Abstract

We report on the fabrication of planar waveguide in stoichiometric lithium niobate by 500 keV proton implantation with a dose of 1×1017 ions/cm2. The formation of ne enhancement planar waveguide in the crystal was disclosed by the dark mode spectra and the subsequent endface coupling measurement. The absorption spectra show that the postannealing treatments above 400°C temperature can remove the color centers induced by implantation efficiently. The propagation loss and near-field profiles of the planar waveguide were obtained with an end-face coupling system.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, F.-X. Wang, J.-H. Zhang, X.-D. Liu, K.-M. Wang, and B.-R. Shi, "Optical waveguide formation by MeV H+ implanted into LiNbO3 crystal," Opt. Commun. 177, 189-193 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Hamelin, G. Lifante, P. J. Chandler, S. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, "Second harmonic generation in ion implanted lithium niobate planar waveguides," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1339-1348 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, G. Fu, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Monomode optical waveguide excited at 1540 nm in LiNbO3 formed by MeV carbon ion implantation at low doses," Opt. Express 12, 747-752 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, G. Fu, S.-L. Li, H. Liu, L. Gao, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Optical properties of stoichiometric LiNbO3 waveguides formed by low-dose oxygen ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041103 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestrì, and C. Sada, "On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 072901 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Zhang, P. J. Chander, and P. D. Townsend, "Optical analysis of damage profiles in ion implanted LiNbO3," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 59/60, 1147-1152 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. J. Chander, L. Zhang, J. M. Cabrera and P. D. Townsend, " ‘Missing’ modes in ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1287-1289 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Lu, T.-T. Zhang, X.-L. Wang, S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, D.-Y. Shen, and H.-J. Ma, "Formation of waveguides by implantation of 3.0 MeV Ni2+," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3463-3466 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B.-R. Shi, K.-M. Wang, and D.-Y. Shen, "Extraordinary refractive-index increase in lithium niobate caused by low-dose ion implantation," Appl. Opt. 40, 3759-3761 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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  20. Y. Jiang, K.-M. Wang, X.-L. Wang, F. Chen, C.-L. Jia, L. Wang, Y. Jiao, and F. Lu, "Model of refractive-index changes in lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by ion implantation," Phys. Rev. B 75, 195101 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007

S. M. Kostritskii and P. Moretti, "Specific behavior of refractive indices in low-dose He+-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 094109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, K.-M. Wang, X.-L. Wang, F. Chen, C.-L. Jia, L. Wang, Y. Jiao, and F. Lu, "Model of refractive-index changes in lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by ion implantation," Phys. Rev. B 75, 195101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, G. Fu, S.-L. Li, H. Liu, L. Gao, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Optical properties of stoichiometric LiNbO3 waveguides formed by low-dose oxygen ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. Kling, and J. C. Soares, "Generation of amorphous surface layers in LiNbO3 by ion-beam irradiation: thresholding and boundary propagation," Appl. Phys. A 81, 1465-1469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestrì, and C. Sada, "On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, G. Fu, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Monomode optical waveguide excited at 1540 nm in LiNbO3 formed by MeV carbon ion implantation at low doses," Opt. Express 12, 747-752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Lu, T.-T. Zhang, X.-L. Wang, S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, D.-Y. Shen, and H.-J. Ma, "Formation of waveguides by implantation of 3.0 MeV Ni2+," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3463-3466 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Corresra, C. Sada, F. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, F.-X. Wang, J.-H. Zhang, X.-D. Liu, K.-M. Wang, and B.-R. Shi, "Optical waveguide formation by MeV H+ implanted into LiNbO3 crystal," Opt. Commun. 177, 189-193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Atuchin, "Causes of refractive indices changes in He-implanted LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 waveguides," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 168, 498-502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and K. Plogar, "Electro-optic properties in pure LiNbO3 crystals from the congruent to the stoichiometric composition," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2251-2254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

B. M. Park, K. Kitamura, K. Terabe, Y. Furukara, Y. Ji, and E. Suzuki, "Mechanical twinning in stoichiometric lithium niobate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 101-104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

N. Hamelin, G. Lifante, P. J. Chandler, S. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, "Second harmonic generation in ion implanted lithium niobate planar waveguides," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1339-1348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

L. Zhang, P. J. Chander, and P. D. Townsend, "Optical analysis of damage profiles in ion implanted LiNbO3," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 59/60, 1147-1152 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

P. J. Chander, L. Zhang, J. M. Cabrera and P. D. Townsend, " ‘Missing’ modes in ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1287-1289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Opt. Acta 33, 127-143 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Abdi, F.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and K. Plogar, "Electro-optic properties in pure LiNbO3 crystals from the congruent to the stoichiometric composition," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2251-2254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Agulló-López, F.

J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. Kling, and J. C. Soares, "Generation of amorphous surface layers in LiNbO3 by ion-beam irradiation: thresholding and boundary propagation," Appl. Phys. A 81, 1465-1469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Agulló-Rueda, F.

J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. Kling, and J. C. Soares, "Generation of amorphous surface layers in LiNbO3 by ion-beam irradiation: thresholding and boundary propagation," Appl. Phys. A 81, 1465-1469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aillerie, M.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and K. Plogar, "Electro-optic properties in pure LiNbO3 crystals from the congruent to the stoichiometric composition," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2251-2254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Argiolas, N.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestrì, and C. Sada, "On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Corresra, C. Sada, F. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Atuchin, V. V.

V. V. Atuchin, "Causes of refractive indices changes in He-implanted LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 waveguides," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 168, 498-502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bazzan, M.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestrì, and C. Sada, "On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Corresra, C. Sada, F. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bentini, G. G.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestrì, and C. Sada, "On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Corresra, C. Sada, F. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bianconi, M.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestrì, and C. Sada, "On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Corresra, C. Sada, F. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bourson, P.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and K. Plogar, "Electro-optic properties in pure LiNbO3 crystals from the congruent to the stoichiometric composition," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2251-2254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cabrera, J. M.

P. J. Chander, L. Zhang, J. M. Cabrera and P. D. Townsend, " ‘Missing’ modes in ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1287-1289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cerutti, A.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestrì, and C. Sada, "On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chander, P. J.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chander, and P. D. Townsend, "Optical analysis of damage profiles in ion implanted LiNbO3," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 59/60, 1147-1152 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Chander, L. Zhang, J. M. Cabrera and P. D. Townsend, " ‘Missing’ modes in ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1287-1289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, P. J.

N. Hamelin, G. Lifante, P. J. Chandler, S. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, "Second harmonic generation in ion implanted lithium niobate planar waveguides," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1339-1348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Opt. Acta 33, 127-143 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chen, F.

Y. Jiang, K.-M. Wang, X.-L. Wang, F. Chen, C.-L. Jia, L. Wang, Y. Jiao, and F. Lu, "Model of refractive-index changes in lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by ion implantation," Phys. Rev. B 75, 195101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, G. Fu, S.-L. Li, H. Liu, L. Gao, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Optical properties of stoichiometric LiNbO3 waveguides formed by low-dose oxygen ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, G. Fu, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Monomode optical waveguide excited at 1540 nm in LiNbO3 formed by MeV carbon ion implantation at low doses," Opt. Express 12, 747-752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B.-R. Shi, K.-M. Wang, and D.-Y. Shen, "Extraordinary refractive-index increase in lithium niobate caused by low-dose ion implantation," Appl. Opt. 40, 3759-3761 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, F.-X. Wang, J.-H. Zhang, X.-D. Liu, K.-M. Wang, and B.-R. Shi, "Optical waveguide formation by MeV H+ implanted into LiNbO3 crystal," Opt. Commun. 177, 189-193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chiarini, M.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestrì, and C. Sada, "On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Corresra, C. Sada, F. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Corresra, L.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Corresra, C. Sada, F. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fontana, M. D.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and K. Plogar, "Electro-optic properties in pure LiNbO3 crystals from the congruent to the stoichiometric composition," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2251-2254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fu, G.

X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, G. Fu, S.-L. Li, H. Liu, L. Gao, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Optical properties of stoichiometric LiNbO3 waveguides formed by low-dose oxygen ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, G. Fu, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Monomode optical waveguide excited at 1540 nm in LiNbO3 formed by MeV carbon ion implantation at low doses," Opt. Express 12, 747-752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furukara, Y.

B. M. Park, K. Kitamura, K. Terabe, Y. Furukara, Y. Ji, and E. Suzuki, "Mechanical twinning in stoichiometric lithium niobate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 101-104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gao, L.

X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, G. Fu, S.-L. Li, H. Liu, L. Gao, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Optical properties of stoichiometric LiNbO3 waveguides formed by low-dose oxygen ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

García, G.

J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. Kling, and J. C. Soares, "Generation of amorphous surface layers in LiNbO3 by ion-beam irradiation: thresholding and boundary propagation," Appl. Phys. A 81, 1465-1469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guarino, A.

Guzzi, R.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Corresra, C. Sada, F. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hamelin, N.

N. Hamelin, G. Lifante, P. J. Chandler, S. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, "Second harmonic generation in ion implanted lithium niobate planar waveguides," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1339-1348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Herzog, C.

Hu, H.

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B.-R. Shi, K.-M. Wang, and D.-Y. Shen, "Extraordinary refractive-index increase in lithium niobate caused by low-dose ion implantation," Appl. Opt. 40, 3759-3761 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, F.-X. Wang, J.-H. Zhang, X.-D. Liu, K.-M. Wang, and B.-R. Shi, "Optical waveguide formation by MeV H+ implanted into LiNbO3 crystal," Opt. Commun. 177, 189-193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jazbinsek, M.

Ji, Y.

B. M. Park, K. Kitamura, K. Terabe, Y. Furukara, Y. Ji, and E. Suzuki, "Mechanical twinning in stoichiometric lithium niobate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 101-104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jia, C.-L.

Y. Jiang, K.-M. Wang, X.-L. Wang, F. Chen, C.-L. Jia, L. Wang, Y. Jiao, and F. Lu, "Model of refractive-index changes in lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by ion implantation," Phys. Rev. B 75, 195101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, K.-M. Wang, X.-L. Wang, F. Chen, C.-L. Jia, L. Wang, Y. Jiao, and F. Lu, "Model of refractive-index changes in lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by ion implantation," Phys. Rev. B 75, 195101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, Y.

Y. Jiang, K.-M. Wang, X.-L. Wang, F. Chen, C.-L. Jia, L. Wang, Y. Jiao, and F. Lu, "Model of refractive-index changes in lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by ion implantation," Phys. Rev. B 75, 195101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, K.

B. M. Park, K. Kitamura, K. Terabe, Y. Furukara, Y. Ji, and E. Suzuki, "Mechanical twinning in stoichiometric lithium niobate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 101-104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kling, A.

J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. Kling, and J. C. Soares, "Generation of amorphous surface layers in LiNbO3 by ion-beam irradiation: thresholding and boundary propagation," Appl. Phys. A 81, 1465-1469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kostritskii, S. M.

S. M. Kostritskii and P. Moretti, "Specific behavior of refractive indices in low-dose He+-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 094109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lama, F. L.

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Opt. Acta 33, 127-143 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.-L.

X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, G. Fu, S.-L. Li, H. Liu, L. Gao, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Optical properties of stoichiometric LiNbO3 waveguides formed by low-dose oxygen ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Lu, T.-T. Zhang, X.-L. Wang, S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, D.-Y. Shen, and H.-J. Ma, "Formation of waveguides by implantation of 3.0 MeV Ni2+," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3463-3466 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, G. Fu, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Monomode optical waveguide excited at 1540 nm in LiNbO3 formed by MeV carbon ion implantation at low doses," Opt. Express 12, 747-752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lifante, G.

N. Hamelin, G. Lifante, P. J. Chandler, S. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, "Second harmonic generation in ion implanted lithium niobate planar waveguides," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1339-1348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, G. Fu, S.-L. Li, H. Liu, L. Gao, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Optical properties of stoichiometric LiNbO3 waveguides formed by low-dose oxygen ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.-D.

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, F.-X. Wang, J.-H. Zhang, X.-D. Liu, K.-M. Wang, and B.-R. Shi, "Optical waveguide formation by MeV H+ implanted into LiNbO3 crystal," Opt. Commun. 177, 189-193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lu, F.

Y. Jiang, K.-M. Wang, X.-L. Wang, F. Chen, C.-L. Jia, L. Wang, Y. Jiao, and F. Lu, "Model of refractive-index changes in lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by ion implantation," Phys. Rev. B 75, 195101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Lu, T.-T. Zhang, X.-L. Wang, S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, D.-Y. Shen, and H.-J. Ma, "Formation of waveguides by implantation of 3.0 MeV Ni2+," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3463-3466 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B.-R. Shi, K.-M. Wang, and D.-Y. Shen, "Extraordinary refractive-index increase in lithium niobate caused by low-dose ion implantation," Appl. Opt. 40, 3759-3761 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, F.-X. Wang, J.-H. Zhang, X.-D. Liu, K.-M. Wang, and B.-R. Shi, "Optical waveguide formation by MeV H+ implanted into LiNbO3 crystal," Opt. Commun. 177, 189-193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.-J.

X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, G. Fu, S.-L. Li, H. Liu, L. Gao, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Optical properties of stoichiometric LiNbO3 waveguides formed by low-dose oxygen ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Lu, T.-T. Zhang, X.-L. Wang, S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, D.-Y. Shen, and H.-J. Ma, "Formation of waveguides by implantation of 3.0 MeV Ni2+," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3463-3466 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, G. Fu, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Monomode optical waveguide excited at 1540 nm in LiNbO3 formed by MeV carbon ion implantation at low doses," Opt. Express 12, 747-752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazzoldi, F.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Corresra, C. Sada, F. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoldi, P.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestrì, and C. Sada, "On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McCaffery, A. J.

N. Hamelin, G. Lifante, P. J. Chandler, S. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, "Second harmonic generation in ion implanted lithium niobate planar waveguides," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1339-1348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, P.

S. M. Kostritskii and P. Moretti, "Specific behavior of refractive indices in low-dose He+-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 094109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nie, R.

X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, G. Fu, S.-L. Li, H. Liu, L. Gao, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Optical properties of stoichiometric LiNbO3 waveguides formed by low-dose oxygen ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, G. Fu, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Monomode optical waveguide excited at 1540 nm in LiNbO3 formed by MeV carbon ion implantation at low doses," Opt. Express 12, 747-752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivares, J.

J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. Kling, and J. C. Soares, "Generation of amorphous surface layers in LiNbO3 by ion-beam irradiation: thresholding and boundary propagation," Appl. Phys. A 81, 1465-1469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, B. M.

B. M. Park, K. Kitamura, K. Terabe, Y. Furukara, Y. Ji, and E. Suzuki, "Mechanical twinning in stoichiometric lithium niobate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 101-104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pennestrì, G.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestrì, and C. Sada, "On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pityana, S.

N. Hamelin, G. Lifante, P. J. Chandler, S. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, "Second harmonic generation in ion implanted lithium niobate planar waveguides," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1339-1348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Plogar, K.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and K. Plogar, "Electro-optic properties in pure LiNbO3 crystals from the congruent to the stoichiometric composition," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2251-2254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sada, C.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestrì, and C. Sada, "On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Corresra, C. Sada, F. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.-Y.

X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, G. Fu, S.-L. Li, H. Liu, L. Gao, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Optical properties of stoichiometric LiNbO3 waveguides formed by low-dose oxygen ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Lu, T.-T. Zhang, X.-L. Wang, S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, D.-Y. Shen, and H.-J. Ma, "Formation of waveguides by implantation of 3.0 MeV Ni2+," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3463-3466 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, G. Fu, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Monomode optical waveguide excited at 1540 nm in LiNbO3 formed by MeV carbon ion implantation at low doses," Opt. Express 12, 747-752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B.-R. Shi, K.-M. Wang, and D.-Y. Shen, "Extraordinary refractive-index increase in lithium niobate caused by low-dose ion implantation," Appl. Opt. 40, 3759-3761 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shi, B.-R.

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B.-R. Shi, K.-M. Wang, and D.-Y. Shen, "Extraordinary refractive-index increase in lithium niobate caused by low-dose ion implantation," Appl. Opt. 40, 3759-3761 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, F.-X. Wang, J.-H. Zhang, X.-D. Liu, K.-M. Wang, and B.-R. Shi, "Optical waveguide formation by MeV H+ implanted into LiNbO3 crystal," Opt. Commun. 177, 189-193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Soares, J. C.

J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. Kling, and J. C. Soares, "Generation of amorphous surface layers in LiNbO3 by ion-beam irradiation: thresholding and boundary propagation," Appl. Phys. A 81, 1465-1469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, E.

B. M. Park, K. Kitamura, K. Terabe, Y. Furukara, Y. Ji, and E. Suzuki, "Mechanical twinning in stoichiometric lithium niobate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 101-104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Terabe, K.

B. M. Park, K. Kitamura, K. Terabe, Y. Furukara, Y. Ji, and E. Suzuki, "Mechanical twinning in stoichiometric lithium niobate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 101-104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chander, and P. D. Townsend, "Optical analysis of damage profiles in ion implanted LiNbO3," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 59/60, 1147-1152 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Chander, L. Zhang, J. M. Cabrera and P. D. Townsend, " ‘Missing’ modes in ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1287-1289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.-X.

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, F.-X. Wang, J.-H. Zhang, X.-D. Liu, K.-M. Wang, and B.-R. Shi, "Optical waveguide formation by MeV H+ implanted into LiNbO3 crystal," Opt. Commun. 177, 189-193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.-M.

Y. Jiang, K.-M. Wang, X.-L. Wang, F. Chen, C.-L. Jia, L. Wang, Y. Jiao, and F. Lu, "Model of refractive-index changes in lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by ion implantation," Phys. Rev. B 75, 195101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, G. Fu, S.-L. Li, H. Liu, L. Gao, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Optical properties of stoichiometric LiNbO3 waveguides formed by low-dose oxygen ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Lu, T.-T. Zhang, X.-L. Wang, S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, D.-Y. Shen, and H.-J. Ma, "Formation of waveguides by implantation of 3.0 MeV Ni2+," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3463-3466 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, G. Fu, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Monomode optical waveguide excited at 1540 nm in LiNbO3 formed by MeV carbon ion implantation at low doses," Opt. Express 12, 747-752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, B.-R. Shi, K.-M. Wang, and D.-Y. Shen, "Extraordinary refractive-index increase in lithium niobate caused by low-dose ion implantation," Appl. Opt. 40, 3759-3761 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, F.-X. Wang, J.-H. Zhang, X.-D. Liu, K.-M. Wang, and B.-R. Shi, "Optical waveguide formation by MeV H+ implanted into LiNbO3 crystal," Opt. Commun. 177, 189-193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Y. Jiang, K.-M. Wang, X.-L. Wang, F. Chen, C.-L. Jia, L. Wang, Y. Jiao, and F. Lu, "Model of refractive-index changes in lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by ion implantation," Phys. Rev. B 75, 195101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.-L.

Y. Jiang, K.-M. Wang, X.-L. Wang, F. Chen, C.-L. Jia, L. Wang, Y. Jiao, and F. Lu, "Model of refractive-index changes in lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by ion implantation," Phys. Rev. B 75, 195101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, G. Fu, S.-L. Li, H. Liu, L. Gao, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Optical properties of stoichiometric LiNbO3 waveguides formed by low-dose oxygen ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Lu, T.-T. Zhang, X.-L. Wang, S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, D.-Y. Shen, and H.-J. Ma, "Formation of waveguides by implantation of 3.0 MeV Ni2+," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3463-3466 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, X.-L. Wang, G. Fu, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Monomode optical waveguide excited at 1540 nm in LiNbO3 formed by MeV carbon ion implantation at low doses," Opt. Express 12, 747-752 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.-H.

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, F.-X. Wang, J.-H. Zhang, X.-D. Liu, K.-M. Wang, and B.-R. Shi, "Optical waveguide formation by MeV H+ implanted into LiNbO3 crystal," Opt. Commun. 177, 189-193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, P. J. Chander, and P. D. Townsend, "Optical analysis of damage profiles in ion implanted LiNbO3," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 59/60, 1147-1152 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Chander, L. Zhang, J. M. Cabrera and P. D. Townsend, " ‘Missing’ modes in ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1287-1289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T.-T.

F. Lu, T.-T. Zhang, X.-L. Wang, S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, D.-Y. Shen, and H.-J. Ma, "Formation of waveguides by implantation of 3.0 MeV Ni2+," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3463-3466 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

J. Olivares, G. García, F. Agulló-López, F. Agulló-Rueda, A. Kling, and J. C. Soares, "Generation of amorphous surface layers in LiNbO3 by ion-beam irradiation: thresholding and boundary propagation," Appl. Phys. A 81, 1465-1469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Bianconi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, G. G. Bentini, M. Chiarini, A. Cerutti, P. Mazzoldi, G. Pennestrì, and C. Sada, "On the dynamics of the damage growth in 5 MeV oxygen-implanted lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 072901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Chander, L. Zhang, J. M. Cabrera and P. D. Townsend, " ‘Missing’ modes in ion-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1287-1289 (1989).
[CrossRef]

X.-L. Wang, K.-M. Wang, F. Chen, G. Fu, S.-L. Li, H. Liu, L. Gao, D.-Y. Shen, H.-J. Ma, and R. Nie, "Optical properties of stoichiometric LiNbO3 waveguides formed by low-dose oxygen ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

F. Abdi, M. Aillerie, P. Bourson, M. D. Fontana, and K. Plogar, "Electro-optic properties in pure LiNbO3 crystals from the congruent to the stoichiometric composition," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 2251-2254 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kostritskii and P. Moretti, "Specific behavior of refractive indices in low-dose He+-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 101, 094109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Lu, T.-T. Zhang, X.-L. Wang, S.-L. Li, K.-M. Wang, D.-Y. Shen, and H.-J. Ma, "Formation of waveguides by implantation of 3.0 MeV Ni2+," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 3463-3466 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Corresra, C. Sada, F. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, "Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

B. M. Park, K. Kitamura, K. Terabe, Y. Furukara, Y. Ji, and E. Suzuki, "Mechanical twinning in stoichiometric lithium niobate single crystal," J. Cryst. Growth 180, 101-104 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

N. Hamelin, G. Lifante, P. J. Chandler, S. Pityana, and A. J. McCaffery, "Second harmonic generation in ion implanted lithium niobate planar waveguides," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1339-1348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B

V. V. Atuchin, "Causes of refractive indices changes in He-implanted LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 waveguides," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 168, 498-502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, P. J. Chander, and P. D. Townsend, "Optical analysis of damage profiles in ion implanted LiNbO3," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 59/60, 1147-1152 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, "A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation," Opt. Acta 33, 127-143 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

H. Hu, F. Lu, F. Chen, F.-X. Wang, J.-H. Zhang, X.-D. Liu, K.-M. Wang, and B.-R. Shi, "Optical waveguide formation by MeV H+ implanted into LiNbO3 crystal," Opt. Commun. 177, 189-193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

Y. Jiang, K.-M. Wang, X.-L. Wang, F. Chen, C.-L. Jia, L. Wang, Y. Jiao, and F. Lu, "Model of refractive-index changes in lithium niobate waveguides fabricated by ion implantation," Phys. Rev. B 75, 195101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biesack, and U. Littmark, Stopping and Ranges of Ions in Matter (Pergamon, New York, 1985).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Dark mode spectra of as implanted sample (a) and after S2 annealing treatment (b) at wavelength of 633 nm. There is no resonant dip in the dark mode spectrum of the as implanted sample illustrated in Fig. 1(a).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Effective refractive indices of the TM0 mode of sample at wavelength of 1539 nm after different annealing treatments.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(color online) Graphical representation of RIP of the sample after S2 treatment. Filled squares, experimental index values; crosses, calculated values based on the RCM. The inset is the electronic energy deposition versus penetration depth. The unit of the energy deposition is eV/Angstrom/Ion.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(color online) Absorption spectra of the sample after different annealing treatments.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(color online) Near-field profiles collected by photo screen (a) and CCD camera (b).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The continuous annealing treatments conditions of 500 keV proton implanted sample. All the annealing treatments were performed in atmosphere.

Metrics