Abstract

It has been shown that transversal scanning (or en-face) optical coherence tomography (TS-OCT) represents an imaging modality capable to record high isotropic resolution images of the human retina in vivo. However, axial eye motion still remains a challenging problem of this technique. In this paper we introduce a novel method to compensate for this eye motion. An auxiliary spectral domain partial coherence interferometer (SD-PCI) was integrated into an existing TS-OCT system and used to measure accurately the position of the cornea. A light source emitting at 1310nm was used in the additional interferometer which enabled a nearly loss free coupling of the two measurement beams via a dichroic mirror. The recorded corneal position was used to drive an additional voice coil translation stage in the reference arm of the TS-OCT system to correct for axial eye motion. Currently, the correction can be performed with an update rate of ~200Hz. The TS-OCT instrument is operated with a line scan rate of 4000 transversal lines per second which enables simultaneous SLO/OCT imaging at a frame rate of 40fps. 3D data of the human retina with isotropic high resolution, that was sufficient to visualize the human cone mosaic in vivo, is presented.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]
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2007

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, S. M. Jones, S. S. Oliver and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography: optimizing visualization of microscopic retinal structures in three dimensions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1373-1383 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, R. J. Zawadzki, J. W. Evans, J. S. Werner and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Simultaneous imaging of human cone mosaic with adaptive optics enhanced scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and high- speed transversal scanning optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. (2007), in press.
[PubMed]

2006

D. Merino, C. Dainty, A. Bradu and A. Gh. Podoleanu, "Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 14, 3345-3353 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3345
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal cone mosaic imaged with transversal scanning OCT," Opt. Lett. 31,1821-1823 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, M. Villiger, A. H. Bachmann, L. Steinmann, and T. Lasser, "Extended focus depth for Fourier domain optical coherence microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 2450-2452 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging,"Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3354.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-10-4380
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, "Dynamic focus in optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054013 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. A. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Ultrahigh resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography, " Porc. SPIE 5690, 257-262 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. E. J. van Velthoven, F. D. Verbraak, P. M. Garcia, R. O. Schlingemann, R. B. Rosen, and M. D. de Smet, "Evaluation of central serous retinopathy with en face optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Opthalmol. 89, 1483-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811, (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4792
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-21-8532
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

2002

1999

1998

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, and D. A. Jackson, "En-face coherence imaging using galvanometer scanner modulation," Opt. Lett. 23, 147-149 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Gh. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, "Combined Optical Coherence Tomograph and Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," Electron. Lett. 34, 1088-1090 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Schmetterer, S. Dallinger, O. Findl, K. Strenn, U. Graselli, H. G. Eichler, and M. Wolzt, "Noninvasive investigations of the normal ocular circulation in humans," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 1210-1220 (1998).

P. Thevenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, "A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 7-41 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1993

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, "In-vivo optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113-115 (1993).
[PubMed]

1992

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography" Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Compar. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Bachmann, A. H.

Baumann, B.

Bigelow, C. E.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

Bower, B. A.

Bradu, A.

Burns, S. A.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography" Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S.

Choi, S. S.

Curcio, C. A.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Compar. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Dainty, C.

Dallinger, S

L. Schmetterer, S. Dallinger, O. Findl, K. Strenn, U. Graselli, H. G. Eichler, and M. Wolzt, "Noninvasive investigations of the normal ocular circulation in humans," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 1210-1220 (1998).

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

de Smet, M. D.

M. E. J. van Velthoven, F. D. Verbraak, P. M. Garcia, R. O. Schlingemann, R. B. Rosen, and M. D. de Smet, "Evaluation of central serous retinopathy with en face optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Opthalmol. 89, 1483-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dobre, G. M.

Donnelly, W. J.

Drexler, W.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, "In-vivo optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113-115 (1993).
[PubMed]

Duker, J. S.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eichler, HG

L. Schmetterer, S. Dallinger, O. Findl, K. Strenn, U. Graselli, H. G. Eichler, and M. Wolzt, "Noninvasive investigations of the normal ocular circulation in humans," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 1210-1220 (1998).

Elsner, A. E.

Evans, J. W.

M. Pircher, R. J. Zawadzki, J. W. Evans, J. S. Werner and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Simultaneous imaging of human cone mosaic with adaptive optics enhanced scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and high- speed transversal scanning optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. (2007), in press.
[PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, R. D.

Findl, O

L. Schmetterer, S. Dallinger, O. Findl, K. Strenn, U. Graselli, H. G. Eichler, and M. Wolzt, "Noninvasive investigations of the normal ocular circulation in humans," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 1210-1220 (1998).

Findl, O.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-24-5940
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography" Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-speed phase- and group-delay scanning with a grating-based phase control delay line," Opt. Lett. 22, 1811-1813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography" Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

Garcia, P. M.

M. E. J. van Velthoven, F. D. Verbraak, P. M. Garcia, R. O. Schlingemann, R. B. Rosen, and M. D. de Smet, "Evaluation of central serous retinopathy with en face optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Opthalmol. 89, 1483-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geitzenauer, W.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gh, A.

A. Gh. Podoleanu, and D. A. Jackson, "Noise Analysis of a Combined Optical Coherence Tomograph and a Confocal Scanning Ophthalmoscope," Appl. Opt. 38, 2116 - 2127 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Gh. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, "Combined Optical Coherence Tomograph and Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," Electron. Lett. 34, 1088-1090 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gh. Podoleanu, Adrian

Goetzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. A. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Ultrahigh resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography, " Porc. SPIE 5690, 257-262 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Götzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, "Dynamic focus in optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054013 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal cone mosaic imaged with transversal scanning OCT," Opt. Lett. 31,1821-1823 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-24-5940
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graselli, U

L. Schmetterer, S. Dallinger, O. Findl, K. Strenn, U. Graselli, H. G. Eichler, and M. Wolzt, "Noninvasive investigations of the normal ocular circulation in humans," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 1210-1220 (1998).

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography" Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammer, D. X.

Hebert, T. J.

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography" Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hendrickson, A. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Compar. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Pircher, R. J. Zawadzki, J. W. Evans, J. S. Werner and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Simultaneous imaging of human cone mosaic with adaptive optics enhanced scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and high- speed transversal scanning optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. (2007), in press.
[PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, "Dynamic focus in optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054013 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal cone mosaic imaged with transversal scanning OCT," Opt. Lett. 31,1821-1823 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. A. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Ultrahigh resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography, " Porc. SPIE 5690, 257-262 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-24-5940
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-8-889
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, P. Trost, P. W. Lo, Q. Zhou. "Three dimensional imaging of the human retina by high speed optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2753-2761 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-21-2753
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, "In-vivo optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113-115 (1993).
[PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, "Measurement of corneal thickness by low-coherence interferometry," Appl. Opt. 31, 6637-6642 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography" Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N.

Iftimia, N. V.

Izatt, J. A.

Jackson, D. A.

Jones, S.

Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R. S.

Kalina, R. E.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Compar. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, "In-vivo optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113-115 (1993).
[PubMed]

Ko, T.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasser, T.

Laut, S.

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

Leydolt, C.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography" Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, P. W.

Magill, J. C.

Merino, D.

Michels, S.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. T.

Oliver, S. S.

Olivier, S.

Olivier, S. S.

Park, B.

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher, R. J. Zawadzki, J. W. Evans, J. S. Werner and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Simultaneous imaging of human cone mosaic with adaptive optics enhanced scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and high- speed transversal scanning optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. (2007), in press.
[PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, "Dynamic focus in optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054013 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal cone mosaic imaged with transversal scanning OCT," Opt. Lett. 31,1821-1823 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. A. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Ultrahigh resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography, " Porc. SPIE 5690, 257-262 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-24-5940
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A. G.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography" Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Queener, H.

Rha, J.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

Rosen, R. B.

M. E. J. van Velthoven, F. D. Verbraak, P. M. Garcia, R. O. Schlingemann, R. B. Rosen, and M. D. de Smet, "Evaluation of central serous retinopathy with en face optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Opthalmol. 89, 1483-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ruttimann, U.E.

P. Thevenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, "A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 7-41 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sattmann, H.

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. A. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Ultrahigh resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography, " Porc. SPIE 5690, 257-262 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-24-5940
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, "In-vivo optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113-115 (1993).
[PubMed]

Schlingemann, R. O.

M. E. J. van Velthoven, F. D. Verbraak, P. M. Garcia, R. O. Schlingemann, R. B. Rosen, and M. D. de Smet, "Evaluation of central serous retinopathy with en face optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Opthalmol. 89, 1483-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmetterer, L

L. Schmetterer, S. Dallinger, O. Findl, K. Strenn, U. Graselli, H. G. Eichler, and M. Wolzt, "Noninvasive investigations of the normal ocular circulation in humans," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 1210-1220 (1998).

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography" Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sloan, K. R.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Compar. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990)
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, V.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmann, L.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography" Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strenn, K

L. Schmetterer, S. Dallinger, O. Findl, K. Strenn, U. Graselli, H. G. Eichler, and M. Wolzt, "Noninvasive investigations of the normal ocular circulation in humans," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 1210-1220 (1998).

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography" Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

Thevenaz, P.

P. Thevenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, "A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 7-41 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Trost, P.

Unser, M.

P. Thevenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, "A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 7-41 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ustun, T. E.

van Velthoven, M E. J.

M. E. J. van Velthoven, F. D. Verbraak, P. M. Garcia, R. O. Schlingemann, R. B. Rosen, and M. D. de Smet, "Evaluation of central serous retinopathy with en face optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Opthalmol. 89, 1483-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Verbraak, F. D.

M. E. J. van Velthoven, F. D. Verbraak, P. M. Garcia, R. O. Schlingemann, R. B. Rosen, and M. D. de Smet, "Evaluation of central serous retinopathy with en face optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Opthalmol. 89, 1483-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Villiger, M.

Webb, R. H.

Werner, J. S.

White, M. A.

Williams, D. R.

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolzt, M

L. Schmetterer, S. Dallinger, O. Findl, K. Strenn, U. Graselli, H. G. Eichler, and M. Wolzt, "Noninvasive investigations of the normal ocular circulation in humans," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 1210-1220 (1998).

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, M.

Zhou, Q.

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, G. Kamp, H. Sattmann, "In-vivo optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 116, 113-115 (1993).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Br. J. Opthalmol.

M. E. J. van Velthoven, F. D. Verbraak, P. M. Garcia, R. O. Schlingemann, R. B. Rosen, and M. D. de Smet, "Evaluation of central serous retinopathy with en face optical coherence tomography," Br. J. Opthalmol. 89, 1483-1488 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

A. Gh. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, "Combined Optical Coherence Tomograph and Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope," Electron. Lett. 34, 1088-1090 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process.

P. Thevenaz, U. E. Ruttimann, and M. Unser, "A pyramid approach to subpixel registration based on intensity," IEEE Trans. Image Process. 7, 7-41 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci.

L. Schmetterer, S. Dallinger, O. Findl, K. Strenn, U. Graselli, H. G. Eichler, and M. Wolzt, "Noninvasive investigations of the normal ocular circulation in humans," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 39, 1210-1220 (1998).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, O. Findl, S. Michels, W. Geitzenauer, C. Leydolt, U. Schmidt-Erfurth and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Human macula investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual. Sci 47, 5487-5494 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, "Dynamic focus in optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 054013 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Compar. Neurol.

C. A. Curcio, K. R. Sloan, R. E. Kalina, and A. E. Hendrickson, "Human photoreceptor topography," J. Compar. Neurol. 292, 497-523 (1990)
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Ophthalmology

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, "Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina," Opt. Express 13, 4792-4811, (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4792
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, "Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging," Opt. Express 13, 8532-8546 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-21-8532
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-10-4380
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. J. Donnelly, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, M. C. W. Campbell, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 10, 405-412 (2002). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-9-405
[PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-8-889
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Hitzenberger, P. Trost, P. W. Lo, Q. Zhou. "Three dimensional imaging of the human retina by high speed optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2753-2761 (2003). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-21-2753
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Götzinger, R. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann, O. Findl and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Imaging of polarization properties of human retina in vivo with phase resolved transversal PS-OCT," Opt. Express 12, 5940-5951 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-24-5940
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Merino, C. Dainty, A. Bradu and A. Gh. Podoleanu, "Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy," Opt. Express 14, 3345-3353 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3345
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D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, "Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging,"Opt. Express 14, 3354-3367 (2006). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-8-3354.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia, B. Bouma, J. de Boer, B. Park, B. Cense, and G. Tearney, "Adaptive ranging for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 4025-4034 (2004). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-17-4025.
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Opt. Lett.

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography" Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

SPIE Proceeding

M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, R. A. Leitgeb, H. Sattmann and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Ultrahigh resolution polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography, " Porc. SPIE 5690, 257-262 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (2736 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (2967 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sketch of the experimental setup. L1 fixed lens, L2 lens mounted on a translation stage, DM dichroic mirror, RM reference mirror, TS translation stage, VC voice coil translation stage, LS light source, AOM acousto optic modulator, P polarizer, BS non polarizing beam splitter

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Performance of axial eye motion correction. a) Black…recorded corneal position, red…motor position b) difference between curves in a)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Frame No. 8 of a sequence of en-face images recorded at fixed position of the translation stage. Left side: without depth correction. Right side: correction turned on. Field of view: 0.8°×0.8°. (To reduce file size, the pixel extension of the original movie was reduced by 70%; The bottom horizontal line is an artifact caused by the turning of the y-scanner.) [Media 1]

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

High resolution B-scan with axial motion correction turned on. (Extension: 0.8°×670µm (optical)). ILM inner limiting membrane, RNFL retinal nerve fiber layer, GCL ganglion cell layer, IPL inner plexiform layer, INL inner nuclear layer, OPL outer plexiform layer, ONL/HFL outer nuclear layer/Henle fiber layer, ELM external limiting membrane, IS/OS junction between inner and outer segments of photoreceptors, ETPR end tips of photoreceptors, RPE retinal pigment epithelium

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Frame No. 39 of a movie showing 3D data of the retina recorded with the instrument. Left side shows SLO images, the center shows en-face OCT images, right side shows extracted OCT B-scans. The white line shows the position of the corresponding B-scan (in the center image) and position of the corresponding en-face image (on the right hand side image), respectively. SLO images are displayed on a linear scale, OCT images are displayed on a logarithmic scale. Field of view of SLO and en-face OCT images: 0.8°×0.8°. Dimension of OCT B-scan: 0.8°×1mm (To reduce file size, the pixel extension of the original movie was reduced by 70%) [Media 2]

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of the cone photoreceptor mosaic imaged with different imaging modalities. a) SLO image (averaged over 10 frames), b) OCT image (averaged over an optical depth of ~80µm), c) OCT retrieved from the ETPR layer, d) OCT retrieved from the IS/OS junction. Field of view of each image: 0.8°×0.8°. (For a better comparison with the SLO images all OCT images are squared and displayed on a linear scale)

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Imaging planes at different depths extracted from the OCT data. a) ILM, b) RNFL, c) GCL (maximum intensity within 4 frames), d) INL (maximum intensity within 7 frames) Field of view of each image: 0.8°×0.8°. (All images are displayed on a linear scale.)

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