Abstract

The current paradigm of isolated attosecond pulse production requires a few-cycle pulse as the driver for high-harmonic generation that has a cosine-like electric field stabilized with respect to the peak of the pulse envelope. Here, we present simulations and experimental evidence that the production of high-harmonic light can be restricted to one or a few cycles on the leading edge of a laser pulse by a gating mechanism that employs time-dependent ionization of the conversion medium. This scheme enables the generation of broadband and tunable attosecond pulses. Instead of fixing the carrier-envelope phase to produce a cosine driver pulse, the phase becomes a control parameter for the center frequency of the attosecond pulse. A method to assess the multiplicity of attosecond pulses in the pulse train is also presented. The results of our study suggest an avenue towards relaxing the requirement of few-cycle pulses for isolated attosecond pulse generation.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug′e, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varju, Y. Ni, F. Lepine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. Lopez-Martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nature Physics 2, 323–326 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Cao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, X. L. Wang, G. A. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Physics 3, 52–57 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, “Generating single attosecond pulses via spatial filtering,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3188–3190 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics 2, 319–322 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Physics 3, 52–57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, “Generating single attosecond pulses via spatial filtering,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3188–3190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varju, Y. Ni, F. Lepine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. Lopez-Martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nature Physics 2, 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Cao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, X. L. Wang, G. A. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug′e, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agostini, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug′e, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Altucci, C.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonetti, A.

A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aug'e, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug′e, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avaldi, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug′e, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhal, A.

A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug′e, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Calegari, F.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

W. Cao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, X. L. Wang, G. A. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Caumes, J. P.

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chipperfield, L. E.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Physics 3, 52–57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Constant, E.

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Constantinescu, R.

A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elouga, L.

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Flammini, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaarde, M. B.

Gohle, C.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goulielmakis, E.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gustafsson, E.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varju, Y. Ni, F. Lepine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. Lopez-Martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nature Physics 2, 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hamoniaux, G.

A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haworth, C. A.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Physics 3, 52–57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heinzmann, U.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendel, S.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnsson, P.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varju, Y. Ni, F. Lepine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. Lopez-Martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nature Physics 2, 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kabachnik, N. M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanai, T.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, J.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varju, Y. Ni, F. Lepine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. Lopez-Martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nature Physics 2, 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kling, M.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varju, Y. Ni, F. Lepine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. Lopez-Martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nature Physics 2, 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kling, M. F.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, P. L.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Physics 3, 52–57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kompa, K. L.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosuge, A.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L’Huillier, A.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varju, Y. Ni, F. Lepine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. Lopez-Martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nature Physics 2, 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lan, P. F.

W. Cao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, X. L. Wang, G. A. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lepine, F.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varju, Y. Ni, F. Lepine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. Lopez-Martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nature Physics 2, 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lezius, M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez-Martens, R.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varju, Y. Ni, F. Lepine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. Lopez-Martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nature Physics 2, 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P. X.

W. Cao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, X. L. Wang, G. A. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Physics 3, 52–57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mauritsson, J.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varju, Y. Ni, F. Lepine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. Lopez-Martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nature Physics 2, 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mevel, E.

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, H. G.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug′e, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug′e, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ni, Y.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varju, Y. Ni, F. Lepine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. Lopez-Martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nature Physics 2, 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug′e, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rauschenberger, J.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Remetter, T.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varju, Y. Ni, F. Lepine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. Lopez-Martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nature Physics 2, 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. S.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Physics 3, 52–57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

A. Bouhal, P. Salières, P. Breger, P. Agostini, G. Hamoniaux, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Antonetti, R. Constantinescu, H. G. Muller, “Temporal dependence of high-order harmonics in the presence of strong ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 389–399 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sansone, G.

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varju, Y. Ni, F. Lepine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. Lopez-Martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nature Physics 2, 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde, K. J. Schafer, “Generating single attosecond pulses via spatial filtering,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3188–3190 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroder, H.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekikawa, T.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silvestri, S. D.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sola, I. J.

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, C. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond metrology,” Nature 414, 509–513 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Strelkov, V.

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tisch, J. W. G.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Physics 3, 52–57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug′e, P. Balcou, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, “Observation of a train of attosecond pulses from high harmonic generation,” Science 292, 1689–1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, T.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uphues, T.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varju, K.

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varju, Y. Ni, F. Lepine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. Lopez-Martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nature Physics 2, 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Velotta, R.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhoef, A. J.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vozzi, C.

I. J. Sola, E. Mevel, L. Elouga, E. Constant, V. Strelkov, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, E. Benedetti, J. P. Caumes, S. Stagira, C. Vozzi, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, “Controlling attosecond electron dynamics by phase-stabilized polarization gating,” Nature Physics 2, 319–322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Sansone, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, L. Avaldi, R. Flammini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, C. Altucci, R. Velotta, S. Stagira, S. D. Silvestri, M. Nisoli, “Isolated single-cycle attosecond pulses,” Science 314, 443–446 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Remetter, P. Johnsson, J. Mauritsson, K. Varju, Y. Ni, F. Lepine, E. Gustafsson, M. Kling, J. Khan, R. Lopez-Martens, K. J. Schafer, M. J. J. Vrakking, A. L’Huillier, “Attosecond electron wave packet interferometry,” Nature Physics 2, 323–326 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

W. Cao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, X. L. Wang, G. A. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westerwalbesloh, T.

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

M. Uiberacker, T. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schroder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H. G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, “Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunnelling in atoms,”Nature 446, 627–632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Drescher, M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, M. Uiberacker, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, F. Krausz, “Time-resolved atomic inner-shell spectroscopy,” Nature 419, 803–807 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, C. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421, 611–615 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, G. A.

W. Cao, P. X. Lu, P. F. Lan, X. L. Wang, G. A. Yang, “Single-attosecond pulse generation with an intense multicycle driving pulse,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063821 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Physics (1)

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Physics 3, 52–57 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (5)

T. Sekikawa, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, “Nonlinear optics in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 432, 605–608 (2004).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Half-cycle resolved cutoff energy calculation (kinetic energies of the recombining electron) for a 3-cycle FWHM pulse shown in (a) by including depletion of the harmonic medium (b). For illustration purposes, an error-function shape is assumed in the model as an approximation of a step-like function that would be expected for tunnel ionization. HCO positions were calculated in (c) by neglecting and in (d) by including depletion. The intensity of the lines indicates the spectral intensity at the HCO position.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) High-Harmonic spectra measured for different CEP values (solid lines). Filtering out the harmonic modulation at 2ħωL ~3 eV reveals several HCO maxima that shift to higher photon energy with increasing CEP (b). The remaining modulation of 1ħωL is indicative of three attosecond pulses in this spectral range. A global minimum around 100 eV is an artifact caused by partial absorption in our Si3N4 spectrometer grating, the dotted line shows the harmonic spectrum averaged over 4 different CEP values after removing both 2ħωL and 1ħωL modulations.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Harmonic spectra from Fig. 2(b) after removal of harmonic modulations (Fourier filtering) and dividing by the CEP-average spectrum. Above 120 eV only experimental noise is observed in the spectrum. The positions of the half-cycle cutoffs are indicated by black squares (a) while the approximately constant slope lines indicate the linear increase of the HCO photon energy as a function of CEP. A fit to an HCO trace at a pulse duration of ~4 fs shows poor agreement due to the predicted saturation of HCO energies at the peak of the laser pulse (b) while a fit to the leading edge of a 7 fs (c) or 8 fs (d) pulse results in very good agreement to the measured data.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Reconstruction of the leading edge intensity envelope of a laser pulse by unfolding the HCO data shown in Fig. 3. A Gaussian laser pulse of 8 fs duration (solid red line) fits to both the HCO positions (thin grey lines, calculated as in Fig. 1(c) and unwrapped (see text)) and the measured data on the leading edge (black dots). The grey shaded area represents the time of closure of the ionization gate. (b) By improving the compression of the laser pulse to 6 fs the slope steepness is increased, leading to the experimental observation of a broad quasi-continuum that can be tuned in energy by varying the CEP. Most of this continuum stems from a single half-cycle cutoff while the slight modulation is caused by small contributions of the neighboring half-cycles. (c) A multi-cycle, 20 fs pulse (green line) produces the same steepness (slope) of the rising edge as a 6 fs pulse (black line) after increasing its peak electric field by a factor of 10. The red line shows an 8 fs pulse.

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