.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nature Photon. 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitsugi, S.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mochizuki, M.

A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki, M. Imada, and S. Noda, "Surface-emitting channel drop filters using single defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2690-2692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D. J.

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C.M. Sterke, and D. J. Moss, "High-Q cavities in photosensitive photonic crystals," Optics Lett. 32, 542-544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nagashima, T.

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factors in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Mater. 6, 862-865 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakaoka, T.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y, Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakata, Y.

Noda, S.

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, "Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities," Nature Photon. 1, 449-458 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factors in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Mater. 6, 862-865 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~ 1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, "Seeking the ultimate nanolaser," Science 314, 260-261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takano, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Highly efficient multi-channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal," Opt. Express 14, 3491-3496 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-High-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano, "Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals," Science 300, 1537 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki, M. Imada, and S. Noda, "Surface-emitting channel drop filters using single defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2690-2692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, M.

Notomi, M.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nature Photon. 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, "Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P. M.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rakher, M. T.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rupper, G.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, "Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors," Nature Phys. 2, 81-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shchekin, O. B.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinya, A.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nature Photon. 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, G.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y, Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, B. S.

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Takano, B. S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Highly efficient multi-channel drop filter in a two-dimensional hetero photonic crystal," Opt. Express 14, 3491-3496 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "Analysis of the experimental Q factors (~ 1 million) of photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Express 14, 1996-2002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-High-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano, "Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals," Science 300, 1537 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steel, M. J.

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C.M. Sterke, and D. J. Moss, "High-Q cavities in photosensitive photonic crystals," Optics Lett. 32, 542-544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sterke, C.M.

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C.M. Sterke, and D. J. Moss, "High-Q cavities in photosensitive photonic crystals," Optics Lett. 32, 542-544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Strauf, S.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugiya, T.

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factors in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Mater. 6, 862-865 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takano, H.

Tanabe, T.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nature Photon. 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factors in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Mater. 6, 862-865 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taniyama, H.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nature Photon. 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tomljenovic-Hanic, S.

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C.M. Sterke, and D. J. Moss, "High-Q cavities in photosensitive photonic crystals," Optics Lett. 32, 542-544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Upham, J.

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factors in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Mater. 6, 862-865 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Waks, E.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y, Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, K.

Watanabe, T.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Winger, M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshie, T.

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y, Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, "Ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, "Measuring the role of surface chemistry in silicon microphotonics," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 131114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Chutinan, M. Mochizuki, M. Imada, and S. Noda, "Surface-emitting channel drop filters using single defects in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2690-2692 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Asano, B. S. Song, Y. Akahane, and S. Noda, "Ultrahigh-Q nanocavities in two-dimensional photonic crystal slabs," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1123-1134 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, J. Hendrickson, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, G. Rupper, C. Ell, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, "Vacuum Rabi splitting with a single quantum dot in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature 432, 200-203 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atature, S. Gulde, S. Falt, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoglu, "Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system," Nature 445, 896-899 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater. (2)

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, "Ultra-High-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity," Nature Mater. 4, 207-210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, and S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factors in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Mater. 6, 862-865 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photon. (2)

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, and H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nature Photon. 1, 49-52 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Noda, M. Fujita, and T. Asano, "Spontaneous-emission control by photonic crystals and nanocavities," Nature Photon. 1, 449-458 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature Phys. (1)

G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and A. Scherer, "Vacuum Rabi splitting in semiconductors," Nature Phys. 2, 81-90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Optics Lett. (1)

S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, M. J. Steel, C.M. Sterke, and D. J. Moss, "High-Q cavities in photosensitive photonic crystals," Optics Lett. 32, 542-544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

U. Fano, "Effects of configuration interaction on intensities and phase shifts," Phys. Rev. 124, 1866-1878 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. Englund, D. Fattal, E. Waks, G. Solomon, B. Zhang, T. Nakaoka, Y, Arakawa, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, "Controlling the spontaneous emission rate of single quantum dots in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 013904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, "Self-tuned quantum dot gain in photonic crystal lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

S. Noda, "Seeking the ultimate nanolaser," Science 314, 260-261 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Song, S. Noda, and T. Asano, "Photonic devices based on in-plane hetero photonic crystals," Science 300, 1537 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

In fact there are three guidance mechanisms in the photonic heterostructures: the total internal reflection at the slab-air interface, the photonic band gap effect across the waveguide, and the photonic mode gap effect along the waveguide.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). SEM image of the nanocavity with a two-step heterostructure. PC1 has a triangular-lattice structure with a lattice constant of a 1. PC2 and PC2’ have a deformed triangular-lattice structure with lattice constants of a 2 and a 2’ in the x-direction; they retain the same lattice constant as PC1 in the y-direction in order to satisfy lattice-matching conditions. (b) Schematic view of the band diagram along the x-direction for the line defect in Fig. 1(a). The ground-state nanocavity mode mainly exists in the waveguide section formed by PC2 and PC2’. (c) SEM image of the region around the nanocavity and schematic picture of the transmission spectroscopy experiment.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Drop (filled circle) and transmission (open circle) spectra for cavities separated by (a) four rows and (b) six rows of air holes from the excitation waveguide. The scale of the horizontal axes in (a) and (b) are the same. Solid and dashed lines represent the fits using Lorentzian functions. Small oscillations in the transmission spectra might originate from the laser source.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Time-resolved signal of input pulse. (b)–(d) Time-resolved signals for nanocavities with six, five, and seven rows of separation from the excitation waveguide, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Evolution of emission from a nanocavity using pulse widths of 4 ns, 6 ns, and 8 ns. (a) Calculated results for a nanocavity with τ=2 ns using coupled-mode theory in the absence of nonlinear effects. (b) Experimental results for a nanocavity with seven rows of separation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Q factors calculated using the 3D-FDTD method by introducing variations in the radii and positions of the air holes according to a Gaussian distribution. The horizontal axis represents the σ for each type of variation. The curves show the results of calculations for 10 different fluctuation patterns. The value of Q exp at σ=0 nm corresponds to a Q ideal of 1.5×107.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 Q exp = 1 Q ideal + 1 Q loss .
Q load = λ 0 Δ λ .
Q exp = Q load T 0 .

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