Abstract

We report on optical channel waveguiding in an organic crystalline waveguide produced by direct electron beam patterning. The refractive index profile as a function of the applied electron fluence has been determined by a reflection scan method in the nonlinear optical organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST). A maximal refractive index reduction of Δn 1=-0.3 at a probing wavelength of 633 nm has been measured for an electron fluence of 2.6mC/cm2. Furthermore, a new concept of direct channel waveguide patterning in bulk crystals is presented and waveguiding has been demonstrated in the produced structures by end-fire coupling. Mach-Zehnder modulators have been successfully realized and a first electro-optic modulation at a wavelength of λ=1.55 µm has been demonstrated therein.

© 2007 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, "Synthesis of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities," Science 245, 626-628 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gu nter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "High-frequency response and acoustic phonon contribution of the linear electro-optic effect in DAST," Opt. Lett. 22, 564-566 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbin¡sek, M. Zgonik, P. Gunter and M. Dobeli,"Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal," Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Mutter, M . Jazbin¡sek, M . Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch . Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Physique,  3, 449-462, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. J. Houghton and P. D. Townsend, "Optical waveguides formed by low energy electron irradiation of silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 565-566 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. G. Blanco, A. Glidle, J. H. Davies, J. S. Aitchison, and J. M. Cooper, "Electron-beam-induced densification of Ge-doped flame hydrolysis silica for waveguide fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2889-2891 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Komatsu, T. Abe, O. Sugihara, and T. Kaino, "Waveguide pattern formation in organic nonlinear optical crystal by electron beam irradiation," Proc. SPIE. 5724, 131-138 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Gunter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Pretre, J. Hulliger, M . Florsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P.  Gunter, Organic nonlinar optical materials, (Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1995).

2007 (2)

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbin¡sek, M. Zgonik, P. Gunter and M. Dobeli,"Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal," Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

K. Komatsu, T. Abe, O. Sugihara, and T. Kaino, "Waveguide pattern formation in organic nonlinear optical crystal by electron beam irradiation," Proc. SPIE. 5724, 131-138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M . Jazbin¡sek, M . Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch . Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Physique,  3, 449-462, (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. G. Blanco, A. Glidle, J. H. Davies, J. S. Aitchison, and J. M. Cooper, "Electron-beam-induced densification of Ge-doped flame hydrolysis silica for waveguide fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2889-2891 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gu nter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Gunter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, "Synthesis of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities," Science 245, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

A. J. Houghton and P. D. Townsend, "Optical waveguides formed by low energy electron irradiation of silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 565-566 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Abe, T.

K. Komatsu, T. Abe, O. Sugihara, and T. Kaino, "Waveguide pattern formation in organic nonlinear optical crystal by electron beam irradiation," Proc. SPIE. 5724, 131-138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

S. G. Blanco, A. Glidle, J. H. Davies, J. S. Aitchison, and J. M. Cooper, "Electron-beam-induced densification of Ge-doped flame hydrolysis silica for waveguide fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2889-2891 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bartlome, R.

Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, J. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bhowmik, A.

M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blanco, S. G.

S. G. Blanco, A. Glidle, J. H. Davies, J. S. Aitchison, and J. M. Cooper, "Electron-beam-induced densification of Ge-doped flame hydrolysis silica for waveguide fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2889-2891 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, Ch

L. Mutter, M . Jazbin¡sek, M . Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch . Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bosshard, Ch.

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Physique,  3, 449-462, (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "High-frequency response and acoustic phonon contribution of the linear electro-optic effect in DAST," Opt. Lett. 22, 564-566 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cai, B.

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Calawa, D. R.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J. M.

S. G. Blanco, A. Glidle, J. H. Davies, J. S. Aitchison, and J. M. Cooper, "Electron-beam-induced densification of Ge-doped flame hydrolysis silica for waveguide fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2889-2891 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Davies, J. H.

S. G. Blanco, A. Glidle, J. H. Davies, J. S. Aitchison, and J. M. Cooper, "Electron-beam-induced densification of Ge-doped flame hydrolysis silica for waveguide fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2889-2891 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deneault, S. J.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Derose, C.T.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dittrich, Ph.

Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ehrensperger, M.

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Physique,  3, 449-462, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Enami, Y.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Erben, C.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, D.

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Gunter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G nter, P.

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G ünter, P.

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Physique,  3, 449-462, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Geis, W.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Glidle, A.

S. G. Blanco, A. Glidle, J. H. Davies, J. S. Aitchison, and J. M. Cooper, "Electron-beam-induced densification of Ge-doped flame hydrolysis silica for waveguide fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2889-2891 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gopalan, P.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Greenlee, C.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gü nter, P.

Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Mutter, M . Jazbin¡sek, M . Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch . Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "High-frequency response and acoustic phonon contribution of the linear electro-optic effect in DAST," Opt. Lett. 22, 564-566 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guarino, A.

Heber, J. D.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Houghton, A. J.

A. J. Houghton and P. D. Townsend, "Optical waveguides formed by low energy electron irradiation of silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 565-566 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Jazbin¡sek, M

L. Mutter, M . Jazbin¡sek, M . Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch . Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

K. Komatsu, T. Abe, O. Sugihara, and T. Kaino, "Waveguide pattern formation in organic nonlinear optical crystal by electron beam irradiation," Proc. SPIE. 5724, 131-138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Katz, H. E.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.D.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, K.

K. Komatsu, T. Abe, O. Sugihara, and T. Kaino, "Waveguide pattern formation in organic nonlinear optical crystal by electron beam irradiation," Proc. SPIE. 5724, 131-138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krohn, K. E.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Loychik, C.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T.M.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Manetta, S.

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Physique,  3, 449-462, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Marchant, M. F.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, "Synthesis of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities," Science 245, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mathine, D.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McGee, D. J.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meier, U.

L. Mutter, M . Jazbin¡sek, M . Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch . Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Montemezzani, G.

Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mowers, W.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mutter, L.

L. Mutter, A. Guarino, M. Jazbin¡sek, M. Zgonik, P. Gunter and M. Dobeli,"Ion implanted optical waveguides in nonlinear optical organic crystal," Opt. Express 15, 629-638 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mutter, M . Jazbin¡sek, M . Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch . Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pan, F.

R. Spreiter, Ch. Bosshard, F. Pan, and P. Günter, "High-frequency response and acoustic phonon contribution of the linear electro-optic effect in DAST," Opt. Lett. 22, 564-566 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gu nter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, "Synthesis of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities," Science 245, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pliska, T.

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Gunter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schaefer, W. P.

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, "Synthesis of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities," Science 245, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sinta, R.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Solcia, C.

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Gunter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spreiter, R.

Steier, W. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, O.

K. Komatsu, T. Abe, O. Sugihara, and T. Kaino, "Waveguide pattern formation in organic nonlinear optical crystal by electron beam irradiation," Proc. SPIE. 5724, 131-138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takayama, K.

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thakur, M.

M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

A. J. Houghton and P. D. Townsend, "Optical waveguides formed by low energy electron irradiation of silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 565-566 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M. S.

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zgonik, M

L. Mutter, M . Jazbin¡sek, M . Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch . Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

T. Kaino, B. Cai, and K. Takayama, "Fabrication of DAST channel optical waveguides," Adv. Funct. Mater. 12, 599-603 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, "Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST)," Adv. Mater. 8, 592-595 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

W. Geis, R. Sinta, W. Mowers, S. J. Deneault, M. F. Marchant, K. E. Krohn, S. J. Spector, D. R. Calawa, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Fabrication of crystalline organic waveguides with an exceptionally large electro-optic coefficient," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3729-3731 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Thakur, J. Xu, A. Bhowmik, and L. Zhou, "Single-pass thin-film electro-optic modulator based on an organic molecular salt," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 635-637 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Houghton and P. D. Townsend, "Optical waveguides formed by low energy electron irradiation of silica," Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 565-566 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Blanco, A. Glidle, J. H. Davies, J. S. Aitchison, and J. M. Cooper, "Electron-beam-induced densification of Ge-doped flame hydrolysis silica for waveguide fabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2889-2891 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Pan, G. Knopfle, Ch. Bosshard, S. Follonier, R. Spreiter, M. S. Wong, and P. Gu nter, "Electro-optic properties of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 13-15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

Ph. Dittrich, R. Bartlome, G. Montemezzani, and P. Günter, "Femtosecond laser ablation of DAST," Appl. Surf. Sci. 220, 88-95 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Physique (1)

S. Manetta, M. Ehrensperger, Ch. Bosshard, and P. Günter, "Organic thin film crystal growth for nonlinear optics: present methods and exploratory developments," C. R. Physique,  3, 449-462, (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Mutter, M . Jazbin¡sek, M . Zgonik, U. Meier, Ch . Bosshard, and P. Günter,"Photobleaching and optical properties of organic crystal 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4’-N’-methyl stilbazolium tosylate," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 1356-1361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics (1)

Y. Enami, C.T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K. Y. Jen and N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid polymer/so-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients," Nat. Photonics 1, 180-185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

C. Solcia, D. Fluck, T. Pliska, P. Gunter, St. Bauer, M. Fleuster, L. Beckers, and Ch. Buchal, "The refractive index distribution nc(z) of ion implanted KNbO3 waveguides," Opt. Commun. 120, 39-46 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. of SPIE. (1)

K. Komatsu, T. Abe, O. Sugihara, and T. Kaino, "Waveguide pattern formation in organic nonlinear optical crystal by electron beam irradiation," Proc. SPIE. 5724, 131-138 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

S. R. Marder, J. W. Perry, and W. P. Schaefer, "Synthesis of organic salts with large second-order optical nonlinearities," Science 245, 626-628 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, "Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape," Science 288, 119-122 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, D. J. McGee,"Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer," Science 298, 1401-1403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, Ph. Pretre, J. Hulliger, M . Florsheimer, P. Kaatz, and P.  Gunter, Organic nonlinar optical materials, (Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Molecular units of DAST: The positively charged, nonlinear optical chromophore stilbazolium and the negatively charged tosylate.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Deposited energy in DAST as a function of the electron depth z for an electron energy of 30 keV and homogenous e-beam exposure as calculated by CASINO.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental configuration for the determination of the refractive index profile by measuring the back reflected light from a wedged-polished sample surface. The electron beam patterned lines were scanned in η direction. With a projection the refractive index profile as a function of the depth z can be obtained.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured refractive index n 1 (dots) as a function of the depth z shown for five different fluences. The solid curves correspond best to the theoretical model of Eq. (1) or (3).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Concept of channel waveguide patterning in DAST: Two lines spaced by the waveguide core width are exposed by e-beam (gray). Since the electron beam is widened up in the target material, an unexposed region surrounded by an exposed area with lowered refractive index is created and thus a waveguide formed (red).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Calculated 2D profile of the refractive index n 1 at a wavelength of λ=1.55 µm for an electron fluence of ϕ=2.6mC/cm2, a line width L=4 µm and a waveguide core width of W=6 µm. The corresponding first and third order modes are depicted in Figure (a) and (b), respectively.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Experimental setup for the determination of the waveguiding characteristics and propagation losses: CCD: infrared camera. (b) Waveguiding configuration: the light polarized parallel to x 1 was propagating along the x 2 direction. (c) Photograph of the sample surface taken from top with the CCD camera and (d) from the end face for different waveguide widths W. The line width was L=4 µm and the structure were exposed with an electron fluence of ϕ=2.6mC/cm2.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Mach-Zehnder modulator geometry in DAST with in-plane electrodes in order to use the largest electro-optic coefficient r 11 of DAST; Lo : electrical and optical field overlap length, L : line width, and W : waveguide core width. The bend radii of the circle segments used to pattern the Y-junctions were 5 mm long.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Measurement setup for the electro-optic modulation experiment. The light at a wavelength of 1.55 µm is propagating along the x 2 direction and is polarized parallel to the x 1 axis. The modulated light intensity was detected with a photodiode. PD: photodiode, A: aperture and L: lens. (b) The applied modulation voltage at a frequency of 20 kHz (lower curve) and the detected signal with the photodiode (upper curve) are depicted.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

A possible configuration for the production of a single mode waveguide obtained by tilting the electron beam by 30°. The depicted refractive index profile at 1.55 µm corresponds to an electron fluence of 2.6mC/cm2 and an energy of 30 keV.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ n ( z ) = Δ n max [ 1 e ( ϕ G ( z ) G 0 ) γ ] ,
n = 1 + R 1 R .
Δ n ( z ) = Δ n max G 0 ϕ G ( z ) = c ϕ G ( z )
n ω 2 1 = N f ω α ( ω ) ,
n ˜ ω 2 1 = p N f ˜ ω α ( ω ) + ( 1 p ) N f ˜ ω α ˜ ( ω ) ,
α ˜ ( ω ) = k ω α ( ω ) ,
p ( z ) = n ˜ ω 2 ( z ) 1 n ω 2 + 2 n ˜ ω 2 ( z ) + 2 n ω 2 1 k ω 1 k ω .
n ˜ ω 2 ( z ) 1 n ω 2 + 2 n ˜ ω 2 ( z ) + 2 n ω 2 1 k ω 1 k ω = n ˜ ω 2 ( z ) 1 n ω 2 + 2 n ˜ ω 2 ( z ) + 2 n ω 2 1 k ω 1 k ω .
ϕ = 2 k Δ n 1 L o = 2 π λ n 1 3 r 11 E 1 L o ,

Metrics