Abstract

More than 60% overall coupling efficiency is achieved in the demonstrator of an optical interconnect comprising an input grating coupler, a multimode slab waveguide section and an output grating coupler. The grating coupling strength is enhanced by means of a leaky mode resonance. The efficiency of the resonant grating coupler compares favourably with the performancs reported on mirror inserts.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Van Daele, "Optical interconnections for short distances," in proceedings of the Symposium on Photonics Technologies for 7th Framework Program (Wroclaw, Poland, 2006), p. 270.
  2. I. A. Avrutsky, A. S. Svakhin, and V. A. Sychugov and O. Parriaux, "High-efficiency single-order waveguide grating coupler," Opt. Lett. 24, 1446-1448 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov and A. V. Tishchenko, "Coupling gratings as waveguide functional elements," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 453-469 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 -6077 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. V. Tishchenko and V. A. Sychugov, "High grating efficiency by energy accumulation in a leaky mode," Opt. and Quantum Electron. 32, 1027-1031 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Destouches, A. Tishchenko, J. Pommier, S. Reynaud, O. Parriaux, S. Tonchev and M. Abdou Ahmed, "99% efficiency measured in the -1 order of a resonant grating," Opt. Express 13, 3230-3235 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. V. Tishchenko and N. Lyndin, "The true modal method solves intractable problems: TM incidence on fine metal slits (but the C method also !)," in proceedings of Workshop on grating theory, Clermont-Ferrand, France (June 2004).
  8. J. Franc, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J.-C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, G. Van Steenberge, N. Hendrickx, A. Last and O. Parriaux "High-efficiency diffraction grating coupler for multimode optical interconnect," Proc. SPIE 6185, 61851 (2006).
  9. G. Van Steenberge, P. Geerinck, S. Van Put, J. Van Koetsem, H. Ottevaere, D. Morlion, H. Thienpont and P. Van Daele, "MT-Compatible Laser-Ablated Interconnections for Optical Printed Circuit Boards," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2083-2090 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, T. Alajoki, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J. Franc, P. Karioja, H. Thienpont and P. Van Daele, "Towards Low Cost Coupling Structures for Short-Distance Optical Interconnections," in Proceedings of the 16th European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference (2007) pp. 247-252.
  11. J. Van Erps, L. Bogaert, B. Volckaerts, C. Debaes, and H. Thienpont, "Prototyping micro-optical components with integrated out-of-plane coupling structures using deep lithography with protons," Proc. SPIE 6185, 618504 (2006).
  12. M. Karppinen, et al., "Parallel Optical Interconnect between Ceramic BGA Packages on FR4 board using Embedded Waveguides and Passive Optical Alignments," in Proceedings of the 56th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, (2006), pp. 799-805.
  13. L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi and R. Chen, "45° polymer-based total reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 -6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi and R. Chen, "45° polymer-based total reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Destouches, A. Tishchenko, J. Pommier, S. Reynaud, O. Parriaux, S. Tonchev and M. Abdou Ahmed, "99% efficiency measured in the -1 order of a resonant grating," Opt. Express 13, 3230-3235 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2000

A. V. Tishchenko and V. A. Sychugov, "High grating efficiency by energy accumulation in a leaky mode," Opt. and Quantum Electron. 32, 1027-1031 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov and A. V. Tishchenko, "Coupling gratings as waveguide functional elements," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 453-469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990

I. A. Avrutsky, A. S. Svakhin, and V. A. Sychugov and O. Parriaux, "High-efficiency single-order waveguide grating coupler," Opt. Lett. 24, 1446-1448 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Abdou Ahmed, M.

Avrutsky, I. A.

I. A. Avrutsky, A. S. Svakhin, and V. A. Sychugov and O. Parriaux, "High-efficiency single-order waveguide grating coupler," Opt. Lett. 24, 1446-1448 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 -6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 -6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bi, H.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi and R. Chen, "45° polymer-based total reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 -6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 -6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi and R. Chen, "45° polymer-based total reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi and R. Chen, "45° polymer-based total reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Destouches, N.

Geerinck, P.

Jiang, W.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi and R. Chen, "45° polymer-based total reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morlion, D.

Ottevaere, H.

Parriaux, O.

N. Destouches, A. Tishchenko, J. Pommier, S. Reynaud, O. Parriaux, S. Tonchev and M. Abdou Ahmed, "99% efficiency measured in the -1 order of a resonant grating," Opt. Express 13, 3230-3235 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov and A. V. Tishchenko, "Coupling gratings as waveguide functional elements," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 453-469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Avrutsky, A. S. Svakhin, and V. A. Sychugov and O. Parriaux, "High-efficiency single-order waveguide grating coupler," Opt. Lett. 24, 1446-1448 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pommier, J.

Reynaud, S.

Svakhin, A. S.

I. A. Avrutsky, A. S. Svakhin, and V. A. Sychugov and O. Parriaux, "High-efficiency single-order waveguide grating coupler," Opt. Lett. 24, 1446-1448 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sychugov, V. A.

A. V. Tishchenko and V. A. Sychugov, "High grating efficiency by energy accumulation in a leaky mode," Opt. and Quantum Electron. 32, 1027-1031 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov and A. V. Tishchenko, "Coupling gratings as waveguide functional elements," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 453-469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Avrutsky, A. S. Svakhin, and V. A. Sychugov and O. Parriaux, "High-efficiency single-order waveguide grating coupler," Opt. Lett. 24, 1446-1448 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 -6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

Tishchenko, A.

Tishchenko, A. V.

A. V. Tishchenko and V. A. Sychugov, "High grating efficiency by energy accumulation in a leaky mode," Opt. and Quantum Electron. 32, 1027-1031 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov and A. V. Tishchenko, "Coupling gratings as waveguide functional elements," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 453-469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tonchev, S.

Van Daele, P.

Van Koetsem, J.

Van Laere, F.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 -6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Put, S.

Van Steenberge, G.

Van Thourhout, D.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 -6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi and R. Chen, "45° polymer-based total reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi and R. Chen, "45° polymer-based total reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi and R. Chen, "45° polymer-based total reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071 -6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. and Quantum Electron.

A. V. Tishchenko and V. A. Sychugov, "High grating efficiency by energy accumulation in a leaky mode," Opt. and Quantum Electron. 32, 1027-1031 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

I. A. Avrutsky, A. S. Svakhin, and V. A. Sychugov and O. Parriaux, "High-efficiency single-order waveguide grating coupler," Opt. Lett. 24, 1446-1448 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt.

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov and A. V. Tishchenko, "Coupling gratings as waveguide functional elements," Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 453-469 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. V. Tishchenko and N. Lyndin, "The true modal method solves intractable problems: TM incidence on fine metal slits (but the C method also !)," in proceedings of Workshop on grating theory, Clermont-Ferrand, France (June 2004).

J. Franc, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J.-C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, G. Van Steenberge, N. Hendrickx, A. Last and O. Parriaux "High-efficiency diffraction grating coupler for multimode optical interconnect," Proc. SPIE 6185, 61851 (2006).

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, T. Alajoki, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J. Franc, P. Karioja, H. Thienpont and P. Van Daele, "Towards Low Cost Coupling Structures for Short-Distance Optical Interconnections," in Proceedings of the 16th European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference (2007) pp. 247-252.

J. Van Erps, L. Bogaert, B. Volckaerts, C. Debaes, and H. Thienpont, "Prototyping micro-optical components with integrated out-of-plane coupling structures using deep lithography with protons," Proc. SPIE 6185, 618504 (2006).

M. Karppinen, et al., "Parallel Optical Interconnect between Ceramic BGA Packages on FR4 board using Embedded Waveguides and Passive Optical Alignments," in Proceedings of the 56th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, (2006), pp. 799-805.

P. Van Daele, "Optical interconnections for short distances," in proceedings of the Symposium on Photonics Technologies for 7th Framework Program (Wroclaw, Poland, 2006), p. 270.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Outcoupling resonant grating and scheme of the leaky mode mediated destructive interference of 0th order reflection.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)Theoretical diffraction efficiencies in the waveguide versus θiair. (b) Spectral variations of the diffraction efficiency of the +1st order for -2.5° incidence angle in air.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Top view of the 5×5mm2 pyrex plate with two resonant gratings (colored bands). (b) SEM picture of the grating cross-section: the red curves are the fitted profiles of the gold (bottom) and HfO2 (top) corrugations considered in the simulations shown in section 4. The blue dashed line shows the location where the gold layer peeled off from the substrate.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Overall efficiency η measured with a focused and a collimated beam at 850 nm wavelength under TE polarization versus the incidence angle in air θiair.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Sketch of a double interaction of a diffracted ray with the coupling resonant grating.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of the experimental and the theoretical overall efficiency assuming a collimated incident beam (a) and a focused beam (b).

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k 0 n f h cos θ f + ϕ m + ϕ c 2 = m π

Metrics