Abstract

More than 60% overall coupling efficiency is achieved in the demonstrator of an optical interconnect comprising an input grating coupler, a multimode slab waveguide section and an output grating coupler. The grating coupling strength is enhanced by means of a leaky mode resonance. The efficiency of the resonant grating coupler compares favourably with the performancs reported on mirror inserts.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Van Daele, “Optical interconnections for short distances,” in proceedings of the Symposium on Photonics Technologies for 7th Framework Program (Wroclaw, Poland, 2006), p270.
  2. I. A. Avrutsky, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and O. Parriaux, “High-efficiency single-order waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1446–1448 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  3. O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, “Coupling gratings as waveguide functional elements,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 453–469 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. A.V. Tishchenko and V.A. Sychugov, “High grating efficiency by energy accumulation in a leaky mode,” Opt. and Quantum Electron. 32, 1027–1031 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  6. N. Destouches, A. Tishchenko, J. Pommier, S. Reynaud, O. Parriaux, S. Tonchev, and M. Abdou Ahmed, “99% efficiency measured in the -1 order of a resonant grating,” Opt. Express 13 (9), 3230–3235 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. A.V. Tishchenko and N. Lyndin, “The true modal method solves intractable problems: TM incidence on fine metal slits (but the C method also !),” in proceedings of Workshop on grating theory, Clermont-Ferrand, France (June2004).
  8. J. Franc, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J.-C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, G. Van Steenberge, N. Hendrickx, A. Last, and O. ParriauxH Thienpont “High-efficiency diffraction grating coupler for multimode optical interconnect,” in proceedings of SPIE6185, ed. (2006), p61851F.
  9. G. Van Steenberge, P. Geerinck, S. Van Put, J. Van Koetsem, H. Ottevaere, D. Morlion, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “MT-Compatible Laser-Ablated Interconnections for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22 (9), 2083–2090 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  10. N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, T. Alajoki, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J. Franc, P. Karioja, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Towards Low Cost Coupling Structures for Short-Distance Optical Interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 16th European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference (2007) pp. 247–252.
  11. Jürgen Van Erps, Lawrence Bogaert, Bart Volckaerts, Christof Debaes, and Hugo Thienpont, “Prototyping micro-optical components with integrated out-of-plane coupling structures using deep lithography with protons,” in proceedings SPIE6185, (2006) p618504.
  12. M. Karppinen et al., “Parallel Optical Interconnect between Ceramic BGA Packages on FR4 board using Embedded Waveguides and Passive Optical Alignments,” in Proceedings of the 56th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, (2006), pp. 799–805.
  13. L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141110 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

N. Destouches, A. Tishchenko, J. Pommier, S. Reynaud, O. Parriaux, S. Tonchev, and M. Abdou Ahmed, “99% efficiency measured in the -1 order of a resonant grating,” Opt. Express 13 (9), 3230–3235 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

G. Van Steenberge, P. Geerinck, S. Van Put, J. Van Koetsem, H. Ottevaere, D. Morlion, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “MT-Compatible Laser-Ablated Interconnections for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22 (9), 2083–2090 (2004).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A.V. Tishchenko and V.A. Sychugov, “High grating efficiency by energy accumulation in a leaky mode,” Opt. and Quantum Electron. 32, 1027–1031 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, “Coupling gratings as waveguide functional elements,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 453–469 (1996).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

I. A. Avrutsky, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and O. Parriaux, “High-efficiency single-order waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1446–1448 (1990).
[Crossref]

Abdou Ahmed, M.

N. Destouches, A. Tishchenko, J. Pommier, S. Reynaud, O. Parriaux, S. Tonchev, and M. Abdou Ahmed, “99% efficiency measured in the -1 order of a resonant grating,” Opt. Express 13 (9), 3230–3235 (2005).
[Crossref]

Alajoki, T.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, T. Alajoki, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J. Franc, P. Karioja, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Towards Low Cost Coupling Structures for Short-Distance Optical Interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 16th European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference (2007) pp. 247–252.

Avrutsky, I. A.

I. A. Avrutsky, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and O. Parriaux, “High-efficiency single-order waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1446–1448 (1990).
[Crossref]

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bi, H.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Blanc, D.

J. Franc, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J.-C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, G. Van Steenberge, N. Hendrickx, A. Last, and O. ParriauxH Thienpont “High-efficiency diffraction grating coupler for multimode optical interconnect,” in proceedings of SPIE6185, ed. (2006), p61851F.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, T. Alajoki, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J. Franc, P. Karioja, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Towards Low Cost Coupling Structures for Short-Distance Optical Interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 16th European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference (2007) pp. 247–252.

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Destouches, N.

N. Destouches, A. Tishchenko, J. Pommier, S. Reynaud, O. Parriaux, S. Tonchev, and M. Abdou Ahmed, “99% efficiency measured in the -1 order of a resonant grating,” Opt. Express 13 (9), 3230–3235 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, T. Alajoki, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J. Franc, P. Karioja, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Towards Low Cost Coupling Structures for Short-Distance Optical Interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 16th European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference (2007) pp. 247–252.

J. Franc, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J.-C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, G. Van Steenberge, N. Hendrickx, A. Last, and O. ParriauxH Thienpont “High-efficiency diffraction grating coupler for multimode optical interconnect,” in proceedings of SPIE6185, ed. (2006), p61851F.

Franc, J.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, T. Alajoki, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J. Franc, P. Karioja, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Towards Low Cost Coupling Structures for Short-Distance Optical Interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 16th European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference (2007) pp. 247–252.

J. Franc, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J.-C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, G. Van Steenberge, N. Hendrickx, A. Last, and O. ParriauxH Thienpont “High-efficiency diffraction grating coupler for multimode optical interconnect,” in proceedings of SPIE6185, ed. (2006), p61851F.

Geerinck, P.

G. Van Steenberge, P. Geerinck, S. Van Put, J. Van Koetsem, H. Ottevaere, D. Morlion, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “MT-Compatible Laser-Ablated Interconnections for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22 (9), 2083–2090 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hendrickx, N.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, T. Alajoki, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J. Franc, P. Karioja, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Towards Low Cost Coupling Structures for Short-Distance Optical Interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 16th European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference (2007) pp. 247–252.

J. Franc, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J.-C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, G. Van Steenberge, N. Hendrickx, A. Last, and O. ParriauxH Thienpont “High-efficiency diffraction grating coupler for multimode optical interconnect,” in proceedings of SPIE6185, ed. (2006), p61851F.

Jiang, W.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Karioja, P.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, T. Alajoki, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J. Franc, P. Karioja, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Towards Low Cost Coupling Structures for Short-Distance Optical Interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 16th European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference (2007) pp. 247–252.

Karppinen, M.

M. Karppinen et al., “Parallel Optical Interconnect between Ceramic BGA Packages on FR4 board using Embedded Waveguides and Passive Optical Alignments,” in Proceedings of the 56th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, (2006), pp. 799–805.

Last, A.

J. Franc, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J.-C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, G. Van Steenberge, N. Hendrickx, A. Last, and O. ParriauxH Thienpont “High-efficiency diffraction grating coupler for multimode optical interconnect,” in proceedings of SPIE6185, ed. (2006), p61851F.

Lyndin, N.

A.V. Tishchenko and N. Lyndin, “The true modal method solves intractable problems: TM incidence on fine metal slits (but the C method also !),” in proceedings of Workshop on grating theory, Clermont-Ferrand, France (June2004).

Morlion, D.

G. Van Steenberge, P. Geerinck, S. Van Put, J. Van Koetsem, H. Ottevaere, D. Morlion, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “MT-Compatible Laser-Ablated Interconnections for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22 (9), 2083–2090 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ottevaere, H.

G. Van Steenberge, P. Geerinck, S. Van Put, J. Van Koetsem, H. Ottevaere, D. Morlion, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “MT-Compatible Laser-Ablated Interconnections for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22 (9), 2083–2090 (2004).
[Crossref]

Parriaux, O.

N. Destouches, A. Tishchenko, J. Pommier, S. Reynaud, O. Parriaux, S. Tonchev, and M. Abdou Ahmed, “99% efficiency measured in the -1 order of a resonant grating,” Opt. Express 13 (9), 3230–3235 (2005).
[Crossref]

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, “Coupling gratings as waveguide functional elements,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 453–469 (1996).
[Crossref]

I. A. Avrutsky, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and O. Parriaux, “High-efficiency single-order waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1446–1448 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Franc, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J.-C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, G. Van Steenberge, N. Hendrickx, A. Last, and O. ParriauxH Thienpont “High-efficiency diffraction grating coupler for multimode optical interconnect,” in proceedings of SPIE6185, ed. (2006), p61851F.

Pommier, J.

N. Destouches, A. Tishchenko, J. Pommier, S. Reynaud, O. Parriaux, S. Tonchev, and M. Abdou Ahmed, “99% efficiency measured in the -1 order of a resonant grating,” Opt. Express 13 (9), 3230–3235 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pommier, J.-C.

J. Franc, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J.-C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, G. Van Steenberge, N. Hendrickx, A. Last, and O. ParriauxH Thienpont “High-efficiency diffraction grating coupler for multimode optical interconnect,” in proceedings of SPIE6185, ed. (2006), p61851F.

Reynaud, S.

N. Destouches, A. Tishchenko, J. Pommier, S. Reynaud, O. Parriaux, S. Tonchev, and M. Abdou Ahmed, “99% efficiency measured in the -1 order of a resonant grating,” Opt. Express 13 (9), 3230–3235 (2005).
[Crossref]

Svakhin, A. S.

I. A. Avrutsky, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and O. Parriaux, “High-efficiency single-order waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1446–1448 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sychugov, V. A.

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, “Coupling gratings as waveguide functional elements,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 453–469 (1996).
[Crossref]

I. A. Avrutsky, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and O. Parriaux, “High-efficiency single-order waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1446–1448 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sychugov, V.A.

A.V. Tishchenko and V.A. Sychugov, “High grating efficiency by energy accumulation in a leaky mode,” Opt. and Quantum Electron. 32, 1027–1031 (2000).
[Crossref]

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thienpont, H.

G. Van Steenberge, P. Geerinck, S. Van Put, J. Van Koetsem, H. Ottevaere, D. Morlion, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “MT-Compatible Laser-Ablated Interconnections for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22 (9), 2083–2090 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, T. Alajoki, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J. Franc, P. Karioja, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Towards Low Cost Coupling Structures for Short-Distance Optical Interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 16th European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference (2007) pp. 247–252.

Tishchenko, A.

N. Destouches, A. Tishchenko, J. Pommier, S. Reynaud, O. Parriaux, S. Tonchev, and M. Abdou Ahmed, “99% efficiency measured in the -1 order of a resonant grating,” Opt. Express 13 (9), 3230–3235 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tishchenko, A. V.

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, “Coupling gratings as waveguide functional elements,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 453–469 (1996).
[Crossref]

Tishchenko, A.V.

A.V. Tishchenko and V.A. Sychugov, “High grating efficiency by energy accumulation in a leaky mode,” Opt. and Quantum Electron. 32, 1027–1031 (2000).
[Crossref]

A.V. Tishchenko and N. Lyndin, “The true modal method solves intractable problems: TM incidence on fine metal slits (but the C method also !),” in proceedings of Workshop on grating theory, Clermont-Ferrand, France (June2004).

Tonchev, S.

N. Destouches, A. Tishchenko, J. Pommier, S. Reynaud, O. Parriaux, S. Tonchev, and M. Abdou Ahmed, “99% efficiency measured in the -1 order of a resonant grating,” Opt. Express 13 (9), 3230–3235 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Franc, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J.-C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, G. Van Steenberge, N. Hendrickx, A. Last, and O. ParriauxH Thienpont “High-efficiency diffraction grating coupler for multimode optical interconnect,” in proceedings of SPIE6185, ed. (2006), p61851F.

Van Daele, P.

G. Van Steenberge, P. Geerinck, S. Van Put, J. Van Koetsem, H. Ottevaere, D. Morlion, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “MT-Compatible Laser-Ablated Interconnections for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22 (9), 2083–2090 (2004).
[Crossref]

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, T. Alajoki, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J. Franc, P. Karioja, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Towards Low Cost Coupling Structures for Short-Distance Optical Interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 16th European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference (2007) pp. 247–252.

P. Van Daele, “Optical interconnections for short distances,” in proceedings of the Symposium on Photonics Technologies for 7th Framework Program (Wroclaw, Poland, 2006), p270.

Van Erps, J.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, T. Alajoki, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J. Franc, P. Karioja, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Towards Low Cost Coupling Structures for Short-Distance Optical Interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 16th European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference (2007) pp. 247–252.

Van Erps, Jürgen

Jürgen Van Erps, Lawrence Bogaert, Bart Volckaerts, Christof Debaes, and Hugo Thienpont, “Prototyping micro-optical components with integrated out-of-plane coupling structures using deep lithography with protons,” in proceedings SPIE6185, (2006) p618504.

Van Koetsem, J.

G. Van Steenberge, P. Geerinck, S. Van Put, J. Van Koetsem, H. Ottevaere, D. Morlion, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “MT-Compatible Laser-Ablated Interconnections for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22 (9), 2083–2090 (2004).
[Crossref]

Van Laere, F.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Van Put, S.

G. Van Steenberge, P. Geerinck, S. Van Put, J. Van Koetsem, H. Ottevaere, D. Morlion, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “MT-Compatible Laser-Ablated Interconnections for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22 (9), 2083–2090 (2004).
[Crossref]

Van Steenberge, G.

G. Van Steenberge, P. Geerinck, S. Van Put, J. Van Koetsem, H. Ottevaere, D. Morlion, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “MT-Compatible Laser-Ablated Interconnections for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22 (9), 2083–2090 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Franc, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J.-C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, G. Van Steenberge, N. Hendrickx, A. Last, and O. ParriauxH Thienpont “High-efficiency diffraction grating coupler for multimode optical interconnect,” in proceedings of SPIE6185, ed. (2006), p61851F.

Van Thourhout, D.

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, and R. Chen, “45° polymer-based total reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 141110 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

G. Van Steenberge, P. Geerinck, S. Van Put, J. Van Koetsem, H. Ottevaere, D. Morlion, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “MT-Compatible Laser-Ablated Interconnections for Optical Printed Circuit Boards,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22 (9), 2083–2090 (2004).
[Crossref]

Japanese Journal of Applied Physics (1)

D. Taillaert, F. Van Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating Couplers for Coupling between Optical Fibers and Nanophotonic Waveguides,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. and Quantum Electron. (1)

A.V. Tishchenko and V.A. Sychugov, “High grating efficiency by energy accumulation in a leaky mode,” Opt. and Quantum Electron. 32, 1027–1031 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

N. Destouches, A. Tishchenko, J. Pommier, S. Reynaud, O. Parriaux, S. Tonchev, and M. Abdou Ahmed, “99% efficiency measured in the -1 order of a resonant grating,” Opt. Express 13 (9), 3230–3235 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

I. A. Avrutsky, A. S. Svakhin, V. A. Sychugov, and O. Parriaux, “High-efficiency single-order waveguide grating coupler,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1446–1448 (1990).
[Crossref]

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

O. Parriaux, V. A. Sychugov, and A. V. Tishchenko, “Coupling gratings as waveguide functional elements,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 453–469 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

P. Van Daele, “Optical interconnections for short distances,” in proceedings of the Symposium on Photonics Technologies for 7th Framework Program (Wroclaw, Poland, 2006), p270.

A.V. Tishchenko and N. Lyndin, “The true modal method solves intractable problems: TM incidence on fine metal slits (but the C method also !),” in proceedings of Workshop on grating theory, Clermont-Ferrand, France (June2004).

J. Franc, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J.-C. Pommier, S. Tonchev, G. Van Steenberge, N. Hendrickx, A. Last, and O. ParriauxH Thienpont “High-efficiency diffraction grating coupler for multimode optical interconnect,” in proceedings of SPIE6185, ed. (2006), p61851F.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, T. Alajoki, N. Destouches, D. Blanc, J. Franc, P. Karioja, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Towards Low Cost Coupling Structures for Short-Distance Optical Interconnections,” in Proceedings of the 16th European Microelectronics and Packaging Conference (2007) pp. 247–252.

Jürgen Van Erps, Lawrence Bogaert, Bart Volckaerts, Christof Debaes, and Hugo Thienpont, “Prototyping micro-optical components with integrated out-of-plane coupling structures using deep lithography with protons,” in proceedings SPIE6185, (2006) p618504.

M. Karppinen et al., “Parallel Optical Interconnect between Ceramic BGA Packages on FR4 board using Embedded Waveguides and Passive Optical Alignments,” in Proceedings of the 56th Electronic Components & Technology Conference, (2006), pp. 799–805.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Outcoupling resonant grating and scheme of the leaky mode mediated destructive interference of 0th order reflection.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a)Theoretical diffraction efficiencies in the waveguide versus θiair. (b) Spectral variations of the diffraction efficiency of the +1st order for -2.5° incidence angle in air.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Top view of the 5×5mm2 pyrex plate with two resonant gratings (colored bands). (b) SEM picture of the grating cross-section: the red curves are the fitted profiles of the gold (bottom) and HfO2 (top) corrugations considered in the simulations shown in section 4. The blue dashed line shows the location where the gold layer peeled off from the substrate.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Overall efficiency η measured with a focused and a collimated beam at 850 nm wavelength under TE polarization versus the incidence angle in air θiair.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Sketch of a double interaction of a diffracted ray with the coupling resonant grating.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of the experimental and the theoretical overall efficiency assuming a collimated incident beam (a) and a focused beam (b).

Equations (1)

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k 0 n f h cos θ f + ϕ m + ϕ c 2 = m π

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