Abstract

Frequency doubling has been achieved in femtosecond-laserinscribed single-mode waveguides written in two periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystals. A conversion efficiency of 0.22 %W-1 was obtained for first-order quasi-phase matching at 980 nm and an efficiency of 0.02 %W-1 for third-order quasi-phase matching at 800 nm.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Okhrimchuk, A. V. Shestakov, I. Khrushchev and J. Mitchell, "Depressed cladding, buried waveguide laser formed in a YAG: Nd3+ crystal by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Lett. 30, 2248 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo and P. Laporta, "Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+: Sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewitt, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laser-written waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 165-171 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  9. F. Laurell, J. B. Brown, and J. D. Bierlein, "Sum-frequency generation in segmented KTP waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1064 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. D. Bierlein, J. B. Brown, M. G. Roelofs, F. Laurell and M. Pierrou, " High power blue light generation in segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides," 8th European Conference on Integrated Optics, ECIO´97, EFA2, April, 2-4 1997.
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    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, and Y. Hibino, "Low loss waveguides written with a femtosecond laser for flexible interconnection in a planar light-wave circuit," Opt. Lett. 30, 723-725 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2006

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewitt, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laser-written waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 165-171 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, G. Brown, A. Jha, and S. Shen, "Femtosecond laser inscription of optical waveguides in Bismuth ion doped glass," Opt. Express,  14, 10452-10459 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo and P. Laporta, "Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+: Sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999

F. Laurell "Periodically poled materials for miniature light sources," Opt. Maters. 11, 235-244 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

1992

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurell, J. B. Brown, and J. D. Bierlein, "Sum-frequency generation in segmented KTP waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1064 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. J. van der Poel, J. D. Bierlein, J. B. Brown, and S. Colak, "Efficient Type I blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides," Appl. Phys. A 57, 2074-2076 (1990).

1987

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, "Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Apostolopoulos, V.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo and P. Laporta, "Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+: Sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bierlein, J. D.

F. Laurell, J. B. Brown, and J. D. Bierlein, "Sum-frequency generation in segmented KTP waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1064 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. J. van der Poel, J. D. Bierlein, J. B. Brown, and S. Colak, "Efficient Type I blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides," Appl. Phys. A 57, 2074-2076 (1990).

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, "Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Blewitt, I. J.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewitt, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bookey, H. T.

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, G. Brown, A. Jha, and S. Shen, "Femtosecond laser inscription of optical waveguides in Bismuth ion doped glass," Opt. Express,  14, 10452-10459 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brixner, L. H.

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, "Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Brown, G.

Brown, J. B.

F. Laurell, J. B. Brown, and J. D. Bierlein, "Sum-frequency generation in segmented KTP waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1064 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. J. van der Poel, J. D. Bierlein, J. B. Brown, and S. Colak, "Efficient Type I blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides," Appl. Phys. A 57, 2074-2076 (1990).

Burghoff, J.

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laser-written waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 165-171 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, S.

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewitt, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, G. Brown, A. Jha, and S. Shen, "Femtosecond laser inscription of optical waveguides in Bismuth ion doped glass," Opt. Express,  14, 10452-10459 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo and P. Laporta, "Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+: Sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chiodo, N.

Choi, S. C.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Colak, S.

C. J. van der Poel, J. D. Bierlein, J. B. Brown, and S. Colak, "Efficient Type I blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides," Appl. Phys. A 57, 2074-2076 (1990).

Colomb, T.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo and P. Laporta, "Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+: Sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Depeursinge, C.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo and P. Laporta, "Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+: Sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ferretti, A.

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, "Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Grebing, C.

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laser-written waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 165-171 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

Hirao, K.

Hsu, W. Y.

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, "Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Jha, A.

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, G. Brown, A. Jha, and S. Shen, "Femtosecond laser inscription of optical waveguides in Bismuth ion doped glass," Opt. Express,  14, 10452-10459 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jundt, D. H.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jung, C.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewitt, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, G. Brown, A. Jha, and S. Shen, "Femtosecond laser inscription of optical waveguides in Bismuth ion doped glass," Opt. Express,  14, 10452-10459 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khrushchev, I.

Kim, W. K.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ko, D. K.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kohtoku, M.

Laporta, P.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo and P. Laporta, "Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+: Sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

F. Laurell "Periodically poled materials for miniature light sources," Opt. Maters. 11, 235-244 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Laurell, J. B. Brown, and J. D. Bierlein, "Sum-frequency generation in segmented KTP waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1064 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laversenne, L.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo and P. Laporta, "Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+: Sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. M.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. Y.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. L.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, G. A. Magel, D. H. Jundt, and R. L. Byer, "Quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation: Tuning and tolerances," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2631 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, J.

Miura, K.

Nasu, Y.

Noh, Y. C.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laser-written waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 165-171 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okhrimchuk, G.

Osellame, R.

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, G. Brown, A. Jha, and S. Shen, "Femtosecond laser inscription of optical waveguides in Bismuth ion doped glass," Opt. Express,  14, 10452-10459 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo and P. Laporta, "Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+: Sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo and P. Laporta, "Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+: Sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Psaila, N.

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Psaila, N. D.

Reid, D. T.

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewitt, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salathe, R. P.

V. Apostolopoulos, L. Laversenne, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, R. P. Salathe, M. Pollnau, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo and P. Laporta, "Femtosecond-irradiation-induced refractive-index changes and channel waveguiding in bulk Ti3+: Sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S.

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, G. Brown, A. Jha, and S. Shen, "Femtosecond laser inscription of optical waveguides in Bismuth ion doped glass," Opt. Express,  14, 10452-10459 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shestakov, A. V.

Sohn, I. B.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Thomson, R. R.

R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewitt, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Psaila, R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, G. Brown, A. Jha, and S. Shen, "Femtosecond laser inscription of optical waveguides in Bismuth ion doped glass," Opt. Express,  14, 10452-10459 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laser-written waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 165-171 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van der Poel, C. J.

C. J. van der Poel, J. D. Bierlein, J. B. Brown, and S. Colak, "Efficient Type I blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides," Appl. Phys. A 57, 2074-2076 (1990).

Yang, W. S.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B. A.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N. E.

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

C. J. van der Poel, J. D. Bierlein, J. B. Brown, and S. Colak, "Efficient Type I blue second harmonic generation in periodically segmented KTiOPO4 waveguides," Appl. Phys. A 57, 2074-2076 (1990).

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[CrossRef]

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R. R. Thomson, S. Campbell, I. J. Blewitt, A. K. Kar, and D. T. Reid, "Optical waveguide fabrication in z-cut lithium niobate using femtosecond pulses in the low repetition rate regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 111109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Burghoff, C. Grebing, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Efficient frequency doubling in femtosecond laser-written waveguides in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 165-171 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Lee, N. E. Yu, C. Jung, B. A. Yu, I. B. Sohn, S. C. Choi, Y. C. Noh, D. K. Ko, W. S. Yang, H. M. Lee, W. K. Kim, and H. Y. Lee, "Second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 171103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Bierlein, A. Ferretti, L. H. Brixner, and W. Y. Hsu, "Fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides in KTiOPO4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1216 (1987).
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[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen, A. Jha, and A. K. Kar, "Internal gain from an erbium doped oxyfluoride silicate glass waveguide fabricated using femtosecond waveguide inscription," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,1515-1517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Optical micrograph of the end facet of a typical waveguide written with pulse energies of 1.4 µJ, a writing speed of 50 µm s-1 and 6 scans separated by 0.8 µm; (b) the resulting fundamental (single) mode from the guide which was polarised in the Y direction. Scales in mm. The inscribing femtosecond beam was incident upon the crystal from the top of these images.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Profiles of the fundamental 980 nm guided mode in the (a) x and (b) y-directions. The crystal c-axis is parallel to the y-direction.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectrum of the second-harmonic wave

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