Abstract

We report on optical channel waveguiding in an organic crystalline waveguide produced by direct electron beam patterning. The refractive index profile as a function of the applied electron fluence has been determined by a reflection scan method in the nonlinear optical organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST). A maximal refractive index reduction of Δn1 = −0.3 at a probing wave-length of 633 nm has been measured for an electron fluence of 2.6mC/cm2. Furthermore, a new concept of direct channel waveguide patterning in bulk crystals is presented and waveguiding has been demonstrated in the produced structures by end-fire coupling. Mach-Zehnder modulators have been successfully realized and a first electro-optic modulation at a wavelength of λ= 1.55μm has been demonstrated therein.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, "Synthesis of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities," Science 245, 626-628 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gu nter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "High-frequency response and acoustic phonon contribution of the linear electro-optic effect in DAST," Opt. Lett. 22, 564-566 (1997).
  7. L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbin¡sek, M. Zgonik, P. Gunter and M. Dobeli,"Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal," Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).
  8. L. Mutter, M . Jazbin¡sek, M . Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch . Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Physique,  3, 449-462, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. J. Houghton and P. D. Townsend, "Optical waveguides formed by low energy electron irradiation of silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 565-566 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. G. Blanco, A. Glidle, J. H. Davies, J. S. Aitchison, and J. M. Cooper, "Electron-beam-induced densification of Ge-doped flame hydrolysis silica for waveguide fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2889-2891 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Komatsu, T. Abe, O. Sugihara, and T. Kaino, "Waveguide pattern formation in organic nonlinear optical crystal by electron beam irradiation," Proc. SPIE. 5724, 131-138 (2005).
  17. F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Gunter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Pretre, J. Hulliger, M . Florsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P.  Gunter, Organic nonlinar optical materials, (Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1995).

2007

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbin¡sek, M. Zgonik, P. Gunter and M. Dobeli,"Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal," Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).

2005

K. Komatsu, T. Abe, O. Sugihara, and T. Kaino, "Waveguide pattern formation in organic nonlinear optical crystal by electron beam irradiation," Proc. SPIE. 5724, 131-138 (2005).

2004

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

L. Mutter, M . Jazbin¡sek, M . Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch . Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Physique,  3, 449-462, (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. G. Blanco, A. Glidle, J. H. Davies, J. S. Aitchison, and J. M. Cooper, "Electron-beam-induced densification of Ge-doped flame hydrolysis silica for waveguide fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2889-2891 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gu nter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Gunter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, "Synthesis of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities," Science 245, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1976

A. J. Houghton and P. D. Townsend, "Optical waveguides formed by low energy electron irradiation of silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 565-566 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Abe, T.

K. Komatsu, T. Abe, O. Sugihara, and T. Kaino, "Waveguide pattern formation in organic nonlinear optical crystal by electron beam irradiation," Proc. SPIE. 5724, 131-138 (2005).

Aitchison, J. S.

S. G. Blanco, A. Glidle, J. H. Davies, J. S. Aitchison, and J. M. Cooper, "Electron-beam-induced densification of Ge-doped flame hydrolysis silica for waveguide fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2889-2891 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bartlome, R.

Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, J. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhowmik, A.

M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blanco, S. G.

S. G. Blanco, A. Glidle, J. H. Davies, J. S. Aitchison, and J. M. Cooper, "Electron-beam-induced densification of Ge-doped flame hydrolysis silica for waveguide fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2889-2891 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, Ch

L. Mutter, M . Jazbin¡sek, M . Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch . Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, Ch.

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Physique,  3, 449-462, (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "High-frequency response and acoustic phonon contribution of the linear electro-optic effect in DAST," Opt. Lett. 22, 564-566 (1997).

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cai, B.

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Calawa, D. R.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J. M.

S. G. Blanco, A. Glidle, J. H. Davies, J. S. Aitchison, and J. M. Cooper, "Electron-beam-induced densification of Ge-doped flame hydrolysis silica for waveguide fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2889-2891 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davies, J. H.

S. G. Blanco, A. Glidle, J. H. Davies, J. S. Aitchison, and J. M. Cooper, "Electron-beam-induced densification of Ge-doped flame hydrolysis silica for waveguide fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2889-2891 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deneault, S. J.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Derose, C.T.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dittrich, Ph.

Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ehrensperger, M.

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Physique,  3, 449-462, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Enami, Y.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Erben, C.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, D.

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Gunter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G nter, P.

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G ünter, P.

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Physique,  3, 449-462, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Geis, W.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Glidle, A.

S. G. Blanco, A. Glidle, J. H. Davies, J. S. Aitchison, and J. M. Cooper, "Electron-beam-induced densification of Ge-doped flame hydrolysis silica for waveguide fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2889-2891 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gopalan, P.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Greenlee, C.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gü nter, P.

Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M . Jazbin¡sek, M . Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch . Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "High-frequency response and acoustic phonon contribution of the linear electro-optic effect in DAST," Opt. Lett. 22, 564-566 (1997).

Guarino, A.

Heber, J. D.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Houghton, A. J.

A. J. Houghton and P. D. Townsend, "Optical waveguides formed by low energy electron irradiation of silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 565-566 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Jazbin¡sek, M

L. Mutter, M . Jazbin¡sek, M . Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch . Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

K. Komatsu, T. Abe, O. Sugihara, and T. Kaino, "Waveguide pattern formation in organic nonlinear optical crystal by electron beam irradiation," Proc. SPIE. 5724, 131-138 (2005).

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Katz, H. E.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.D.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, K.

K. Komatsu, T. Abe, O. Sugihara, and T. Kaino, "Waveguide pattern formation in organic nonlinear optical crystal by electron beam irradiation," Proc. SPIE. 5724, 131-138 (2005).

Krohn, K. E.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Loychik, C.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T.M.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manetta, S.

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Physique,  3, 449-462, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marchant, M. F.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, "Synthesis of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities," Science 245, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mathine, D.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McGee, D. J.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meier, U.

L. Mutter, M . Jazbin¡sek, M . Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch . Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Montemezzani, G.

Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mowers, W.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mutter, L.

L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbin¡sek, M. Zgonik, P. Gunter and M. Dobeli,"Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal," Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).

L. Mutter, M . Jazbin¡sek, M . Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch . Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, F.

R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "High-frequency response and acoustic phonon contribution of the linear electro-optic effect in DAST," Opt. Lett. 22, 564-566 (1997).

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gu nter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, "Synthesis of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities," Science 245, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pliska, T.

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Gunter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, W. P.

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, "Synthesis of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities," Science 245, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sinta, R.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Solcia, C.

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Gunter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spreiter, R.

Steier, W. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, O.

K. Komatsu, T. Abe, O. Sugihara, and T. Kaino, "Waveguide pattern formation in organic nonlinear optical crystal by electron beam irradiation," Proc. SPIE. 5724, 131-138 (2005).

Takayama, K.

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thakur, M.

M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

A. J. Houghton and P. D. Townsend, "Optical waveguides formed by low energy electron irradiation of silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 565-566 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M. S.

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zgonik, M

L. Mutter, M . Jazbin¡sek, M . Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch . Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gu nter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Houghton and P. D. Townsend, "Optical waveguides formed by low energy electron irradiation of silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 565-566 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Blanco, A. Glidle, J. H. Davies, J. S. Aitchison, and J. M. Cooper, "Electron-beam-induced densification of Ge-doped flame hydrolysis silica for waveguide fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2889-2891 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Physique

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Physique,  3, 449-462, (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

L. Mutter, M . Jazbin¡sek, M . Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch . Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Gunter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. of SPIE.

K. Komatsu, T. Abe, O. Sugihara, and T. Kaino, "Waveguide pattern formation in organic nonlinear optical crystal by electron beam irradiation," Proc. SPIE. 5724, 131-138 (2005).

Science

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, "Synthesis of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities," Science 245, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Pretre, J. Hulliger, M . Florsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P.  Gunter, Organic nonlinar optical materials, (Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1995).

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