Abstract

We report a new demonstration of nanoscale solution-processed photodetectors by fabricating a nano-sized gap between two electrodes and drop-casting nanocrystal quantum dots (NCQDs) into the gap. We demonstrate a detection sensitivity of 62 pW with a max responsivity of 2.7 mA/W over a device with a nano-gap of 25 nm. Additionally, we characterize the dependence of signal-to-dark current ratio and responsivity on nano-gap size. Responsivity ranges from 1–90 mA/W for a nano-gap size range of 25 nm–1.5 nm. Our results represent the first demonstration of how near-field optical detection for sub-diffraction nanophotonic integrated circuits can be achieved in principle using NCQDs.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. J. Barrelet, A. B. Greytak, and C. M. Lieber, "Nanowire photonic circuit elements," Nano Lett. 4, 1981- 1985 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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  6. M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, M. Soljacic, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "All-optical transistor action with bistable switching in a photonic crystal cross-waveguide geometry," Opt. Lett. 28, 2506-2508 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer-size waveguide devices," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2332-2339 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, "Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration," Science 305, 1269-1273 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Ohtsu, K. Kobayashi, T. Kawazoe, S. Sangu, and T. Yatsui, "Nanophotonics: Design, fabrication, and operation of nanometric devices using optical near fields," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 839-862 (2002).
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  10. J. F. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. F. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, "Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires," Science 293, 1455-1457 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. O. Hayden, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, "Nanoscale avalanche photodiodes for highly sensitive and spatially resolved photon detection," Nat. Mater. 5, 352-356 (2006).
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  12. M. Freitag, Y. Martin, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. H. Avouris, "Photoconductivity of single carbon nanotubes," Nano Lett. 3, 1067-1071 (2003).
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  13. O. Astafiev, S. Komiyama, T. Kutsuwa, V. Antonov, Y. Kawaguchi, and K. Hirakawa, "Single-photon detector in the microwave range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4250-4252 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Drndic, M. V. Jarosz, N. Y. Morgan, M. A. Kastner, and M. G. Bawendi, "Transport properties of annealed CdSe colloidal nanocrystal solids," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7498-7503 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. Y. Morgan, C. A. Leatherdale, M. Drndic, M. V. Jarosz, M. A. Kastner, and M. Bawendi, "Electronic transport in films of colloidal CdSe nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 075339, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors," Nature 442, 180-183 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. Q4. G. Konstantatos, J. Clifford, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Sensitive solution-processed visible-wavelength photodetectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 531-534 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. J. Wang, L. Huang, B. A. Parviz, and L. Y. Lin, "Subdiffraction photon guidance by quantum-dot cascades," Nano Lett. 6, 2549-2553 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  30. A. K. Mahapatro, A. Scott, A. Manning, and D. B. Janes, "Gold surface with sub-nm roughness realized by evaporation on a molecular adhesion monolayer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151917, (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. L. Klein, R. Roth, A. K. L. Lim, A. P. Alivisatos, and P. L. Mceuen, "A single-electron transistor made from a cadmium selenide nanocrystal," Nature 389, 699-701 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  32. L. Huang, M. C. Hegg, C.-J. Wang, and L. Y. Lin, "Fabrication of a nanophotonic waveguide and photodetector integrated device," Micro and Nano Letters (to be published)

2007 (2)

Q3. E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Ham, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, fieldeffect transistor," Nature Photonics 1, 585-588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q4. G. Konstantatos, J. Clifford, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Sensitive solution-processed visible-wavelength photodetectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 531-534 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (8)

C. J. Wang, L. Huang, B. A. Parviz, and L. Y. Lin, "Subdiffraction photon guidance by quantum-dot cascades," Nano Lett. 6, 2549-2553 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Mahapatro, S. Ghosh, and D. B. Janes, "Nanometer scale electrode separation (nanogap) using electromigration at room temperature," IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 5, 232-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Mahapatro, A. Scott, A. Manning, and D. B. Janes, "Gold surface with sub-nm roughness realized by evaporation on a molecular adhesion monolayer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151917, (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors," Nature 442, 180-183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. T. Posani, V. Tripathi, S. Annamalai, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, S. Krishna, R. Perahia, O. Crisafulli, and O. J. Painter, "Nanoscale quantum dot infrared sensors with photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151104, (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Hayden, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, "Nanoscale avalanche photodiodes for highly sensitive and spatially resolved photon detection," Nat. Mater. 5, 352-356 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Schaller, M. Sykora, S. Jeong, and V. I. Klimov, "High-efficiency carrier multiplication and ultrafast charge separation in semiconductor nanocrystals studied via time-resolved photoluminescence," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 25332-25338 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Schaller, M. Sykora, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, "Seven excitons at a cost of one: Redefining the limits for conversion efficiency of photons into charge carriers," Nano Lett. 6, 424-429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

T. Yatsui, W. Nomura, and M. Ohtsu, "Self-assembly of size- and position-controlled ultralong nanodot chains using near-field optical desorption," Nano Lett. 5, 2548-2551 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Alda, J. M. Rico-Garcia, J. M. Lopez-Alonso, and G. Boreman, "Optical antennas for nano-photonic applications," Nanotechnology 16, S230-S234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

C. J. Barrelet, A. B. Greytak, and C. M. Lieber, "Nanowire photonic circuit elements," Nano Lett. 4, 1981- 1985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, P. E. Barclay, T. J. Johnson, M. D. Friedman, and O. Painter, "Low-loss fiber accessible plasmon waveguide for planar energy guiding and sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3990-3992 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, "Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration," Science 305, 1269-1273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, "Photonic Crystals - Ttwards rational material design," Nat. Mater. 2, 648-649 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Yanik, S. H. Fan, M. Soljacic, and J. D. Joannopoulos, "All-optical transistor action with bistable switching in a photonic crystal cross-waveguide geometry," Opt. Lett. 28, 2506-2508 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer-size waveguide devices," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2332-2339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Freitag, Y. Martin, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. H. Avouris, "Photoconductivity of single carbon nanotubes," Nano Lett. 3, 1067-1071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

O. Astafiev, S. Komiyama, T. Kutsuwa, V. Antonov, Y. Kawaguchi, and K. Hirakawa, "Single-photon detector in the microwave range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4250-4252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohtsu, K. Kobayashi, T. Kawazoe, S. Sangu, and T. Yatsui, "Nanophotonics: Design, fabrication, and operation of nanometric devices using optical near fields," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 839-862 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Drndic, M. V. Jarosz, N. Y. Morgan, M. A. Kastner, and M. G. Bawendi, "Transport properties of annealed CdSe colloidal nanocrystal solids," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7498-7503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Morgan, C. A. Leatherdale, M. Drndic, M. V. Jarosz, M. A. Kastner, and M. Bawendi, "Electronic transport in films of colloidal CdSe nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 075339, (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. F. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. F. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, "Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires," Science 293, 1455-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

D. L. Klein, R. Roth, A. K. L. Lim, A. P. Alivisatos, and P. L. Mceuen, "A single-electron transistor made from a cadmium selenide nanocrystal," Nature 389, 699-701 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. P. Alivisatos, "Semiconductor clusters, nanocrystals, and quantum dots," Science 271, 933-937 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, "Synthesis and Characterization of Nearly Monodisperse Cde (e = S, Se, Te) Semiconductor Nanocrystallites," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706-8715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. M. Whitesides, J. P. Mathias, and C. T. Seto, "Molecular Self-Assembly and Nanochemistry - A Chemical Strategy for the Synthesis of Nanostructures," Science 254, 1312-1319 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

H. C. Liu and G. C. Aers, "Resonant tunneling through one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three- dimensionally confined quantum wells," J. Appl. Phys. 65, 4908-4914 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Aers, G. C.

H. C. Liu and G. C. Aers, "Resonant tunneling through one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three- dimensionally confined quantum wells," J. Appl. Phys. 65, 4908-4914 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, R.

O. Hayden, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, "Nanoscale avalanche photodiodes for highly sensitive and spatially resolved photon detection," Nat. Mater. 5, 352-356 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alda, J.

J. Alda, J. M. Rico-Garcia, J. M. Lopez-Alonso, and G. Boreman, "Optical antennas for nano-photonic applications," Nanotechnology 16, S230-S234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

D. L. Klein, R. Roth, A. K. L. Lim, A. P. Alivisatos, and P. L. Mceuen, "A single-electron transistor made from a cadmium selenide nanocrystal," Nature 389, 699-701 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Alivisatos, "Semiconductor clusters, nanocrystals, and quantum dots," Science 271, 933-937 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer-size waveguide devices," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2332-2339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Annamalai, S.

K. T. Posani, V. Tripathi, S. Annamalai, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, S. Krishna, R. Perahia, O. Crisafulli, and O. J. Painter, "Nanoscale quantum dot infrared sensors with photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151104, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Antonov, V.

O. Astafiev, S. Komiyama, T. Kutsuwa, V. Antonov, Y. Kawaguchi, and K. Hirakawa, "Single-photon detector in the microwave range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4250-4252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Astafiev, O.

O. Astafiev, S. Komiyama, T. Kutsuwa, V. Antonov, Y. Kawaguchi, and K. Hirakawa, "Single-photon detector in the microwave range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4250-4252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avouris, P. H.

M. Freitag, Y. Martin, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. H. Avouris, "Photoconductivity of single carbon nanotubes," Nano Lett. 3, 1067-1071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barclay, P. E.

S. A. Maier, P. E. Barclay, T. J. Johnson, M. D. Friedman, and O. Painter, "Low-loss fiber accessible plasmon waveguide for planar energy guiding and sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3990-3992 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barrelet, C. J.

C. J. Barrelet, A. B. Greytak, and C. M. Lieber, "Nanowire photonic circuit elements," Nano Lett. 4, 1981- 1985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer-size waveguide devices," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2332-2339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M.

N. Y. Morgan, C. A. Leatherdale, M. Drndic, M. V. Jarosz, M. A. Kastner, and M. Bawendi, "Electronic transport in films of colloidal CdSe nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 075339, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

M. Drndic, M. V. Jarosz, N. Y. Morgan, M. A. Kastner, and M. G. Bawendi, "Transport properties of annealed CdSe colloidal nanocrystal solids," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7498-7503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, "Synthesis and Characterization of Nearly Monodisperse Cde (e = S, Se, Te) Semiconductor Nanocrystallites," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706-8715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boreman, G.

J. Alda, J. M. Rico-Garcia, J. M. Lopez-Alonso, and G. Boreman, "Optical antennas for nano-photonic applications," Nanotechnology 16, S230-S234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clifford, J.

Q4. G. Konstantatos, J. Clifford, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Sensitive solution-processed visible-wavelength photodetectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 531-534 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors," Nature 442, 180-183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crisafulli, O.

K. T. Posani, V. Tripathi, S. Annamalai, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, S. Krishna, R. Perahia, O. Crisafulli, and O. J. Painter, "Nanoscale quantum dot infrared sensors with photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151104, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. F. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. F. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, "Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires," Science 293, 1455-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drndic, M.

M. Drndic, M. V. Jarosz, N. Y. Morgan, M. A. Kastner, and M. G. Bawendi, "Transport properties of annealed CdSe colloidal nanocrystal solids," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7498-7503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Morgan, C. A. Leatherdale, M. Drndic, M. V. Jarosz, M. A. Kastner, and M. Bawendi, "Electronic transport in films of colloidal CdSe nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 075339, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X. F.

J. F. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. F. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, "Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires," Science 293, 1455-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S. H.

Fischer, A.

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors," Nature 442, 180-183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freitag, M.

M. Freitag, Y. Martin, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. H. Avouris, "Photoconductivity of single carbon nanotubes," Nano Lett. 3, 1067-1071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, M. D.

S. A. Maier, P. E. Barclay, T. J. Johnson, M. D. Friedman, and O. Painter, "Low-loss fiber accessible plasmon waveguide for planar energy guiding and sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3990-3992 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gansen, E. J.

Q3. E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Ham, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, fieldeffect transistor," Nature Photonics 1, 585-588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, S.

A. K. Mahapatro, S. Ghosh, and D. B. Janes, "Nanometer scale electrode separation (nanogap) using electromigration at room temperature," IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 5, 232-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goldberger, J.

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, "Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration," Science 305, 1269-1273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greene, M. B.

Q3. E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Ham, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, fieldeffect transistor," Nature Photonics 1, 585-588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Greytak, A. B.

C. J. Barrelet, A. B. Greytak, and C. M. Lieber, "Nanowire photonic circuit elements," Nano Lett. 4, 1981- 1985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gudiksen, M. S.

J. F. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. F. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, "Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires," Science 293, 1455-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hadfield, R. H.

Q3. E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Ham, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, fieldeffect transistor," Nature Photonics 1, 585-588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ham, S. W.

Q3. E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Ham, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, fieldeffect transistor," Nature Photonics 1, 585-588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harel, E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harvey, T. E.

Q3. E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Ham, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, fieldeffect transistor," Nature Photonics 1, 585-588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, O.

O. Hayden, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, "Nanoscale avalanche photodiodes for highly sensitive and spatially resolved photon detection," Nat. Mater. 5, 352-356 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hegg, M. C.

L. Huang, M. C. Hegg, C.-J. Wang, and L. Y. Lin, "Fabrication of a nanophotonic waveguide and photodetector integrated device," Micro and Nano Letters (to be published)

Hirakawa, K.

O. Astafiev, S. Komiyama, T. Kutsuwa, V. Antonov, Y. Kawaguchi, and K. Hirakawa, "Single-photon detector in the microwave range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4250-4252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoogland, S.

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors," Nature 442, 180-183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howard, I.

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors," Nature 442, 180-183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, L.

C. J. Wang, L. Huang, B. A. Parviz, and L. Y. Lin, "Subdiffraction photon guidance by quantum-dot cascades," Nano Lett. 6, 2549-2553 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Huang, M. C. Hegg, C.-J. Wang, and L. Y. Lin, "Fabrication of a nanophotonic waveguide and photodetector integrated device," Micro and Nano Letters (to be published)

Janes, D. B.

A. K. Mahapatro, A. Scott, A. Manning, and D. B. Janes, "Gold surface with sub-nm roughness realized by evaporation on a molecular adhesion monolayer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151917, (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Mahapatro, S. Ghosh, and D. B. Janes, "Nanometer scale electrode separation (nanogap) using electromigration at room temperature," IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 5, 232-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jarosz, M. V.

N. Y. Morgan, C. A. Leatherdale, M. Drndic, M. V. Jarosz, M. A. Kastner, and M. Bawendi, "Electronic transport in films of colloidal CdSe nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 075339, (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Drndic, M. V. Jarosz, N. Y. Morgan, M. A. Kastner, and M. G. Bawendi, "Transport properties of annealed CdSe colloidal nanocrystal solids," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7498-7503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.

R. D. Schaller, M. Sykora, S. Jeong, and V. I. Klimov, "High-efficiency carrier multiplication and ultrafast charge separation in semiconductor nanocrystals studied via time-resolved photoluminescence," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 25332-25338 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, J. C.

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, "Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration," Science 305, 1269-1273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, T. J.

S. A. Maier, P. E. Barclay, T. J. Johnson, M. D. Friedman, and O. Painter, "Low-loss fiber accessible plasmon waveguide for planar energy guiding and sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3990-3992 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kastner, M. A.

M. Drndic, M. V. Jarosz, N. Y. Morgan, M. A. Kastner, and M. G. Bawendi, "Transport properties of annealed CdSe colloidal nanocrystal solids," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7498-7503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Morgan, C. A. Leatherdale, M. Drndic, M. V. Jarosz, M. A. Kastner, and M. Bawendi, "Electronic transport in films of colloidal CdSe nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 075339, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, Y.

O. Astafiev, S. Komiyama, T. Kutsuwa, V. Antonov, Y. Kawaguchi, and K. Hirakawa, "Single-photon detector in the microwave range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4250-4252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawazoe, T.

M. Ohtsu, K. Kobayashi, T. Kawazoe, S. Sangu, and T. Yatsui, "Nanophotonics: Design, fabrication, and operation of nanometric devices using optical near fields," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 839-862 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klein, D. L.

D. L. Klein, R. Roth, A. K. L. Lim, A. P. Alivisatos, and P. L. Mceuen, "A single-electron transistor made from a cadmium selenide nanocrystal," Nature 389, 699-701 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Klem, E.

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors," Nature 442, 180-183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klimov, V. I.

R. D. Schaller, M. Sykora, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, "Seven excitons at a cost of one: Redefining the limits for conversion efficiency of photons into charge carriers," Nano Lett. 6, 424-429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Schaller, M. Sykora, S. Jeong, and V. I. Klimov, "High-efficiency carrier multiplication and ultrafast charge separation in semiconductor nanocrystals studied via time-resolved photoluminescence," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 25332-25338 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, K.

M. Ohtsu, K. Kobayashi, T. Kawazoe, S. Sangu, and T. Yatsui, "Nanophotonics: Design, fabrication, and operation of nanometric devices using optical near fields," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 839-862 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koel, B. E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Komiyama, S.

O. Astafiev, S. Komiyama, T. Kutsuwa, V. Antonov, Y. Kawaguchi, and K. Hirakawa, "Single-photon detector in the microwave range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4250-4252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Konstantatos, G.

Q4. G. Konstantatos, J. Clifford, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Sensitive solution-processed visible-wavelength photodetectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 531-534 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors," Nature 442, 180-183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishna, S.

K. T. Posani, V. Tripathi, S. Annamalai, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, S. Krishna, R. Perahia, O. Crisafulli, and O. J. Painter, "Nanoscale quantum dot infrared sensors with photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151104, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kutsuwa, T.

O. Astafiev, S. Komiyama, T. Kutsuwa, V. Antonov, Y. Kawaguchi, and K. Hirakawa, "Single-photon detector in the microwave range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4250-4252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Law, M.

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, "Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration," Science 305, 1269-1273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leatherdale, C. A.

N. Y. Morgan, C. A. Leatherdale, M. Drndic, M. V. Jarosz, M. A. Kastner, and M. Bawendi, "Electronic transport in films of colloidal CdSe nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 075339, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Levina, L.

Q4. G. Konstantatos, J. Clifford, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Sensitive solution-processed visible-wavelength photodetectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 531-534 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors," Nature 442, 180-183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lieber, C. M.

O. Hayden, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, "Nanoscale avalanche photodiodes for highly sensitive and spatially resolved photon detection," Nat. Mater. 5, 352-356 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Barrelet, A. B. Greytak, and C. M. Lieber, "Nanowire photonic circuit elements," Nano Lett. 4, 1981- 1985 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Wang, M. S. Gudiksen, X. F. Duan, Y. Cui, and C. M. Lieber, "Highly polarized photoluminescence and photodetection from single indium phosphide nanowires," Science 293, 1455-1457 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, A. K. L.

D. L. Klein, R. Roth, A. K. L. Lim, A. P. Alivisatos, and P. L. Mceuen, "A single-electron transistor made from a cadmium selenide nanocrystal," Nature 389, 699-701 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L. Y.

C. J. Wang, L. Huang, B. A. Parviz, and L. Y. Lin, "Subdiffraction photon guidance by quantum-dot cascades," Nano Lett. 6, 2549-2553 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Huang, M. C. Hegg, C.-J. Wang, and L. Y. Lin, "Fabrication of a nanophotonic waveguide and photodetector integrated device," Micro and Nano Letters (to be published)

Lipson, M.

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer-size waveguide devices," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2332-2339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

H. C. Liu and G. C. Aers, "Resonant tunneling through one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three- dimensionally confined quantum wells," J. Appl. Phys. 65, 4908-4914 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Alonso, J. M.

J. Alda, J. M. Rico-Garcia, J. M. Lopez-Alonso, and G. Boreman, "Optical antennas for nano-photonic applications," Nanotechnology 16, S230-S234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mahapatro, A. K.

A. K. Mahapatro, A. Scott, A. Manning, and D. B. Janes, "Gold surface with sub-nm roughness realized by evaporation on a molecular adhesion monolayer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151917, (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Mahapatro, S. Ghosh, and D. B. Janes, "Nanometer scale electrode separation (nanogap) using electromigration at room temperature," IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology 5, 232-236 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, P. E. Barclay, T. J. Johnson, M. D. Friedman, and O. Painter, "Low-loss fiber accessible plasmon waveguide for planar energy guiding and sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3990-3992 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manning, A.

A. K. Mahapatro, A. Scott, A. Manning, and D. B. Janes, "Gold surface with sub-nm roughness realized by evaporation on a molecular adhesion monolayer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151917, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martel, R.

M. Freitag, Y. Martin, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. H. Avouris, "Photoconductivity of single carbon nanotubes," Nano Lett. 3, 1067-1071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martin, Y.

M. Freitag, Y. Martin, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. H. Avouris, "Photoconductivity of single carbon nanotubes," Nano Lett. 3, 1067-1071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mathias, J. P.

G. M. Whitesides, J. P. Mathias, and C. T. Seto, "Molecular Self-Assembly and Nanochemistry - A Chemical Strategy for the Synthesis of Nanostructures," Science 254, 1312-1319 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mceuen, P. L.

D. L. Klein, R. Roth, A. K. L. Lim, A. P. Alivisatos, and P. L. Mceuen, "A single-electron transistor made from a cadmium selenide nanocrystal," Nature 389, 699-701 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirin, R. P.

Q3. E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Ham, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, fieldeffect transistor," Nature Photonics 1, 585-588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Misewich, J. A.

M. Freitag, Y. Martin, J. A. Misewich, R. Martel, and P. H. Avouris, "Photoconductivity of single carbon nanotubes," Nano Lett. 3, 1067-1071 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, N. Y.

M. Drndic, M. V. Jarosz, N. Y. Morgan, M. A. Kastner, and M. G. Bawendi, "Transport properties of annealed CdSe colloidal nanocrystal solids," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7498-7503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Morgan, C. A. Leatherdale, M. Drndic, M. V. Jarosz, M. A. Kastner, and M. Bawendi, "Electronic transport in films of colloidal CdSe nanocrystals," Phys. Rev. B 66, 075339, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murray, C. B.

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, "Synthesis and Characterization of Nearly Monodisperse Cde (e = S, Se, Te) Semiconductor Nanocrystallites," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706-8715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nomura, W.

T. Yatsui, W. Nomura, and M. Ohtsu, "Self-assembly of size- and position-controlled ultralong nanodot chains using near-field optical desorption," Nano Lett. 5, 2548-2551 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norris, D. J.

C. B. Murray, D. J. Norris, and M. G. Bawendi, "Synthesis and Characterization of Nearly Monodisperse Cde (e = S, Se, Te) Semiconductor Nanocrystallites," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115, 8706-8715 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsu, M.

T. Yatsui, W. Nomura, and M. Ohtsu, "Self-assembly of size- and position-controlled ultralong nanodot chains using near-field optical desorption," Nano Lett. 5, 2548-2551 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ohtsu, K. Kobayashi, T. Kawazoe, S. Sangu, and T. Yatsui, "Nanophotonics: Design, fabrication, and operation of nanometric devices using optical near fields," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 839-862 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

S. A. Maier, P. E. Barclay, T. J. Johnson, M. D. Friedman, and O. Painter, "Low-loss fiber accessible plasmon waveguide for planar energy guiding and sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3990-3992 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O. J.

K. T. Posani, V. Tripathi, S. Annamalai, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, S. Krishna, R. Perahia, O. Crisafulli, and O. J. Painter, "Nanoscale quantum dot infrared sensors with photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151104, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R.

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer-size waveguide devices," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2332-2339 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Parviz, B. A.

C. J. Wang, L. Huang, B. A. Parviz, and L. Y. Lin, "Subdiffraction photon guidance by quantum-dot cascades," Nano Lett. 6, 2549-2553 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perahia, R.

K. T. Posani, V. Tripathi, S. Annamalai, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, S. Krishna, R. Perahia, O. Crisafulli, and O. J. Painter, "Nanoscale quantum dot infrared sensors with photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151104, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pietryga, J. M.

R. D. Schaller, M. Sykora, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, "Seven excitons at a cost of one: Redefining the limits for conversion efficiency of photons into charge carriers," Nano Lett. 6, 424-429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Posani, K. T.

K. T. Posani, V. Tripathi, S. Annamalai, N. R. Weisse-Bernstein, S. Krishna, R. Perahia, O. Crisafulli, and O. J. Painter, "Nanoscale quantum dot infrared sensors with photonic crystal cavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151104, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Requicha, A. A. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, "Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides," Nat. Mater. 2, 229-232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rico-Garcia, J. M.

J. Alda, J. M. Rico-Garcia, J. M. Lopez-Alonso, and G. Boreman, "Optical antennas for nano-photonic applications," Nanotechnology 16, S230-S234 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, D.

Q3. E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Ham, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, fieldeffect transistor," Nature Photonics 1, 585-588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roth, R.

D. L. Klein, R. Roth, A. K. L. Lim, A. P. Alivisatos, and P. L. Mceuen, "A single-electron transistor made from a cadmium selenide nanocrystal," Nature 389, 699-701 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rowe, M. A.

Q3. E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Ham, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, fieldeffect transistor," Nature Photonics 1, 585-588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sangu, S.

M. Ohtsu, K. Kobayashi, T. Kawazoe, S. Sangu, and T. Yatsui, "Nanophotonics: Design, fabrication, and operation of nanometric devices using optical near fields," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 839-862 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sargent, E. H.

Q4. G. Konstantatos, J. Clifford, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Sensitive solution-processed visible-wavelength photodetectors," Nat. Photonics 1, 531-534 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Konstantatos, I. Howard, A. Fischer, S. Hoogland, J. Clifford, E. Klem, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors," Nature 442, 180-183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saykally, R. J.

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, "Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration," Science 305, 1269-1273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schaller, R. D.

R. D. Schaller, M. Sykora, S. Jeong, and V. I. Klimov, "High-efficiency carrier multiplication and ultrafast charge separation in semiconductor nanocrystals studied via time-resolved photoluminescence," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 25332-25338 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Schaller, M. Sykora, J. M. Pietryga, and V. I. Klimov, "Seven excitons at a cost of one: Redefining the limits for conversion efficiency of photons into charge carriers," Nano Lett. 6, 424-429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott, A.

A. K. Mahapatro, A. Scott, A. Manning, and D. B. Janes, "Gold surface with sub-nm roughness realized by evaporation on a molecular adhesion monolayer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 151917, (2006).
[CrossRef]

Seto, C. T.

G. M. Whitesides, J. P. Mathias, and C. T. Seto, "Molecular Self-Assembly and Nanochemistry - A Chemical Strategy for the Synthesis of Nanostructures," Science 254, 1312-1319 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirbuly, D. J.

M. Law, D. J. Sirbuly, J. C. Johnson, J. Goldberger, R. J. Saykally, and P. D. Yang, "Nanoribbon waveguides for subwavelength photonics integration," Science 305, 1269-1273 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soljacic, M.

Su, M. Y.

Q3. E. J. Gansen, M. A. Rowe, M. B. Greene, D. Rosenberg, T. E. Harvey, M. Y. Su, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Ham, and R. P. Mirin, "Photon-number-discriminating detection using a quantum-dot, optically gated, fieldeffect transistor," Nature Photonics 1, 585-588 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sykora, M.

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L. Huang, M. C. Hegg, C.-J. Wang, and L. Y. Lin, "Fabrication of a nanophotonic waveguide and photodetector integrated device," Micro and Nano Letters (to be published)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Energy diagram of NCQD a, in the absence of light b, in the presence of light. ħω0 is the photon energy which promotes an electron from the valence to conduction band, Γ is the tunneling rate for a carrier in the conduction band of the NCQD, and Γ12. c, Schematic I–V characteristics of a nano-scale NCQD photodetector.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fabrication process of the NCQD photodetector. a, EBL and Au deposition with MPTMS as the adhesion layer. b, creating a nano-gap by break-junction procedure, and c, drop-casting QD deposition.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fabrication results. a, Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a pre-QD deposition break-junction electrode. b, SEM of a NCQD photodetector.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Characterization of NCQD photodetectors. a, I–V characteristics of the break-junction electrode in dark (squares) and illuminated (circles) conditions. b, I–V characteristics of the NCQD photodetector under dark (squares) and illuminated (circles) conditions.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Finite element simulation of the electric field in and around a 20nm nano-gap. a, Surface plot of the electric field intensity in and around the nano-gap. b, Plot of E/Emax vs. radial distance from the electrode edge.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Characterization results of the NCQD photodetector. a, Responsivity measured at room temperature using a calibrated 405 nm laser and biased at 4.0 V. b, Signal-to-dark current ratio SDR (squares) and responsivity R (circles) at 4V bias for devices of variable gap sizes.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Integrated photodetector and waveguide device.

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