Abstract

We have demonstrated error-free operations of slow-light via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fiber for 10-Gb/s signals with different modulation formats, including non-return-to-zero (NRZ), phase-shaped binary transmission (PSBT) and differential phase-shift-keying (DPSK). The SBS gain bandwidth is broadened by using current noise modulation of the pump laser diode. The gain shape is simply controlled by the noise density function. Super-Gaussian noise modulation of the Brillouin pump allows a flat-top and sharp-edge SBS gain spectrum, which can reduce slow-light induced distortion in case of 10-Gb/s NRZ signal. The corresponding maximal delay-time with error-free operation is 35 ps. Then we propose the PSBT format to minimize distortions resulting from SBS filtering effect and dispersion accompanied with slow light because of its high spectral efficiency and strong dispersion tolerance. The sensitivity of the 10-Gb/s PSBT signal is 5.2 dB better than the NRZ case with a same 35-ps delay. The maximal delay of 51 ps with error-free operation has been achieved. Futhermore, the DPSK format is directly demodulated through a Gaussian-shaped SBS gain, which is achieved using Gaussian-noise modulation of the Brillouin pump. The maximal error-free time delay after demodulation of a 10-Gb/s DPSK signal is as high as 81.5 ps, which is the best demonstrated result for 10-Gb/s slow-light.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Y. Song, M. G. Herraez and L. Thevenaz, "Observation of pulse delaying and advancement in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering," Opt. Express 13, 82-88, (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Yi, L. Zhan, W. Hu, and Y. Xia, "Delay of broadband signals using slow light in stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase-modulated pump," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 619-621, (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Penninckx, H. Bissessur, P. Brindel, E. Gohin, and F. Bakhti, "Optical differential phase shift keying (DPSK) direct detection considered as a duobinary signal," in proceedings of ECOC2001, 3, 456-457.
  14. S. Bigo, G. Charlet, and E. Corbel, "What has hybrid phase/intensity encoding brought to 40 Gbit/s ultralong-haul systems?" in proceedings of ECOC2004, Stockholm, Sweden, Paper Th2.5.1.
  15. L. Yi, Y. Jaouën, W. Hu, J. Zhou, Y. Su, and E. Pincemin, "Simultaneous demodulation and slow-light delay of DPSK signals at flexible bit-rates using bandwidth-tunable SBS in optical fibre," in proceedings of ECOC 2007, Berlin, Germany, paper We6.6.1.
  16. H. Kim and C. X. Yu, "Optical duobinary transmission system featuring improved receiver sensitivity and reduced optical bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1205-1207 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Franck, P. B. Hansen, T. N. Nielsen and L. Eskildsen, "Novel duobinary transmitter," in proceedings of ECOC’97, 67-70 (1997).
  18. T. Tanemura, Y. Takushima, and K , Kikuchi, "Narrowband optical filter, with a variable transmission spectrum, using stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 27, 1552-1554 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. Penninckx, "Enhanced-phase-shaped binary transmission," Electron. Lett. 36, 478-480 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Charlet, J. C. Antona, S. Lanne, P. Tran, W. Idler,  et al., "6.4Tb/s (159×42.7Gb/s) capacity over 21×100km using bandwidth-limited phase-shaped binary transmission," in proceedings of ECOC2002, paper PD4.1

2007

2006

2005

2002

H. Kim and C. X. Yu, "Optical duobinary transmission system featuring improved receiver sensitivity and reduced optical bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1205-1207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanemura, Y. Takushima, and K , Kikuchi, "Narrowband optical filter, with a variable transmission spectrum, using stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 27, 1552-1554 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. Penninckx, "Enhanced-phase-shaped binary transmission," Electron. Lett. 36, 478-480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Penninckx, M. Chbat, L. Pierre, and J. P. Thiery, "The Phase-Shaped Binary Transmission (PSBT): a new technique to transmit far beyond the chromatic dispersion limit," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 259-261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R. W.

Chbat, M.

D. Penninckx, M. Chbat, L. Pierre, and J. P. Thiery, "The Phase-Shaped Binary Transmission (PSBT): a new technique to transmit far beyond the chromatic dispersion limit," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 259-261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dawes, A. M. C.

Eyal, A.

Fazal, I.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gauthier, D. J.

Gonzalea-Herraez, M.

Gonzalez Herraze, M.

Herraez, M. G.

Hu, W.

L. Yi, L. Zhan, W. Hu, and Y. Xia, "Delay of broadband signals using slow light in stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase-modulated pump," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 619-621, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Junker, M.

Kikuchi, K

Kim, H.

H. Kim and C. X. Yu, "Optical duobinary transmission system featuring improved receiver sensitivity and reduced optical bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1205-1207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lauterbach, K. U.

Neifeld, M. A.

Okawachi, Y.

Penninckx, D.

D. Penninckx, "Enhanced-phase-shaped binary transmission," Electron. Lett. 36, 478-480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Penninckx, M. Chbat, L. Pierre, and J. P. Thiery, "The Phase-Shaped Binary Transmission (PSBT): a new technique to transmit far beyond the chromatic dispersion limit," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 259-261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pierre, L.

D. Penninckx, M. Chbat, L. Pierre, and J. P. Thiery, "The Phase-Shaped Binary Transmission (PSBT): a new technique to transmit far beyond the chromatic dispersion limit," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 259-261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, T.

Sharping, J. E.

Song, K. Y.

Stenner, M. D.

Takushima, Y.

Tanemura, T.

Thevenaz, L.

Thiery, J. P.

D. Penninckx, M. Chbat, L. Pierre, and J. P. Thiery, "The Phase-Shaped Binary Transmission (PSBT): a new technique to transmit far beyond the chromatic dispersion limit," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 259-261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

Willner, A. E.

Xia, Y.

L. Yi, L. Zhan, W. Hu, and Y. Xia, "Delay of broadband signals using slow light in stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase-modulated pump," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 619-621, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L.

Yi, L.

L. Yi, L. Zhan, W. Hu, and Y. Xia, "Delay of broadband signals using slow light in stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase-modulated pump," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 619-621, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yong Song, K.

Yu, C. X.

H. Kim and C. X. Yu, "Optical duobinary transmission system featuring improved receiver sensitivity and reduced optical bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1205-1207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zadok, A.

Zhan, L.

L. Yi, L. Zhan, W. Hu, and Y. Xia, "Delay of broadband signals using slow light in stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase-modulated pump," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 619-621, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, L.

Zhu, Z.

Electron. Lett.

D. Penninckx, "Enhanced-phase-shaped binary transmission," Electron. Lett. 36, 478-480 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Kim and C. X. Yu, "Optical duobinary transmission system featuring improved receiver sensitivity and reduced optical bandwidth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1205-1207 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett.

D. Penninckx, M. Chbat, L. Pierre, and J. P. Thiery, "The Phase-Shaped Binary Transmission (PSBT): a new technique to transmit far beyond the chromatic dispersion limit," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 259-261 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Yi, L. Zhan, W. Hu, and Y. Xia, "Delay of broadband signals using slow light in stimulated Brillouin scattering with phase-modulated pump," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 619-621, (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

T. Franck, P. B. Hansen, T. N. Nielsen and L. Eskildsen, "Novel duobinary transmitter," in proceedings of ECOC’97, 67-70 (1997).

D. Penninckx, H. Bissessur, P. Brindel, E. Gohin, and F. Bakhti, "Optical differential phase shift keying (DPSK) direct detection considered as a duobinary signal," in proceedings of ECOC2001, 3, 456-457.

S. Bigo, G. Charlet, and E. Corbel, "What has hybrid phase/intensity encoding brought to 40 Gbit/s ultralong-haul systems?" in proceedings of ECOC2004, Stockholm, Sweden, Paper Th2.5.1.

L. Yi, Y. Jaouën, W. Hu, J. Zhou, Y. Su, and E. Pincemin, "Simultaneous demodulation and slow-light delay of DPSK signals at flexible bit-rates using bandwidth-tunable SBS in optical fibre," in proceedings of ECOC 2007, Berlin, Germany, paper We6.6.1.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta,"Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett.  94, 153902 1-4, (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Charlet, J. C. Antona, S. Lanne, P. Tran, W. Idler,  et al., "6.4Tb/s (159×42.7Gb/s) capacity over 21×100km using bandwidth-limited phase-shaped binary transmission," in proceedings of ECOC2002, paper PD4.1

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental set-up. (LD) laser diode, (MZM) Mach-Zehnder modulator, (EDFA) Erbium-doped fiber amplifier, (PC) polarization controller, (OC) optical circulator, (FBG) fiber Bragg grating, (VOA) variable optical attenuator, (PD) photodiode, (BERT) bit-error-rate tester.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The optical spectra of 10-Gb/s PSBT signals amplified by SBS. (a) Measured before FBG, and (b) after FBG.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The power spectra of Gaussian noise (a) and super-Gaussian noise (b) observed by an oscilloscope in color mode.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The SBS pump spectra (a) and the corresponding gain spectra (b) in case of Gaussian-noise and super-Gaussian noise modulation of the Brillouin pump LD.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Delay-time, eye diagram, BER and pulse pattern evolutions with pump power for the 10-Gb/s NRZ signal.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Delay-time, eye diagram, BER and pulse pattern evolutions with pump power for the 10-Gb/s PSBT signal.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Delay-time, eye diagram, BER and pulse pattern evolutions with pump power for the 10-Gb/s DPSK signal.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Delay versus the signal gain and (b) sensitivity versus the delay for 10-Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals.

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